Hawrami dialects

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Native to Iraq and Iran
Region Hawraman
Native speakers
330,000 (2010)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 hac (ambiguous with Gorani)
Glottolog hawr1242  Horaman-I Luhon[2]
hawr1243  Horaman-I Taxt[3]
Kurdish languages map.svg
Geographic distribution of Kurdish and other Iranian languages spoken by Kurds

Horami (ھۆرامی; Horamî) also known as Avromani, Awromani or Owrami, is one of the main groups of dialects of the Gorani language, a subgroup of Northwestern Iranian languages. Like all other Gorani dialects, it has some phonological features which distinguish it from Kurdish dialects, though it is surrounded by Kurdish dialects and has been affected by them.[4]


It is regarded as the most archaic of the Gorani group.[5] Several Zazaki scholars regard Horami as one of the oldest dialects of the GoranZaza languages. Some scholars claim that the name Horami has close links to the "Zoroastrian faith" and assert that the name actually originated from God's name in Avesta, Ahuraman, (see Ahura Mazda).


The Horami dialects are:

  • Lahuni (Lehûnî)
  • Tekhti (Textî)
  • Basarani (Bêsaranî)
  • Halabjayi (Helebceyî)
  • Shaykhani (Şeyxanî)


According to a survey carried out by the Summer Institute of Linguistics in 1996 there were 200,000 speakers of Horami in the world.[6]

It is mostly spoken in the Hawraman region, a mountainous region located in western Iran (Iranian Kurdistan) and northeastern Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan). The key cities of this region are Pawe in Iran and Halabja in Iraq. Horami is sometimes called Auramani or Horami by people foreign to the region.

Generally, the majority of Horami speakers can also speak Sorani Kurdish, and Arabic or Persian, in order to communicate with other people in neighboring cities.

Siya Cheman[edit]

Both the Dersim (Zazaki) people and the Gorani, adhere to a form of Yazdanism. These people are called under the various names, such as Ali-Ilahis and Ahl-e Haqq. Groups with similar beliefs also exist in all parts of Kurdistan.


The notable professor Zare Yusupova, has carried out a lot of work and research into the Hawarami dialect (as well as many other minority/ancient Kurdish dialects).[7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Horami at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Horaman-I Luhon". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Horaman-I Taxt". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ D. N. Mackenzie Avromani, Encyclopedia Iranica
  5. ^ D. N. Mackenzie Avromani, Encyclopedia Iranica
  6. ^ "THE KURDISH PEOPLES". Retrieved 2 July 2013. 
  7. ^ Leezenberg, M. (Jun 15, 2016). Soviet Kurdology and Kurdish Orientalism. researchgate.net. p. 10. Retrieved 24 Nov 2017.