Heads of state and government of the Philippines
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- Under the Spanish Colonial Government (1571–1764)
- Status: Defunct
- Inaugural holder: Miguel López de Legazpi
The Royal Governor-General of the Philippines ruled the Spanish colony that is today the Republic of the Philippines except a two-year British occupation of Manila. This territory was also called the Captaincy-General of the Philippines and thus the governor also held the title of Captain General, a military rank conferred by the Spanish Cortes Generales. The men that held this position governed the Philippines and the rest of the Spanish East Indies from 1565 to 1821, on behalf of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.
- Under the American Military Government (1898–1901)
- Status: Defunct
- Inaugural holder: Wesley Merritt
During the period when the Philippine Revolution and Spanish–American War were proceeding concurrently, the U.S. established a military government from August 14, 1898 in the parts of the country under control of U.S forces On June 22, 1899, the Malolos Congress promulgated the Malolos Constitution, which established of the República Filipina (in Spanish) or the Philippine Republic (in English). After the Spanish–American War was ended by the Treaty of Paris, in which Spain ceded the Philippine archipelago and other Spanish territories to the United States, the Philippine–American War ensued, ending in American victory on July 4, 1902.
- Under the American Civil Government (1901–1935)
- Status: Defunct
- Inaugural holder: William Howard Taft (Would be US president)
From 1901 to 1935, the Philippines was governed by the United States of America. The Governor-General was appointed by the President of the United States and approved by the Senate. Unlike the Governors General of the British Dominions, the American Governors General exercised active executive authority over the nation they were appointed to administer, more like Governors of British colonies.
The Prime Minister of the Philippines (Spanish: Primer Ministro de Filipinas; Tagalog: Punong Ministro ng Pilipinas) was the official position of the head of the government (whereas the President of the Philippines was the head of state) of the Philippines. The position existed in the country from 1978 to 1986, as well as a limited version of such existed temporarily in 1899.
- Tagalog Republic, Malolos Republic, Commonwealth of the Philippines, Republic of the Philippines
- Status: Active
- Inaugural holder: Andrés Bonifacio (disputed)/Emilio Aguinaldo (official)
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and government of the Republic of the Philippines. The President of the Philippines in Filipino is referred to as Ang Pangulo or Pangulo ("Presidente," informally). The executive power is vested in the President of the Philippines.
Andrés Bonifacio was President (titled Supremo) of the Tagalog Republic's revolutionary government from 1896–97. Emilio Aguinaldo was President of the insurgent Philippine Republic revolutionary government from 1899–1902. The Philippine government recognises Emilio Aguinaldo as "President of the First Republic".
The incumbent President is Rodrigo Roa Duterte.
- President of the Philippines
- List of Unofficial Presidents of the Philippines
- Vice President of the Philippines
- Prime Minister of the Philippines
- Governor-General of the Philippines
- Zaide, Sonia M. (1994), The Philippines: A Unique Nation, All-Nations Publishing Co., ISBN 971-642-071-4
- Guevara, Sulpico, ed. (2005), "The Malolos Constitution (Original text)", The laws of the first Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898-1899., Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library (published 1972), retrieved 2008-03-26.
- Guevara, Sulpico, ed. (2005), "The Malolos Constitution (English translation)", The laws of the first Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898-1899., Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library (published 1972), retrieved 2008-03-26 (English translation by Sulpicio Guevara)
- "Emilio Aguinaldo". Official Gazette. Office of the President of the Philippines.