Nemesiidae

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Funnel-web tarantulas
Temporal range: Cretaceous–present
Calisoga sp. (Marshal Hedin).jpg
Calisoga sp.
Acanthogonatus fg01.jpg
Acanthogonatus francki
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Mygalomorphae
Family: Nemesiidae
Simon, 1889
Diversity
45 genera, 456 species
Distribution.nemesiidae.1.png

Nemesiidae, also known as funnel-web tarantulas, is a family of mygalomorph[1] spiders first described by Eugène Simon in 1889,[2] and raised to family status in 1985. Before becoming its own family, it was considered part of "Dipluridae".[3] Fossils have been found dating this family back to the Lower Cretaceous.[4]

Description[edit]

Nemesiidae are relatively large spiders with robust legs and a body that is nearly three times as long as it is wide. They are darkly colored, brown to black, though some have silvery hairs on their carapace.[5] Atmetochilus females can grow over 4 centimetres (1.6 in) long.

They live in burrows, often with a hinged trapdoor. This door is pushed up while the spider waits for passing prey. They rarely leave their burrows, catching prey and withdrawing as quickly as possible. Some of these burrows have a side tubes, but it is not certain whether Sinopesa builds burrows at all.[6]

Genera[edit]

Raveniola chayi, female

As of April 2019, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera:[7][8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Raven, R.J. (1987). "A new mygalomorph spider genus from Mexico (Nemesiinae, Nemesiidae, Arachnida)" (PDF). J. Arachnol. 14: 357–362.
  2. ^ Simon, E. (1889). Arachnides.
  3. ^ Raven, R.J. (1985). "The spider Infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and systematics". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 182.
  4. ^ Selden, P.A. (2001). "Eocene spiders from the Isle of Wight with preserved respiratory structures". Palaeontology. 44: 695–729. doi:10.1111/1475-4983.00199.
  5. ^ "Find-a-Spider Guide". University of Queensland. 2006-07-07. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  6. ^ Murphy, Frances; Murphy, John (2000). An Introduction to the Spiders of South East Asia. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur.
  7. ^ "Family: Nemesiidae Simon, 1889". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  8. ^ Goloboff, Pablo A. (1995). "A revision of the South American spiders of the family Nemesiidae (Araneae, Mygalomorphae). Part 1, Species from Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay". Bulletin of the AMNH. 224.

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Pesarini, C. (1988): Revision of the genus Pycnothele (Araneae, Nemesiidae). J. Arachnol. 16: 281-293. PDF
  • Rafael P. Indicatti & Sylvia M. Lucas (2005): Description of a new genus of Nemesiidae (Araneae, Mygalomorphae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Zootaxa 1088: 11-16. PDF (Longistylus)
  • Indicatti, Rafael P.; Lucas, Sylvia M.; Ott, Ricardo & Brescovit, Antonio D. (2008): Litter dwelling mygalomorph spiders (Araneae: Microstigmatidae, Nemesiidae) from Araucaria forests in southern Brazil, with the description of five new species. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 25(3): 529-546.