List of monarchs of Brazil
|Monarchy of Brazil|
|First monarch||Maria I
|Last monarch||Pedro II
|Formation||16 December 1815|
|Abolition||15 November 1889|
|Pretender(s)||Prince Luís (recognized)
Brazil was ruled by a series of monarchs in the period 1815–1889; first as a kingdom united with Portugal in the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822), subsequently as a sovereign and independent state, the Empire of Brazil (1822–1889). All four of the country's monarchs were members of the House of Braganza.
Before 1815, Brazil was a colony of the Kingdom of Portugal. Thus, from the formal arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, when the land was claimed by the Portuguese Crown, until 1815 when the Kingdom of Brazil was created and the colonial bond was formally terminated and replaced by a political union with Portugal, the Kings of Portugal were monarchs over Brazil.
During the colonial era, from 1645 onwards, the heir apparent of the Portuguese Crown was styled Prince of Brazil. In 1817, in the wake of the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, the heir apparent's title was changed to Prince Royal of Portugal.
Brazil had two monarchs during the United Kingdom epoch: Queen Maria I (1815–1816) and King John VI (1816–1822). By the time of the creation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, Queen Maria I was long incapacitated, and the Portuguese Empire was ruled by Prince John, the future King John VI, as Prince Regent.
As an independent nation-state, Brazil had two monarchs: Emperors Pedro I (1822–1831) and Pedro II (1831–1889). In 1889, the monarchy was abolished in a military coup d'état that proclaimed Brazil a republic.
During the imperial era, King John VI of Portugal briefly held the honorific style of Titular Emperor of Brazil under the 1825 Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, by which Portugal recognized the independence of Brazil. The style of Titular Emperor was a life title, and became extinct upon the holder's demise. John VI held the imperial title for a few months only, from the ratification of the Treaty in November 1825 until his death in March 1826. During those months, however, as John's imperial title was purely honorific, Emperor Pedro I remained the sole monarch of the empire.
United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822)
House of Braganza
||17 December 1734 – 20 March 1816 (aged 81)||16 December 1815||20 March 1816||Braganza|
||13 May 1767 – 10 March 1826 (aged 58)||20 March 1816||7 September 1822||Son of Mary I||Braganza|
Empire of Brazil (1822–1889)
House of Braganza (Brazil)
||12 October 1798 – 24 September 1834 (aged 35)||12 October 1822||7 April 1831||Son of John VI||Braganza|
||2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891 (aged 66)||7 April 1831||15 November 1889||Son of Peter I||Braganza|
Claimants to the throne of Brazil (1889–present)
- Line of succession to the former Brazilian throne
- List of Portuguese monarchs
- List of Presidents of Brazil
- List of Brazilian consorts
- List of Portuguese consorts
- Prime Minister of Brazil
- History of Brazil
- History of Portugal