|Cultural origins||Mid-1960s, United States|
|San Francisco Sound|
|Part of a series on|
Acid rock is a loosely defined type of rock music that evolved out of the mid-1960s garage punk movement and helped launch the psychedelic subculture. The style is generally defined by heavy, distorted guitars, lyrics with drug references, and long improvised jams. Its distinctions from other genres can be tenuous, as much of the style overlaps with 1960s punk, proto-metal, and early heavy, blues-based hard rock.
The term, which derives its name from lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), is sometimes used interchangeably with "psychedelic rock", but may refer more specifically to a more musically intense subgenre or sibling to the psychedelic rock style. Acid rock distinguishes itself from other psychedelic styles by having a harder, louder, or heavier sound, and developed mainly from the American West Coast. Such American groups did not focus on novelty recording effects or whimsy as much as subsequent British psychedelia, and instead emphasized the heavier qualities associated with both the positive and negative extremes of the psychedelic experience.
As the movement progressed into the late 1960s and 1970s, elements of acid rock split into two directions, with hard rock and heavy metal on one side and progressive rock on the other. In the 1990s, the stoner metal genre combined acid rock with other hard rock styles such as grunge, updating the heavy riffs and long jams found in acid rock and psychedelic-influenced metal.
"Acid rock" is loosely defined. Rock journalist Nik Cohn called it a "fairly meaningless phrase that got applied to any group, no matter what its style". It was originally used to describe the background music for acid trips in underground parties in the 1960s (e.g. the Merry Pranksters' "Acid Tests") and as a catchall term for the more eclectic Haight-Ashbury bands in San Francisco. The Grateful Dead's Jerry Garcia believed that acid rock is music you listen to while under the influence of acid, further stating that there is no real "psychedelic rock" and that it is Indian classical music and some Tibetan music "designed to expand consciousness".
—Frank Hoffman, Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound (2004)
The term is regularly deployed interchangeably with "psychedelic rock". According to Per Elias Drabløs, "acid rock is generally considered a subgenre of psychedelic rock", while Steve and Alan Freeman state the two are synonymous, and that "what is usually referred to as acid rock is generally the more extreme end of that genre". This would mean psychedelic rock that is heavier, louder, or harder.
As a hard rock variant of psychedelia, acid rock evolved from the 1960s garage punk movement, with many of its bands eventually transforming into heavy metal acts.[nb 1] Percussionist John Beck defines "acid rock" as synonymous with hard rock and heavy metal.[nb 2] The term eventually encompassed heavy, blues-based hard rock bands. Musicologist Steve Waksman wrote that "the distinction between acid rock, hard rock, and heavy metal can at some point never be more than tenuous".
Origins and ideology
Many bands associated with acid rock aimed to create a youth movement based on love and peace, as an alternative to workaholic capitalist society. David P. Szatmary states, "a legion of rock bands, playing what became known as 'acid rock,' stood in the vanguard of the movement for cultural change." Szatmary also quotes from the San Francisco Oracle, an underground newspaper published between 1966 and 1968, to explain how rock music was perceived at that time and how the acid rock movement emerged: "Rock music is a regenerative and revolutionary art, offering us our first real hope for the future (indeed, for the present)."
