Sarikoli language

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Sarikoli
Tujik ziv (Тоҷик зив)
Sarikoli.svg
Native toPeople's Republic of China
RegionPamir (Taxkorgan County)
EthnicityPamiris
Native speakers
16,000 (2000)[1]
Uyghur Arabic alphabet (unofficial)[2]
Official status
Official language in
China
Language codes
ISO 639-3srh
Glottologsari1246
ELPSarikoli
Linguasphere58-ABD-eb
Sarikoli Language in Xinjiang.png
Xinjiang Province. Light blue are areas where Sarikoli is spoken.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Sarikoli language (also Sariqoli, Selekur, Sarikul, Sariqul, Sariköli) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Southeastern Iranian languages spoken by Tajiks in China. It is officially referred to in China as the "Tajik language", although it is different from the related Iranian language spoken in Tajikistan, which is considered a dialect of Persian.

Nomenclature[edit]

Sarikoli is officially referred to as "Tajik" (Chinese: 塔吉克语, Tǎjíkèyǔ) in China.[3] However, it is not closely related to Tajik (a form of Persian) as spoken in Tajikistan because Sarikoli is an Eastern Iranian language, closely related to other Pamir languages largely spoken in the Badakshan regions of Tajikistan and Afghanistan, whereas the Western Iranian Farsi-Dari-Tajik is a polycentric language of a related but distinctly and historically different type. Both of these types of language and dialect clusters have been geographically separated by great distances and mountainous terrain over the course of long periods of time during which many differences of pronunciation, wording and xenolinguistic borrowings or retention of older forms or word choices accumulated over time.[4] It is also referred to as Tashkorghani,[5] after the ancient capital of the Sarikoli kingdom -- now the Tashkurgan (or Taxkorgan) Tajik Autonomous County in Xinjiang, China. However, the usage of the term Tashkorghani is not widespread among scholars.[citation needed]

The earliest written accounts in English are from the 1870s which generally use the name "Sarikoli" to refer to the language, but some written accounts since that time may use a different pronunciation derived from transcribing Chinese phonetics of the term into English as "Selekur(i)".[6] Modern Chinese researchers often mention Sarikoli and Tajik names in their papers.[7][2]

Distribution of speakers[edit]

The number of speakers is around 35,000; most reside in the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County in Southern Xinjiang Province, China. The Chinese name for the Sarikoli language, as well as the usage of Sarikol as a toponym, is Sàléikuòlèyǔ (萨雷阔勒语). Speakers in China typically use Chinese and Uyghur to communicate with people of other ethnic groups in the area. The rest are found in the Pakistani-controlled sector of Kashmir, closely touching the Pakistan-Chinese international borders.

Writing system[edit]

The language has no official written form. Linguist Gāo Èrqiāng, publishing in China, used IPA to transcribe the sounds of Sarikoli in his book and dictionary,[4][8] while Tatiana N. Pakhalina, publishing in Russia, used an alphabet similar to that of the Wakhi language in hers.[9][10] The majority of Sarikoli-speakers attend schools using Uyghur as the medium of instruction.[citation needed]

In academia[edit]

In 1958, linguist Gāo Èrqiāng studied Sarikoli in collaboration with Tajik linguists, using 37 symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet for the transcription of the language. In the 1996 Sarikoli–Han dictionary, Gāo Èrqiāng uses an alphabet of 26 letters and 8 digraphs based on Pinyin.

Sarikoli alphabet (Gao 1996)[11]
Uppercase A B C D DZ E F G GC GH H HY I J K KH L M
Lowercase a b c d dz e f g gc gh h hy i j k kh l m
Pronunciation a b x d d͡z e f ɡ ɣ ʁ χ h i d͡ʒ k q l m
Uppercase N O P Q R S SS T TS U Ü V W X Y Z ZY ZZ
Lowercase n o p q r s ss t ts u ü v w x y z zy zz
Pronunciation n o p t͡ʃ r s θ t t͡s u ɯ v w ʃ j z ʒ ð

Uyghur Alphabet[edit]

In recent years, Sarikoli speakers in China have used Uyghur Arabic alphabet to spell out their language.[2]

Sarikoli Uyghur Arabic Alphabet
Letter IPA Letter IPA
1 ئا /ɑ/ 21 ق /q/
2 ئە /ɛ/ 22 ك /k/, /c/
3 ب /b/ 23 گ /ɡ/, /ɟ/
4 پ /p/ 24 ڭ /ŋ/
5 ت /t/ 25 ل /l/
6 ث /θ/
7 ج // 26 م /m/
8 چ // 27 ن /n/
9 څ /t͡s/
10 خ /χ/, /x/
11 ځ /d͡z/ 28 ھ /h/
12 د /d/ 29 ئو /o/
13 ذ /ð/
14 ر /r/ 30 ئۇ /u/
15 ز /z/ 31 ئۆ /ø/
16 ژ /ʑ/ 32 ئۈ /y/
17 س /s/ 33 ۋ /v/~/w/
18 ش /ɕ/ 34 ئې /e/
19 غ /ʁ/, /ɣ/ 35 ئى /i/
20 ف /f/ 36 ي /j/

