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Gnaphosa bicolor 01.JPG
Gnaphosa bicolor
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Clade: Entelegynae
Clade: Dionycha
Superfamily: Gnaphosoidea
Simon, 1893[1]

See text.

The Gnaphosoidea or gnaphosoids are a superfamily of araneomorph spiders with seven families. A 2014 study did not find the group to be monophyletic.


Gnaphosoidea has been circumscribed to contain the following families:[1]

Gnaphosoidea has been placed in the Dionycha clade, itself part of the RTA clade:[2]

RTA clade

 basal clades


 other clades


Grate-shaped tapetum clade (including lycosoids)

The Prodidomidae, Lamponidae and Gnaphosidae have been considered "higher gnaphosoids", sharing anterior lateral spinnerets consisting of only a single "joint" (article); the "lower gnaphosoids" (Ammoxenidae, Cithaeronidae, Gallieniellidae and Trochanteriidae) retain a distal article that is represented by an entire ring of hardened (sclerotized) cuticle.[3] (Earlier the Lamponidae were grouped with the "lower gnaphosoids", having spinnerets of an intermediate kind.[4]) One hypothesis for the internal phylogeny of the gnaphosoids, defined in this way, is:[2]

"lower gnaphosoids"





"higher gnaphosoids"




A 2014 study of dionychan spiders did not recover Gnaphosoidea as a monophyletic group, instead finding "gnaphosoid" families other than Gnaphosidae and Prodidomidae to be part of a larger clade, mixed in with three other dionychan families, Liocranidae, Trachelidae and Phrurolithidae. Forcing Gnaphosoidea to be monophyletic produced results described as "quite suboptimal".[5]


  1. ^ a b Dunlop, Jason A. & Penney, David (2011). "Order Araneae Clerck, 1757" (PDF). In Zhang, Z.-Q. Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa (3148). Auckland, New Zealand: Magnolia Press. ISBN 978-1-86977-850-7. Retrieved 2015-10-31. 
  2. ^ a b Nentwig, Wolfgang, ed. (2013), "Appendix : Spider Phylogeny" (PDF), Spider Ecophysiology, Springer, ISBN 978-3-642-33988-2, retrieved 2015-11-03 
  3. ^ Platnick, Norman I. & Baehr, Barbara C. (2006). "A revision of the Australasian ground spiders of the family Prodidomidae (Araneae, Gnaphosoidea)" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (298). 
  4. ^ Platnick, N.I. (2002), "A revision of the Australasian ground spiders of the families Ammoxenidae, Cithaeronidae, Gallieniellidae, and Trochanteriidae (Araneae: Gnaphosoidea)" (PDF), Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (271), retrieved 2015-11-20 
  5. ^ Ramírez, M. (2014). "The morphology and phylogeny of Dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae)". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (390). Retrieved 2015-10-31.  pp. 323–327.