When played live at dance clubs, performances were accompanied by psychedelic-themed light shows in order to replicate the visual effects of the acid experience. According to Kevin T. McEneaney, the Grateful Dead "invented" acid rock in front of a crowd of concertgoers in San Jose, California on December 4, 1965, the date of the second Acid Test held by author Ken Kesey. Their stage performance involved the use of strobe lights to reproduce LSD's "surrealistic fragmenting" or "vivid isolating of caught moments". The Acid Test experiments subsequently launched the psychedelic subculture. Former Atlantic Records executive Phillip Rauls recalls: "I was in the music business at the time, and my very first recognition of acid rock ... was, of all people, the Beach Boys and the song 'Good Vibrations'. ... That [song's theremin] sent so many musicians back to the studio to create this music on acid."[nb 3]
According to Laura Diane Kuhn, the heavier form of psychedelic rock known as acid rock developed from the late 1960s California music scene. The Charlatans were among the first Bay Area acid rock bands, though Jefferson Airplane was the first Bay Area acid rock band to sign a major label and achieve mainstream success. By July 1967, Time magazine wrote, "From jukeboxes and transistors across the nation pulses the turned-on sound of acid-rock groups: the Jefferson Airplane, the Doors, Moby Grape". In 1968, Life magazine referred to the Doors as the "kings of acid rock".[nb 4]
Other bands credited with creating or laying the foundation for acid rock include garage rock bands such as the 13th Floor Elevators and Count Five. The blues rock group the Paul Butterfield Blues Band are also credited with spawning the harder acid rock sound, and their 1966 instrumental "East-West", with its early use of the extended rock solo, has been described as laying "the roots of psychedelic acid rock" and featuring "much of acid-rock's eventual DNA". Author Steve Turner recognises the Beatles' success in conveying an LSD-inspired worldview on their 1966 album Revolver, especially with the track "Tomorrow Never Knows", as having "opened the doors" to acid rock.[nb 5] The Beatles' June 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band was a major influence on American acid rock groups.
Development and characteristics
Evolution from garage bands
Originating in the early 1960s, garage punk was a mainly-American movement that involved R&B-inspired garage bands powered by electric guitars and organs. It was mainly the domain of untrained teenagers fixated on sonic effects, such as wah-wah and fuzz tone, and relied heavily on riffs. The music later blurred into psychedelia. American garage bands who began to play psychedelic rock retained the rawness and energy of garage rock, incorporating garage rock's heavy distortion, feedback, and layered sonic effects into their versions of psychedelic music, spawning “acid rock”. Bisport and Puterbaugh, defining acid rock as an intense or raw form of psychedelia, include "garagey" psychedelia under the label of "acid rock" due in part to its "energy and intimation of psychic overload".
Problems playing this file? See media help.
The earliest known use of the term "garage punk" appeared in Lenny Kaye's track-by-track liner notes for the 1972 anthology compilation Nuggets: Original Artyfacts from the First Psychedelic Era, 1965-1968, which prominently featured both acid rock and garage rock. Musicologist Simon Frith cites Nuggets as a showcase for the garage psychedelia of the 1960s and its transition between early 1960s garage rock and the more elaborate acid rock of the late 1960s. This acid rock present in the Nuggets anthology has been described as an offshoot of 1960s punk rock.[nb 6] Bands such as Count Five, with their 1966 song "Psychotic Reaction", as well as other groups featured on Nuggets, would eventually epitomize the overlap between 1960s garage rock and psychedelic punk. As one of the first successful acid rock songs, "Psychotic Reaction" also contained the characteristics that would come to define acid rock: the use of feedback and distortion replacing early rock music's more melodic electric guitars.
Another group included on the Nuggets album, the 13th Floor Elevators, began as a straight garage rock band before becoming one of the original early acid rock bands and the innovators of psychedelic rock in general, with a sound consisting of distortion, often yelping vocals, and "occasionally demented" lyrics. Their debut album, The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators, featuring the garage rock hit "You're Gonna Miss Me", was among the earliest psychedelic rock albums. By 1966, the New York City garage band the Blues Magoos were referring to their wailing blues rock as "psychedelic music", and their hard variant of psychedelic rock, with its roots in the garage movement, would be increasingly labeled "acid rock".
Distinctions from other psychedelic rock
Acid rock often encompasses the more extreme side of the psychedelic rock genre, frequently containing a loud, improvised, and guitar-centered sound. Alan Bisbort and Parke Puterbaugh write that acid rock "can best be described as psychedelia at its rawest and most intense [...] Bad trips as well as good, riots as well as peace, pain as well as pleasure - the whole spectrum of reality, not just the idyllic bits, were captured by acid rock." "Acid rock" has also been described as more heavily electric and containing more distortion ("fuzz") than typical psychedelic rock. By the late 1960s, in addition to the deliberate use of distortion and feedback, acid rock was further characterized by long guitar solos and the frequent use of electronic organs. Lyric references to drug use were also common, as exemplified in Jefferson Airplane's 1967 song "White Rabbit" and Jimi Hendrix Experience's 1967 song "Purple Haze". Lyrical references to drugs such as LSD were often cryptic.