Phonology[edit]

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
High i ⟨i⟩ ɯ ⟨ы⟩ u ⟨u⟩
Near-high ʊ ⟨ů⟩
High-mid e ⟨e⟩ ə ⟨ə⟩ o ⟨o⟩
Low-mid ɛ ⟨ɛ⟩ (ɔ) ⟨o⟩
Low a ⟨a⟩
  • /o/ may also be heard as [ɔ, ʌ].

Sarikoli vowels as used in Russian works (IPA values in brackets):

a [a], e [e], ɛy [ɛi̯] (dialectal æy or ay [æi̯ / ai̯]), ɛw [ɛu̯] (dialectal æw or aw [æu̯ /au̯]), ə [ə], i [i], o [o / ɔ], u [u], ы [ɯ] (dialectal ů [ʊ]). In some dialects also long variants of those vowels can appear: ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, ы̄, ǝ̄. (citation?)

Consonants[edit]

Sarikoli has 30 consonants:[12]

Sarikoli consonants according to Russian Iranologist transcription (IPA values in slashes): p /p/, b /b/, t /t/, d /d/, k /k ~ c/, g /ɡ ~ ɟ/, q /q/, c /ts/, ʒ /dz/, č /tɕ/, ǰ /dʑ/, s /s/, z /z/, /x/, γ̌ /ɣ/, f /f/, v /v/, θ /θ/, δ /ð/, x /χ/, γ /ʁ/, š /ɕ/, ž /ʑ/, h /h/, w /w/, y /j/, m /m/, n /n, ŋ/, l /l/, r /r/

Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m ⟨m⟩ n ⟨n⟩ (ŋ) ⟨n⟩
Plosive voiceless p ⟨p⟩ t ⟨t⟩ k ~ c ⟨k⟩ q ⟨q⟩
voiced b ⟨b⟩ d ⟨d⟩ ɡ ~ ɟ ⟨g⟩
Affricate voiceless ts ⟨c⟩ ⟨č⟩
voiced dz ⟨ʒ⟩ ⟨ǰ⟩
Fricative voiceless f ⟨f⟩ θ ⟨θ⟩ s ⟨s⟩ ɕ ⟨š⟩ x ⟨x̌⟩ χ ⟨x⟩ h ⟨h⟩
voiced v ⟨v⟩ ð ⟨δ⟩ z ⟨z⟩ ʑ ⟨ž⟩ ɣ ⟨γ̌ ⟩ ʁ ⟨γ⟩
Approximant w ⟨w⟩ l ⟨l⟩ j ⟨y⟩
Rhotic r ⟨r⟩

Stress[edit]

Most words receive stress on the last syllable; however, a minority receive stress on their first syllable. Also, several noun declensions and verb inflections regularly place stress on their first syllable, including the imperative and interrogative.[4]

Vocabulary[edit]

Although to a large extent the Sarikoli lexicon is quite close to those of other Eastern Iranian languages, there are a large number are words unique to Sarikoli and the closely related Shughni that are not found in other Eastern Iranian languages like Wakhi, Pashto or Avestan.

