Sarikoli language

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Sarikoli
Tujik ziv (Тоҷик зив)
Native toPeople's Republic of China
Native speakers
16,000 (2000)[1]
Uyghur Arabic alphabet (unofficial)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3srh
Glottologsari1246[3]
Linguasphere58-ABD-eb
Sarikoli Language in Xinjiang.png
Xinjiang Province. Light blue are areas where Sarikoli is spoken.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Sarikoli language (also Sariqoli, Selekur, Sarikul, Sariqul, Sariköli) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Southeastern Iranian languages spoken by Tajiks in China. It is officially referred to in China as the "Tajik language", although it is different from the related Iranian language spoken in Tajikistan, which is considered a dialect of Persian.

Nomenclature[edit]

Sarikoli is officially referred to as "Tajik" (Chinese: 塔吉克语, Tǎjíkèyǔ) in China.[4] However, it is not closely related to Tajik (a form of Persian) as spoken in Tajikistan, as Sarikoli it is an Eastern Iranian language, closely related to other Pamir languages largely spoken in the Badakshan regions of Tajikistan and Afghanistan, rather than the Western Iranian Farsi-Dari-Tajik polycentric language.[5] It is also referred to as Tashkorghani,[6] after the ancient capital of the Sarikoli kingdom (now Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County in Xinjiang, China); however, this usage is not widespread among scholars.

The earliest written accounts in English, from the 1870s, generally use the name "Sarikoli".[7] Modern Chinese researchers would often mention both Sarikoli and Tajik names in their papers.[8][2]

Distribution of speakers[edit]

The number of speakers is around 35,000; most reside in the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County in Southern Xinjiang Province, China. The Chinese name for the Sarikoli language, as well as the usage of Sarikol as a toponym, is Sàléikuòlè yǔ (萨雷阔勒语). Speakers in China typically use Chinese and Uyghur to communicate with people of other ethnic groups in the area. The rest are found in the Pakistani-controlled sector of Kashmir, closely hugging the Pakistan-Chinese international borders.

Orthography[edit]

The language has no official written form. Gawarjon, publishing in China, used IPA to transcribe the sounds of Sarikoli in his book and dictionary,[5][9] while Pakhalina, publishing in Russia, used an alphabet similar to that of the Wakhi language in hers.[10][11] The majority of Sarikoli-speakers attend schools using Uyghur as the medium of instruction.

In recent years, Sarikoli speakers in China have used Uyghur Arabic alphabet to spell out their language.[2]

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Sarikoli vowels as used in Russian works (IPA values in brackets):

a [a], e [e], ɛy [ɛi̯] (dialectal æy or ay [æi̯ / ai̯]), ɛw [ɛu̯] (dialectal æw or aw [æu̯ /au̯]), ə [ə], i [i], o [o / ɔ], u [u], ы [ɯ] (dialectal ů [ʊ]). In some dialects also long variants of those vowels can appear: ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, ы̄, ǝ̄. (citation?)

Consonants[edit]

Sarikoli has 29 consonants:

Sariqoli consonants according to Russian Iranologist transcription (IPA values in bracelets): p /p/, b /b/, t /t/, d /d/, k /k / c/, g /ɡ ~ ɟ/, q /q/, c /ts/, ʒ /dz/, č /tɕ/, ǰ /dʑ/, s /s/, z /z/, /x/, γ̌ /ɣ/, f /f/, v /v/, θ /θ/, δ /ð/, x /χ/, γ /ʁ/, š /ɕ/, ž /ʑ/, w /w/, y /j/, m /m/, n /n, ŋ/, l /l/, r /r/

Stress[edit]

Most words receive stress on the last syllable; however, a minority receive stress on their first syllable. Also, several noun declensions and verb inflections regularly place stress on their first syllable, including the imperative and interrogative.[5]


Vocabulary[edit]

Although to a large extent the Sarikoli lexicon is quite close to those of other Eastern Iranian languages, there are a large number are words unique to Sarikoli and the closely related Shughni that are not found in other Eastern Iranian languages like Wakhi, Pashto or Avestan.