Crossover in the two major psychedelic rock variants (acid rock and British-influenced psychedelia) did occur; the Animals' song "Sky Pilot" was among the few songs of the era to juxtapose the elaborate orchestration of Sgt. Pepper-influenced, British-style psychedelic rock with the more Hendrix-influenced, electric guitar-centered American acid rock style.
Problems playing this file? See media help.
At a time when many British psychedelic bands played whimsical or surrealistic psychedelic rock, many 1960s American rock bands, especially those from the West Coast, developed a rawer or harder version of psychedelic rock containing garage rock energy. When contrasted with whimsical British psychedelia, the harder American West Coast variant of psychedelic rock has been referred to as acid rock.[nb 7] American psychedelic rock and garage bands such as the 13th Floor Elevators epitomized the frenetic, darker and more psychotic sound of American acid rock, a sound characterized by droning guitar riffs, amplified feedback, and guitar distortion. Hoffman writes that it lacked the recording studio "gimmickry" that typified the more Beatles-influenced strain of psychedelic rock, though acid rock experimented in other ways with electrified guitar effects.
Tonal distortion was also one of the defining characteristics of the San Francisco Sound. The acid rock of the San Francisco Sound heavily incorporated musical improvisation, jamming, repetitive drum beats, experimental sound and tape effects, and intentional feedback. San Francisco acid rock generally took a non-commercial approach to song-writing: it often involved almost free jazz-like, free-form hard rock improvisations alongside distorted guitars, and lyrics often were socially conscious, trippy, or anti-establishment. Many of the musicians in the scene, including bands such as the Charlatans and the Quicksilver Messenger Service, became involved in Ken Kesey's LSD-driven psychedelic scene, known as the Merry Pranksters.
Transition to hard rock and heavy metal
Heavy metal evolved from psychedelic music and added psychedelic/acid rock to the basic structure of blues rock. In the 1960s, the heavy, blues-influenced, psychedelic hard rock sound of bands such as the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Deep Purple, and Cream was classified as acid rock. Other acid rock groups such as Blue Cheer, Iron Butterfly, and Vanilla Fudge served as examples of early heavy metal, or proto-metal, creating stripped-downed, loud, intense, and "fuzzy" acid rock or hard rock. Bands such as Blue Cheer, Cream, and the hard rock group The Amboy Dukes have all been described as "leading practitioners" of the harder variant of psychedelic rock known as "acid rock". Many acid rock bands would subsequently become heavy metal bands.
Problems playing this file? See media help.
The influence of acid rock was evident in the sound of heavy metal in the 1970s. Iron Butterfly's "In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida" is sometimes described as an example of the transition between acid rock and heavy metal or the turning point in which acid rock became "heavy metal". "In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida" serves a notable example of 1960s and early 1970s acid rock or heavy psychedelia, and the band would continue to experiment with distorted, "fuzzy", heavy psychedelia into the 1970s. Both Iron Butterfly's 1968 album In-A-Gadda-Da-Vida and Blue Cheer's 1968 album Vincebus Eruptum have been described as ainfluential in the transition of acid rock into heavy metal. Heavy metal's acid rock origins can further be seen in the loud acid rock of groups such as Steppenwolf, who contributed their song "Born to Be Wild" to the soundtrack of the 1969 film Easy Rider, which itself glamorized the genre. Ultimately, Steppenwolf and other acid rock groups such as Cream, the Jimi Hendrix Experience, and Led Zeppelin paved the way for the electrified, bluesy sound of early heavy metal.
