President of Somalia

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President of the
Federal Republic of Somalia
Madaxaweynaha Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliyeed
Seal of the President of the Federal Republic of Somalia.svg
Presidential Seal
Flag of Somalia.svg
Flag of Somalia
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud 2013.jpg
Incumbent
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud

since 16 September 2012
Residence Villa Somalia
Term length Four years, renewable once
Inaugural holder Aden Abdullah Osman Daar
Formation 1 July 1960
Website Official website
Coat of arms of Somalia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Somalia

The President of Somalia (Somali: Madaxaweynaha Soomaaliya) is the head of state of Somalia. The President is also commander-in-chief of the Somali Armed Forces. the President represents the Federal Republic of Somalia, and the unity of the Somali nation, as well as ensuring the implementation of the Constitution of Somalia and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state.[1] The office of President of Somalia was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Somalia on 1 July 1960. The first President of Somalia was Aden Abdullah Osman Daar. The current office-holder is the 8th President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, since 16 September 2012.[2]

History[edit]

After independence on 1 July 1960, following the union of the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) and British Somaliland.[3] A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa Mohamud and Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal and other members of the trusteeship and protectorate administrations, with the speaker of the Somalia act of Union. Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf as President of the Somali National Assembly, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President of the Somali Republic, on 22 July 1960 appointed Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister.[3] On 20 July 1961 and through a popular referendum, the people of Somalia ratified a new constitution, which was first drafted in 1960.[4] The administration lasted until 1969, when the Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) seized power in a bloodless putsch and renamed the country the Somali Democratic Republic.[5]

Qualifications and Election[edit]

In order to become the President of Somalia, the candidate must:[1]

(a) Being a Somali citizen and a Muslim;

(b) Being not less than forty years of age;

(c) Having relevant knowledge or experience for the role;

(d) Having a sound mind; and

(e) Not having been convicted by a court of a major crime.

The election of the President must begin at least 30 days before the term of office of the incumbent president expires or 10 days after the presidency falls vacant, and must be completed within 30 days of the beginning of the election, Candidates must be declared to the bureau of the parliament within the first 10 days of this period, and elections must be completed within the remaining 20 days.

Formerly, the President was elected by the members of the Somali Parliament.quirements and who are eligible to become members of parliament.

Term of office[edit]

The President is selected for a term of office of four years, and can be re-elected only once.

The term of office of the incumbent president continues until the President-elect takes office.

On assuming office, the president takes the following oath before the parliament;

Duties and responsibilities[edit]

An outline of the duties are as follow:[1]

  • Appoint the Prime Minister,
  • Serve as Commander in Chief of the Somali Armed Forces;
  • Declare a state of emergency and war in accordance with the law,
  • Appoint and dismiss the Commanders of the Forces at the Federal Government Level on the recommendation by the Council of Ministers;
  • Dismiss ministers, state ministers and deputy ministers on the recommendation of the Prime Minister;
  • Sign draft laws passed by the Federal Parliament in order to bring them into law;
  • Open the House of the People of the Federal Parliament;
  • Hold an annual session with the House of the People of the Federal Parliament;
  • Appoint the chairman of the Constitutional Court, the High Court, and other judges at the Federal Government Level in accordance with the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission;
  • Appoint senior Federal Government officials and the heads of the Federal Government Institutions on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers;
  • Appoint ambassadors and high commissions on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers;
  • Receive foreign diplomats and consuls;
  • Confer State Honors on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers;
  • Dissolve the House of the People of the Federal Parliament when its term expires, thereby prompting new elections;
  • Pardon offenders and commute sentences on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission; and
  • Sign international treaties proposed by the Council of Ministers and approved by the House of the People of the Federal Parliament.

List of President of Somalia[edit]

Living former Presidents[edit]

President Term of Office Date of Birth
Ali Mahdi Muhammad 1991–1997 (1939-01-01) January 1, 1939 (age 77)
Abdiqasim Salad Hassan 2000–2004 (1941-01-01) January 1, 1941 (age 75)
Sharif Sheikh Ahmed 2009–2012 (1964-07-25) July 25, 1964 (age 52)

Latest election[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c *Provisional Constitution (adopted August 1, 2012)
  2. ^ The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East, Greystone Press: 1967, p. 338
  3. ^ a b Aristide R. Zolberg et al., Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World, (Oxford University Press: 1992), p.106
  4. ^ The Illustrated Library of The World and Its Peoples: Africa, North and East, Greystone Press: 1967, p. 338
  5. ^ Metz, Helen C. (ed.) (1992), "Coup d'Etat", Somalia: A Country Study, Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, retrieved October 21, 2009 .