Sandiganbayan

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Anti-Graft Court of the Philippines
Sandiganbayan
Sandiganbayan - Anti-Graft Court of the Philippines.svg
Seal of the Sandiganbayan
Sandiganbayan FLAG.png
Flag of the Sandiganbayan
Location Centennial Building, Commonwealth Avenue, National Government Center, Diliman, Quezon City
Composition method Presidential appointment from the short-list submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council
Authorized by Constitution of the Philippines
Decisions are appealed to Supreme Court of the Philippines
Number of positions 21
Website sb.judiciary.gov.ph
Presiding Justice
Currently Amparo M. Cabotaje-Tang
Coat of arms of the Philippines.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Philippines

The Sandiganbayan (Filipino; lit. "People's Advocate") is a special appellate collegial court in the Philippines that has jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases involving graft and corrupt practices and other offenses committed by public officers and employees, including those in government-owned or government-controlled corporations. The special court was established by Presidential Decree No. 1486 of the 1973 Constitution. It was subsequently modified by Presidential Decree No. 1606 and by Republic Acts numbered 7975 and 8249 in the 1987 Constitution.[1][2][3][4] It is equal in rank to the Court of Appeals, and consists of fourteen Associate Justices and one Presiding Justice.[5] The Office of the Ombudsman owns exclusive authority to bring cases to the Sandiganbayan.[6]

The Sandiganbayan is housed in the Centennial Building, Commonwealth Avenue, National Government Center, Diliman, Quezon City, Metro Manila.

History[edit]

Sandiganbayan

The Sandiganbayan was established under the administration of President Ferdinand E. Marcos on June 11, 1978, by Presidential Decree No. 1486 in the 1973 Constitution. The court was equal in rank to the Regional Trial Courts (then known as the Courts of First Instance). On December 10, 1978, Presidential Decree No. 1606 elevated the ranking of the Sandiganbayan to match that of the Court of Appeals, the second-highest judicial court in the Philippines. The Sandiganbayan began operations on February 12, 1979.[7]

Amendments were introduced in Republic Acts No. 7975 and No. 8249, after the EDSA Revolution in 1986, which limited the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan to “cases involving public officials occupying positions classified as salary grade 27 and higher.”[7]

The Sandiganbayan currently sits in seven divisions of three justices each, as per R.A. No. 10660, amending R.A. No. 1606.[8]

Martial Law[edit]

When the Sandiganbayan began operations in 1979, it was composed of only one division (with Hon. Manuel R. Pamaran as Presiding Justice and two Associate Justices) and a 15-membered skeleton crew. In 1981, a second division was launched. A third division was formed on August 4, 1982.[7]

The Aquino Investigation[edit]

In the wake of the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr. in August 1983, Ferdinand Marcos submitted the case for an immediate trial to the Sandiganbayan. Marcos’ critics, who included business leaders and church leaders, claimed that the Sandiganbayan had no experience in trying a murder and demanded an appointment of an imperial prosecutor and independent judicial body instead.[9]

In 1984, the 26 people accused in the assassination of Aquino were acquitted by the Sandiganbayan in a 90-page verdict. The verdict disregarded all findings of the Agrava Commission, which was appointed to investigate the assassination.[10]

On June 13, 1985, the Sandiganbayan, with the aid of the commission, threw out the case against General Fabian Ver, the chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, together with seven other military men. The Sandiganbayan voted for the exclusion of their testimonies in that they were self-incriminatory and inadmissible as evidence. The Supreme Court upheld this decision by a vote of 10-3 in August. Ver was soon reinstated as chief of staff by Marcos on December 2.[11]

Post-Martial Law[edit]

The 1987 Constitution[edit]

Corazon Aquino inauguration

On February 2, 1987, a new constitution was ratified under President Corazon Aquino. The 1987 Constitution established the separation of powers and a system of checks and balances between the executive, legislature, and judiciary branches.[12]

The 1987 Constitution expanded the jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan to include cases investigated by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG) involving ill-gotten wealth, instated by Executive Orders No. 14 and No. 14-A (main SB site & EO 14). In April 1994, Imelda Marcos and three former officials of the Ministry of Human Settlements (MHS) were indicted for the misappropriation of Php 97.9 million in MHS funds in 1985. At the same time, however, the Sandiganbayan dismissed charges against Imelda Marcos in connection with the sale of $125.9 million in Central Bank Treasury notes in the 1980s.[13]

Under the 1987 Philippine Constitution and the Ombudsman Act of 1989, the Office of the Ombudsman independently monitors all three branches of the government for political corruption.

Laws on Graft and Corruption in the Philippines[edit]

Laws on graft and corruption have been in effect as early as the 1950s, before the creation of the Sandiganbayan. Graft and corruption laws govern both public officers and natural persons.[14][15] The collection of these laws is overseen by the Office of the Ombudsman.

Republic Act Nos. 3019 and 1379[edit]

The Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act is a law which stipulates that the Philippine Government shall repress certain acts of both public officers and natural person that may constitute to graft or corruption. Acts that are subject under these laws include graft, divulging otherwise private informations, negligence in warranted requests, undue injury by a public officer to any party - private or government - in the form of unwarranted benefits or disadvantages.[14][15]

In the case of unexplained accrual of wealth, R.A. No. 1379 states that a petition may be filed against any public officer who has acquired property unlawfully, be it through graft or any form of corruption. This petition should come from the Solicitor General of the Republic of the Philippines as per complaint by a taxpayer.