By the early 1970s, bands such as Deep Purple, Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath combined the loud, raw distortion of acid rock with occult lyrics, further forming a basis for the genre now known as "heavy metal". At a time when rock music began to turn back to roots-oriented soft rock, many acid rock groups instead evolved into heavy metal bands. As its own movement, heavy metal music continued to perpetuate characteristics of acid rock bands into at least the 1980s, and traces of psychedelic rock can be seen in the musical excesses of later metal bands. In the 1990s, the stoner metal genre combined acid rock with other hard rock genres such as grunge, updating the heavy riffs and long jams found in the acid rock and psychedelic-influenced metal of bands such as Black Sabbath, Blue Cheer, Hawkwind, and Blue Öyster Cult.
In addition to hard rock and heavy metal, acid rock also gave rise to the progressive rock movement. In the 1970s, elements of psychedelic music split into two notable directions, evolving into the hard rock and heavy metal of Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, and Led Zeppelin on one side and into the progressive rock of bands such Pink Floyd and Yes on the other. Bands such as Yes, Pink Floyd, King Crimson, and Emerson, Lake, and Palmer kept the psychedelic musical movement alive for some time, but eventually moved away from drug-themed music towards experiments in electronic music and the addition of classical music themes into rock music. 
List of artists
- Exemplary acts of "garagey" psychedelia include Blues Magoos, the Electric Prunes, and the Music Machine, all of which may fall under the label of acid rock.
- Hard rock and heavy metal have been described by writer Steve Valdez as evolving from psychedelic rock.
- Rauls believed that, at the time, "acid rock" was used to refer to "progressive rock". Writer Vernon Joyson observed flirtations with acid rock in the Beach Boys' albums Pet Sounds (1966) and the unfinished Smile.
- Joyson notes that the Doors' acid rock music was markedly different from their San Francisco contemporaries; that the Doors "took the acid experience less literally".
- Rolling Stone attributes the development of the Los Angeles and San Francisco music scenes, including subsequent releases by the Beach Boys, Love and the Grateful Dead, to the influence of Revolver, particularly the song "She Said She Said".
- At the time, the term "punk rock" referred to the garage rock of the 1960s, such as that present in the Nuggets compilation.
- British psychedelia was often more arty in its experimentation, and it tended to stick within pop song structures. Along with its whimsical and surrealist tendencies, British psychedelic rock was generally not as minimalist and not as aggressive as its American counterpart, often featuring longer song arrangements and incorporating Eastern instruments such as sitars.
- Browne & Browne 2001, p. 8.
- Hull 2003, p. 380.
- Hoffmann 2004, p. 1725.
- Knowles 2010, p. 199.
- Jasinski 2012.
- Drabløs 2016, p. 64.
- Freeman & Freeman 1996, p. 10.
- Hoffmann 2004, p. 1725, "Psychedelic rock was sometimes referred to as 'acid rock.'"; Browne & Browne 2001, p. 8, "acid rock, also known as psychedelic rock"; DeRogatis 2003, p. 9, "now regularly called 'psychedelic' or 'acid'-rock"; Larson 2004, p. 140, "known as acid rock or psychedelic rock"
- Bill 1984, p. 37.
- "Loyola Entertainment Law Journal". Loyola Entertainment Law Journal. 6: 90. 1986.
- Holm-Hudson 2013, p. 85.
- Stoner Metal at AllMusic.
- Gammond 1991, p. 3.
- Wolfe 1968, p. 223.
- Rolling Stone Magazine Staff, p. 195.
- Acid rock at AllMusic
- McLauchlin 2015, p. [page needed].
- Bisbort & Puterbaugh 2000, p. 31.
- Beck 2013, p. 335.
- Henderson & Stacey 2014, p. 539.
- Waksman 2001, p. 262.
- Szatmary 2014, pp. [page needed].
- Szatmary 2014, p. 158.
- Misiroglu 2015, p. 10.
- McEneaney 2009, p. 45.
- McEneaney 2009, p. 46.
- Romano 2010, pp. 17–18.
