Luri language

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"Luri" redirects here. For the town in France, see Luri, Haute-Corse.
Not to be confused with Luri language (Nigeria).
Pronunciation Persian pronunciation: [loriː]
Native to Iran; a few villages in eastern Iraq[1][2]
Region Southern Zagros
Ethnicity Lurs
Native speakers
5 million (2012)[3]
Northern Lurish
Southern Lurish
Laki Lurish
Bakhtoari Lurish
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
lrc – Northern Lurish
lki – Laki
bqi – Bakhtiari Lurish
luz – Southern Lurish
Glottolog luri1252[4]
Luri languages. (Note: Iraqi distribution corresponds to that of Southern Kurdish.)

Luri also Lurish is a Western Iranian dialect continuum spoken by the Lurs in Western Asia. Lurish language forms four dialect groups known as Northern Lurish (Minjaee), Laki, Bakhtiari and Southern Lurish.[5] This language is spoken mainly by the Laks, Bakhtairies, Feylis and Southern Lurs (Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Mamasani, Sepidan, Bandar Ganaveh, Deylam).[6]

Map of Luri-inhabited provinces of Iran, according to a poll in 2010


Lur peoples of Iran are mainly in provinces of Lorestan, Ilam Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Fars province (especially Mamasani and Rostam), Khuzestan, Esfahan province and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad.[7] A large crowd of Lurs is located in Eastern parts of Iraq. In Iraq, as Feyli Lurs and sometimes Feyli Kurds they are mainly located in Diyala province (Khanaqin, Mendeli and Muqdadiyah cities) and Baghdad.[7][8][9]


They descend from Middle Persian (Pahlavi).[10][10][11] They belong to the Persid or Southern Zagros group, and are lexically similar to modern Persian, differing mainly in phonology.[12]

According to the Encyclopædia Iranica, "All Lori dialects closely resemble standard Persian and probably developed from a stage of Persian similar to that represented in Early New Persian texts written in Perso-Arabic script. The sole typical Lori feature not known in early New Persian or derivable from it is the inchoative marker (see below), though even this is found in Judeo-Persian texts".[13] The Bakhtiāri dialect may be transitional between Kurdish and Persian.[14] However, there was never a common ancestor to Luri. There are two distinct languages, Greater Lors (Lor-e bozorg), a.k.a. Southern Luri (including Bakhtiari dialect), and Lesser Lors (Lor-e kuček), a.k.a. Northern Luri.[13]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Northern Luri at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Historical Dictionary of Iraq
  3. ^ "LORI LANGUAGE ii. Sociolinguistic Status – Encyclopædia Iranica". 
  4. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Luric". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  5. ^ Yar-Shater, Ehsan. ۱۹۸۲. Encyclopaedia Iranica. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. V, p. ۶۱۷
  6. ^ John Limbert، The Origin and Appearance of The Kurds In Pre-Islamic Iran. Iranian Studies.
  7. ^ a b امان الهی بهاروند. اسکندر: قوم لر، انتشارات آگاه، تهران، ۱۳۷۴
  8. ^ "Feili Kurds in Iran seek way out of identity impasse". 28 May 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2015
  9. ^ ar-Shater, Ehsan. 1982. Encyclopædia Iranica. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. V, p. 617
  10. ^ a b Erik John Anonby, "Update on Luri: How many languages?" // Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (Third Series), volume 13, issue 02, Jul 2003, pp 171–197.
  11. ^ Don Stillo, "Isfahan-Provincial Dialetcs" in Encyclopædia Iranica. Excerpt: "While the modern SWI languages, for instance, Persian, Lori-Baḵtiāri and others, are derived directly from Old Persian through Middle Persian/Pahlavi".
  12. ^ Bakhtiari tribe and the Bakhtiari dialect[dead link], Encyclopædia Iranica.
  13. ^ a b [1]
  14. ^ Kurdish language, Encyclopædia Iranica.

External links[edit]