Republic Act No. 7080[edit]

Any public officer who amasses a certain amount of ill-gotten wealth (at least fifty-million pesos) through means of criminal acts - be it by himself or in connivance with other, shall be subject to reclusion perpetua or a life sentencing to death. Any accomplice shall be sentenced with the same.[16]

Jurisdiction[edit]

Position of the Sandiganbayan in the Philippine judicial system as presented by the Department of Budget and Management.[17]

To determine whether the Sandiganbayan has jurisdiction, lawyers look into two (2) criteria, namely: the nature of the offense and the salary grade of the public official.[18]

The Sandiganbayan shall have original exclusive jurisdiction over:

  • Violation of Anti-graft and Corrupt Practices Law (RA 3019)
  • Forfeitures of Illegally Acquired Wealth (RA 1379)
  • Crimes committed by public officers namely
    • Direct, Indirect and Qualified Bribery
    • Corruption of public officials
  • Other offenses or felonies whether simple or complexed with other crimes committed in relation to their office by public officials.
  • Civil and Criminal Cases filed pursuant to and in connection with Executive Orders 1, 2, 14 & 14-A issued in 1986
  • Petitions for issuance of Writ of mandamus, prohibition, certiorari, habeas corpus, injunction and other ancillary writs and processes in aid of its appellate jurisdiction; Provided, jurisdiction is not exclusive of the Supreme Court.
  • Petitions for Quo Warranto arising or that may arise in cases filed or that may be filed under EO 1, 2, 14 & 14- A

Provided that the accused belongs to a salary grade of 27 or higher, the Sandiganbayan has jurisdiction over:

  • Violation of Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards (RA 6713)
  • Violation of the Plunder Law (RA 7080)
  • Violation of The Heinous Crime Law (RA 7659)
  • Violation of The Anti-Money Laundering Law when committed by a public officer (RA 9160)
  • Presidential Decree 46 referred to as the gift-giving decree which makes it punishable for any official or employee to receive directly or indirectly and for the private person to give or offer to give any gift, present or other valuable thing on any occasion including Christmas, when such gift, present or valuable thing is given by reason of his official position, regardless of whether or not the same is for past favors or the giver hopes or expects to receive a favor or better treatment in the future from the public official or employee concerned in the discharge of his official functions.
    • Included within the prohibition is the throwing of parties or entertainment in honor of the official or employee or his immediate relatives.
  • Presidential Decree 749 which grants immunity from prosecution to any person who voluntarily gives information about any violation of Art.210, 211 or 212 of the RPC, RA 3019, Sec.345 of the NIRC, Sec. 3604 of the Customs and Tariff Code and other provisions of the said Codes penalizing abuse or dishonesty on the part of the public officials concerned and other laws, rules and regulations penalizing graft, corruption and other forms of official abuse and who willingly testifies against the public official or employee subject to certain conditions.

Private individuals can also be sued in cases before the Sandiganbayan if they are alleged to be in conspiracy with the public officer.[18]

The Sandiganbayan is vested with appellate jurisdiction over final judgments, resolutions or orders of the Regional Trial Court whether in the exercise of their original or appellate jurisdiction over crimes and civil cases falling within the original exclusive jurisdiction of the Sandiganbayan but which were committed by public officers below Salary Grade 27.[18]

Composition[edit]

The Sandiganbayan has a total of 15 departments (2 head offices, 12 divisions, and 1 Legal Research and Technical Staff) and a total of 385 authorized positions. 335 of 385 of these positions are filled.[19]

Electoral Procedure[edit]

According to the Presidential Decree No. 1606, Section 1, the Presiding Justice and all Associate Justices shall be appointed by the president, as amended by Republic Act 8249.[20]

Appointment of the Court Officials and other employees, however, is not dependent on the president. According to Rule II, Section 7 of the Revised Internal Rules of the Sandiganbayan, “The Supreme Court shall appoint the Clerk of Court, the Division Clerks of Court and all other personnel of the Sandiganbayan upon recommendation of the Sandiganbayan en banc chosen from a list of qualified applicants prepared in accordance with the Civil Service Law, rules and regulations."[21]

Qualifications[edit]

Presidential Decree No. 1606 further states that “No person shall be appointed Presiding Justice or Associate Justice of the Sandiganbayan; unless he is natural-born citizen of the Philippines, at lease 40 years of age and for at lease ten years has been a judge of a court of record or been engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines or has held office requiring admission to the bar as a pre-requisite for a like period.”[20]

Justices[edit]

Division and Roles[edit]

The Sandiganbayan originally had 3 divisions that assisted the Office of the Presiding Justice, according to the Article XIII of the 1973 Constitution. The number of divisions was increased to 5 divisions in 1995. In 2015, through the Republic Act 10660, under the Aquino Administration, the number of divisions was expanded to 7 divisions.[22] Currently, the Sandiganbayan has Office of the Presiding Justice, Office of the Clerk of Court, Legal Research and Technical Staff, 7 divisions (Office of the Deputy Clerk of Court), and 5 other divisions namely Judicial Records Division, Administrative Division, Budget and Finance Division, Management Information System Division, Security and Sheriff Services Division. The functions and roles of these offices and divisions are:[23][20]

  • