Federal parliamentary republic

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A federal parliamentary republic refers to a federation of states with a republican form of government that is, more or less, dependent upon the confidence of parliaments at both the national and subnational levels. It is a combination of the federal republic and the parliamentary republic.

Such republics usually possess a bicameral legislature at the federal level out of necessity, so as to allow for a set, often equal number of representatives of the subnational entities to sit in the upper house; however, the government, headed by a head of government, will be dependent upon the lower house of parliament for its stability or legitimacy.

List of federal parliamentary republics[edit]

Federation Style Formerly Subdivisions Head of state Head of government Parliamentary republic adopted Head of state elected by
 Austria Republic One-party state
(as part of Nazi Germany)
States of Austria President of Austria Chancellor of Austria 1945 Direct, by second-round system
 Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic One-party state Regions of Ethiopia President of Ethiopia Prime Minister of Ethiopia 1991 Parliament, by two-thirds majority
 Germany Federal Republic One-party state States of Germany President of Germany Chancellor of Germany 1949 Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority
 India Republic Constitutional monarchy
(Commonwealth realm)
States of India President of India Prime Minister of India 1950 Electoral College, parliament and state legislators, by single transferable vote
 Iraq Republic One-party state Regions of Iraq President of Iraq Prime Minister 2005 Parliament, by two-thirds majority
 Micronesia Federated States UN Trust Territory (part of
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Subdivisions of Micronesia 1986 Parliament, by majority
   Nepal Federal Democratic Republic Constitutional monarchy Subdivisions of Nepal President of Nepal Prime Minister of Nepal 2015 Parliament and state legislators
 Pakistan Islamic Republic Semi-presidential republic Subdivisions of Pakistan President of Pakistan Prime Minister of Pakistan 2010 Electoral College, by two-thirds majority
 Somalia Federal Republic One-party state Subdivisions of Somalia President of Somalia Prime Minister of Somalia 2012 Parliament
  Switzerland Confederation Confederation Cantons of Switzerland 1848 Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majority

See also[edit]