Sac spider

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Sac spiders
Temporal range: Palaeogene–present
Clubiona trivialis2.jpg
Clubiona trivialis
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Family: Clubionidae
Wagner, 1887
16 genera, 708 species

The sac spiders of the family Clubionidae[1] have a very confusing taxonomic history. Once, this family was a large catch-all taxon for a disparate collection of spiders, similar only in that they had eight eyes arranged in two rows[2] and conical anterior spinnerets that touched, and were wandering predators that built silken retreats, or sacs, usually on plant terminals, between leaves, under bark, or under rocks. These are now recognized to include several families, some of which are more closely related to the three-clawed spiders, like lynx and wolf spiders, than to Clubionidae and related families.[3]


The remnant Clubionidae now consist of a few over 500 species in 15 genera worldwide. However, "sac spider" used on its own should imply a member of the family Clubionidae, but other common names may use the phrase "sac spider" including:

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[4]

  • Arabellata Baert, Versteirt & Jocqué, 2010
  • Carteroniella Strand, 1907 — South Africa
  • Carteronius Simon, 1897 — Madagascar, Mauritius, Sierra Leone
  • Clubiona Latreille, 1804 — Africa, North America, Asia, Oceania, South America, Europe, Panama
  • Clubionina Berland, 1947 — St. Paul Is.
  • Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 — North America, Caribbean, Central America, South America, Philippines
  • Invexillata Versteirt, Baert & Jocqué, 2010
  • Malamatidia Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 — Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia
  • Matidia Thorell, 1878 — Asia, Papua New Guinea
  • Nusatidia Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 — Asia
  • Porrhoclubiona Lohmander, 1944 — Asia, Africa, Europe
  • Pristidia Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 — Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia
  • Pteroneta Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 — Asia, Australia
  • Scopalio Deeleman-Reinhold, 2001 — Indonesia
  • Simalio Simon, 1897 — Asia, Trinidad
  • Tixcocoba Gertsch, 1977 — Mexico

In North America, the family as it is now recognised consists of only two genera, Clubiona and Elaver (formerly Clubionoides). Clubiona is nearly worldwide in distribution.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-03-05. Retrieved 2009-03-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Clubionidae". Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  3. ^ Tree of Life Web Project. 2006. Clubionidae. Version 25 March 2006 (temporary). in The Tree of Life Web Project,
  4. ^ "Family: Clubionidae Wagner, 1887". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-22.

External links[edit]