- Joyson 1984, p. 8.
- Kuhn 1999, p. 1507.
- Larson 2004, p. 141–144.
- "Youth: The Hippies". Time (July 7, 1967).(subscription required)
- Powledge, Fred. "Wicked Go The Doors". Life (April 12, 1968).
- Joyson 1984, p. 59.
- Moore 2015, p. 126.
- Roberts, Randall. "Laying the odds on the Rock Hall of Fame nominees". NorthJersey.com. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- Erlewine, Michael. "East-West Live - The Paul Butterfield Band". Allmusic.com. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- Giles, Jeff. "How the Paul Butterfield Blues Band Earned Its Spot in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame". Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- Turner, Steve (2016). Beatles '66: The Revolutionary Year. New York, NY: HarperLuxe. p. 626. ISBN 978-0-06-249713-0.
- "100 Greatest Beatles Songs: 37. 'She Said, She Said'". rollingstone.com. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2016.
- Hann, Michael (July 30, 2014). "10 of the best: garage punk". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- Reynolds 2012, p. 150.
- Psychedelic/Garage at AllMusic.
- Nobles 2012, p. 32.
- Case 2010, p. 265.
- Frith 2004, p. 98.
- Shaw, Greg (Jan 14, 1978). "New Trends of the New Wave". Billboard. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
- Austen, Jake (2005). TV-a-Go-Go. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-56976-241-7.
- Eder 2001, p. 95.
- Unterberger 2002, p. 1135.
- Unterberger, Richie. "You're Gonna Miss Me - Song review". allmusic.com.
- Luft 2009, p. 173.
- Perone 2001, p. 56.
- Brend 2005, p. 88.
- British Psychedelia at AllMusic
- O'Brien, Lucy M. "Psychedelic Rock". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Dasher 1985, p. 67.
- Larson 2004, p. 140–141.
- Brown 1986, p. 148.
- Weinstein 2009, p. 19.
- Rood 1994, p. 6.
- Bukszpan & Dio 2003, p. 288.
- Smith, Nathan. "The Warning: The 10 Heaviest Albums Before Black Sabbath". Houston Press. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
- Unterberger 2002, p. 563.
- Kirkpatrick 2011, pp. 27–28.
- Browne & Browne 2001, p. 687.
- Godfrey & Leigh 1998, p. 2.
- Beck, John H. (2013). Encyclopedia of Percussion. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-74768-0.
- Bill, J. Brent (1984). Rock and Roll. F.H. Revell Co. ISBN 978-0-8007-5156-2.
- Bisbort, Alan; Puterbaugh, Parke (2000). Rhino's Psychedelic Trip. Hal Leonard Corporation.
- Brend, Mark (2005). Strange Sounds: Offbeat Instruments and Sonic Experiments in Pop. Hal Leonard Corporation.
- Brown, Charles T. (1986). Music U.S.A.: America's country & western tradition. Prentice-Hall.
- Browne, Ray Broadus; Browne, Pat (2001). The Guide to United States Popular Culture. Popular Press.
- Bukszpan, Daniel; Dio, Ronnie James (2003). The Encyclopedia of Heavy Metal. Barnes & Noble Publishing.
- Case, George (2010). Out of Our Heads: Rock 'n' Roll Before the Drugs Wore Off. Hal Leonard Corporation.
- Dasher, Richard T. (1985). History of Rock Music. J. Weston Walch.
- DeRogatis, Jim (2003). Turn on Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-0-634-05548-5.
- Drabløs, Per Elias (2016). The Quest for the Melodic Electric Bass: From Jamerson to Spenner. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-01837-7.
- Eder, Bruce (2001). All Music Guide: The Definitive Guide to Popular Music. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-0-87930-627-4.
- Freeman, Alan; Freeman, Steve (1996). The Crack in the Cosmic Egg: Encyclopedia of Krautrock, Kosmische Musik & Other Progressive, Experimental & Electronic Musics from Germany. Audion.