Lexical comparison of eight Iranian languages together with an English translation[4]
English gloss Persian Tajik Wakhi Pashto Shughni Sarikoli Ossetic Avestan
one jæk (یک) jak (‍як) ji jaw (يو) jiw iw iw (иу) aēuua-
meat ɡuʃt (گوشت) ɡuʃt (гушт) ɡuʂt ɣwaxa, ɣwaʂa (غوښه) ɡuːxt ɡɯxt zizä (дзидза) gao- (N. gāuš)
son pesær (پسر) pisar (писар) putr zoi (زوی) puts pɯts fɪ̈rt (фырт) puθra-
fire ɒteʃ (آتش) otaʃ (оташ) rɯχniɡ or (اور) joːts juts ärt (арт) ātar-
water ɒb (اب) ob (об) jupk obə (اوبه) xats xats don (дон) ap-
hand dæst (دست) dast (даѕт) ðast lɑs (لاس) ðust ðɯst kʼuχ (къух) zasta-
foot (پا) po (по) pɯð pxa, pʂa (پښه) poːð peð fäd (фад) paδa-, pāδa-
tooth dændɒn (دندان) dandon (дандон) ðɯnðɯk ɣɑx, ɣɑʂ (غاښ) ðinðʉn ðanðun dəndäg (дӕндаг) daṇtān-
eye tʃæʃm (چشم) tʃaʃm (чашм) tʂəʐm stərɡa (سترګه) tsem tsem səʃt (цæст) dōiθra-; caṣ̌man-
horse æsb (اسب) asp (асп) jaʃ ɑs (آس) voːrdʒ vurdʒ bəχ (бӕх) aspa-
cloud æbr (ابر) abr (абр) mur urjadz (اوريځ) abri varm əvräʁ (æврагъ) / miʁ (мигъ) abda-; aβra-, aβrā-; maēγa-
wheat ɡændom (گندم) ɡandum (гандум) ɣɯdim ɣanam (غنم) ʒindam ʒandam mənəw (мæнæу) gaṇtuma-
many besjɒr (بسيار) bisjor (бисёр) təqi ɖer, pura (ډېر، پوره) bisjoːr pɯr birə (бирæ) paoiri-
high bolænd (بلند) baland (баланд) bɯland lwaɻ (لوړ) biland bɯland bərʒond (бӕрзoнд) bərəzaṇt-
far dur (دور) dur (дур) ðir ləre (لرې) ðar ðar därd (дард) dūra-
good χub (خوب) χub (хуб) baf xə, ʂə (ښه) χub tʃardʒ χorʒ (хорз) vaŋha-
small kutʃik (کوچک)) χurd (хурд) dzəqlai ləɡ, ləʐ (لږ) dzul dzɯl gɪ̈ssɪ̈ɫ (гыццыл) kasu-
to say ɡoft (گفت) ɡuft (гуфт) xənak wajəl (ويل) lʉvd levd zurɪ̈n (дзурын) vac-; aoj-; mrū-; saŋh-
to do kærd (کرد) kard (кард) tsərak kawəl (کول) tʃiːd tʃeiɡ kənɪ̈n (кæнын) kar-
to see did (ديد) did (дид) wiŋɡ winəm (وينم) wiːnt wand wɪ̈nɪ̈n (уынын) dī-, viŋ-

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sarikoli at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ a b c Yang, Yi-fang 杨亦凡; Abdurahman Tursun 阿不都热合曼·吐尔逊 Aray Zangbek 阿来·藏别克 Qian, Wei-liang 钱伟量 (2017). "Jīyú "Yīdài Yīlù" zhànlüè shìjiǎo de Zhōngguó Tǎjíkè yǔyán wénzì bǎohù yǔ chuánchéng wèntí fēnxī" 基于"一带一路"战略视角的中国塔吉克语言文字保护与传承问题分析 [Research of Protection and Inheritance of Sarikoli Tajik Language and Characters]. Jiāmùsī zhíyè xuéyuàn xuébào / Journal of Juamjusi Education Institute (in Chinese). 2017 (4): 263–265. doi:10.3969/j.issn.1000-9795.2017.04.176. 近代以来,我国塔吉克族使用阿拉伯维吾尔文拼写高山塔吉克语
  3. ^ A wide variety of varied transcriptions of the name "Sarikoli" are used in linguistic discussions, such as 萨里库尔语, Sàlǐkùěryǔ, 萨雷阔勒语, Sàléikuòlèyǔ, 色勒库尔语, Sèlèkùěryǔ or 撒里科里语, Sǎlǐkēlǐyǔ.
  4. ^ a b c d Gawarjon (高尔锵/Gāo Ěrqiāng) (1985). Tǎjíkèyǔ jiǎnzhì 塔吉克语简志 [Outline of the Tajik language] (in Chinese). Beijing: Minzu chubanshe.
  5. ^ Rudelson, Justin Jon (2005). Lonely Planet Central Asia Phrasebook: Languages of the Silk Road. Footscray: Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 1-74104-604-1.
  6. ^ Shaw, Robert (1876). "On the Ghalchah Languages (Wakhí and Sariḳolí)". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 45 (2): 139–278 – via biodiversitylibrary.org.
  7. ^ Xiren Kurban & Zhuang (2008)
  8. ^ 高尔锵/Gāo Ěrqiāng (1996). Tǎjíkè-Hàn cìdiǎn 塔吉克汉词典 [Tajik–Chinese Dictionary] (in Chinese). Chengdou: Sichuan minzu chubanshe. ISBN 7-5409-1744-X.
  9. ^ Pakhalina, Tatiana N. (Татьяна Н. Пахалина) (1966). Sarykol'skij Jazyk Сарыкольский язык [The Sarikoli Language] (in Russian). Moskva: Akademia Nauk SSSR.
  10. ^ Pakhalina, Tatiana N. (Татьяна Н. Пахалина) (1971). Sarykol'sko-russkij slovar' Сарыкольско-русский словарь [Sarikoli–Russian Dictionary] (in Russian). Moskva: Akademia Nauk SSSR.
  11. ^ Gao 1996.
  12. ^ Kim, Deborah (2017). Topics in the syntax of Sarikoli. Leiden University.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]