Lexical comparison of eight Iranian languages together with an English translation[5]
English gloss Persian Tajik Wakhi Pashto Shughni Sarikoli Ossetic Avestan
one jæk (یک) jak (‍як) ji jaw (يو) jiw iw iw (иу) aēuua-
meat ɡuʃt (گوشت) ɡuʃt (гушт) ɡuʂt ɣwaxa, ɣwaʂa (غوښه) ɡuːxt ɡɯxt zizä (дзидза) gao- (N. gāuš)
son pesær (پسر) pisar (писар) putr zoi (زوی) puts pɯts fɪ̈rt (фырт) puθra-
fire ɒteʃ (آتش) otaʃ (оташ) rɯχniɡ or (اور) joːts juts ärt (арт) ātar-
water ɒb (اب) ob (об) jupk obə (اوبه) xats xats don (дон) ap-
hand dæst (دست) dast (даѕт) ðast lɑs (لاس) ðust ðɯst kʼuχ (къух) zasta-
foot (پا) po (по) pɯð pxa, pʂa (پښه) poːð peð fäd (фад) paδa-, pāδa-
tooth dændɒn (دندان) dandon (дандон) ðɯnðɯk ɣɑx, ɣɑʂ (غاښ) ðinðʉn ðanðun dəndäg (дӕндаг) daṇtān-
eye tʃæʃm (چشم) tʃaʃm (чашм) tʂəʐm stərɡa (سترګه) tsem tsem səʃt (цæст) dōiθra-; caṣ̌man-
horse æsb (اسب) asp (асп) jaʃ ɑs (آس) voːrdʒ vurdʒ bəχ (бӕх) aspa-
cloud æbr (ابر) abr (абр) mur urjadz (اوريځ) abri varm əvräʁ (æврагъ) / miʁ (мигъ) abda-; aβra-, aβrā-; maēγa-
wheat ɡændom (گندم) ɡandum (гандум) ɣɯdim ɣanam (غنم) ʒindam ʒandam mənəw (мæнæу) gaṇtuma-
many besjɒr (بسيار) bisjor (бисёр) təqi ɖer, pura (ډېر، پوره) bisjoːr pɯr birə (бирæ) paoiri-
high bolænd (بلند) baland (баланд) bɯland lwaɻ (لوړ) biland bɯland bərʒond (бӕрзoнд) bərəzaṇt-
far dur (دور) dur (дур) ðir ləre (لرې) ðar ðar därd (дард) dūra-
good χub (خوب) χub (хуб) baf xə, ʂə (ښه) χub tʃardʒ χorʒ (хорз) vaŋha-
small kutʃik (کوچک)) χurd (хурд) dzəqlai ləɡ, ləʐ (لږ) dzul dzɯl gɪ̈ssɪ̈ɫ (гыццыл) kasu-
to say ɡoft (گفت) ɡuft (гуфт) xənak wajəl (ويل) lʉvd levd zurɪ̈n (дзурын) vac-; aoj-; mrū-; saŋh-
to do kærd (کرد) kard (кард) tsərak kawəl (کول) tʃiːd tʃeiɡ kənɪ̈n (кæнын) kar-
to see did (ديد) did (дид) wiŋɡ winəm (وينم) wiːnt wand wɪ̈nɪ̈n (уынын) dī-, viŋ-

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sarikoli at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ a b c Yang, Yi-fang; Tursun, Abdurahman; Zangbek, Aray; Qian, Wei-liang (2017). "基于"一带一路"战略视角的中国塔吉克语言文字保护与传承问题分析" [Research of protection and inheritance of Sarikoli Tajik language and characters]. Journal of Juamjusi Education Institute (in Chinese). doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-9795.2017.04.176. 近代以来,我国塔吉克族使用阿拉伯维吾尔文拼写高山塔吉克语
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sarikoli". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ A wide variety of transcriptions of the name "Sarikoli" are used in linguistic discussions, such as 萨里库尔语, Sàlǐkùěryǔ, 萨雷阔勒语, Sàléikuòlèyǔ, 色勒库尔语, Sèlèkùěryǔ or 撒里科里语, Sǎlǐkēlǐyǔ.
  5. ^ a b c d Gawarjon (高尔锵/Gāo Ěrqiāng) (1985). Outline of the Tajik language (塔吉克语简志/Tǎjíkèyǔ Jiǎnzhì). Beijing: Nationalities Publishing House.
  6. ^ Rudelson, Justin Jon (January 2005). Lonely Planet Central Asia Phrasebook: Languages Of The Silk Road. Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 1-74104-604-1.
  7. ^ Shaw, Robert (1876). "On the Ghalchah Languages (Wakhi and Sarikoli)". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Asiatic Society of Bengal. XIV.
  8. ^ Kurban, Xiren; Zhuang, Shu-ping (2008). "中国塔吉克语色勒库尔方言概述" [A Probe into China-Tajik Selekur Dialect]. Language and Translation (in Chinese). doi:10.3969/j.issn.1001-0823.2008.01.003. ISSN 1001-0823.
  9. ^ Gawarjon (高尔锵/Gāo Ěrqiāng) (1996). 塔吉克汉词典 (Tǎjíkè-Hàn Cìdiǎn) Tujik ziv – Hanzu ziv lughot. Sichuan: Sichuan Nationalities Publishing House. ISBN 7-5409-1744-X.
  10. ^ Pakhalina, Tatiana N. (1966). The Sarikoli Language (Сарыкольский язык/Sarykol'skij Jazyk). Moscow: Akademia Nauk SSSR.
  11. ^ Pakhalina, Tatiana N. (1971). Sarikoli-Russian Dictionary (Сарыкольско-русский словарь/Sarykol'sko-russkij slovar'). Moscow: Akademia Nauk SSSR.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]