- Frith, Simon (2004). Popular Music: Music and identity, Volume 4. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-33270-5.
- Gammond, Peter (1991). The Oxford Companion to Popular Music. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-311323-7.
- Godfrey, Donald. A; Leigh, Frederic A. (1998). Historical Dictionary of American Radio. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-29636-9.
- Henderson, Lol; Stacey, Lee (2014). Encyclopedia of Music in the 20th Century. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-92946-6.
- Hoffmann, Frank (2004). Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-94950-1.
- Holm-Hudson, Kevin, ed. (2013). Progressive Rock Reconsidered. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-71022-4.
- Hull, Robot A. (2003) . "Sound and Visions: Psychedelia". In Hoskyns, Barney. The Sound and the Fury: 40 Years of Classic Rock Journalism: A Rock's Backpages Reader. Bloomsbury USA. ISBN 978-1-58234-282-5.
- Jasinski, Laurie E. (2012). Handbook of Texas Music. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 978-0-87611-297-7.
- Joyson, Vernon (1984). The Acid Trip: A Complete Guide to Psychedelic Music. Todmorden, England: Babylon Books. ISBN 978-0-907188-24-7.
- Kirkpatrick, Rob (2011). 1969: The Year Everything Changed. Skyhorse Publishing.
- Knowles, Christopher (2010). The Secret History of Rock 'n' Roll. Cleis Press.
- Kuhn, Laura Diane (1999). Baker's Student Encyclopedia of Music: A-G. Schirmer Books. ISBN 978-0-02-865415-7.
- Larson, Tom (2004). History of Rock and Roll. Kendall Hunt.
- Lucky, Jerry (2003). The Psychedelic Rock Files. Collector's Guide Publishing Inc. ISBN 1-896522-97-1.
- Luft, Eric v.d. (2009). Die at the Right Time!: A Subjective Cultural History of the American Sixties. Gegensatz Press.
- McEneaney, Kevin T. (2009). Tom Wolfe's America: Heroes, Pranksters, and Fools. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-36545-4.
- McLauchlin, Luke (2015). Acid Rock: LSD, Psychedelc Rock, and the San Fransciso Sound. Ipicturebooks. ISBN 978-1-329-25654-5.
- Misiroglu, Gina (2015). American Countercultures: An Encyclopedia of Nonconformists, Alternative Lifestyles, and Radical Ideas in U.S. History. Routledge.
- Moore, Hank (2015). Houston Legends: History and Heritage of Dynamic Global Capitol. Morgan James Publishing.
- Nobles, Mark A. (2012). Fort Worth's Rock and Roll Roots. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-8499-7.
- Perone, James E. (2001). Songs of the Vietnam Conflict. Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Reynolds, Simon (2012). Energy Flash: A Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture. Counterpoint LLC. ISBN 978-1-59376-477-7.
- Rolling Stone Magazine Staff. "Talking with the Legend of Rock and Roll (Jerry Garcia)". The Rolling Stone Interviews: 1967–1980. ISBN 0-312-03486-5.
- Romano, Will (2010). Mountains Come Out of the Sky: The Illustrated History of Prog Rock. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-87930-991-6.
- Rood, Karen Lane (1994). American culture after World War II. Gale Research.
- Unterberger, Richie (2002). All Music Guide to Rock: The Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul. Hal Leonard Corporation.
- Weinstein, Deena (2009). Heavy Metal: The Music and Its Culture. Da Capo Press.
- Waksman, Steve (2001). Instruments of Desire: The Electric Guitar and the Shaping of Musical Experience. Harvard University Press.
- Wolfe, Tom (1968). The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Black Swan. ISBN 0-552-99366-2.
- Szatmary, David P. (2014). Rockin' in time: a social history of rock-and-roll. Pearson.
- Academic American Encyclopedia (Vol 16 ed.). Grolier. 1985.
- Fuzz, Acid and Flowers: A Comprehensive Guide to American Garage, Psychedelic and Hippie Rock (1964–1975). Borderline. 1997.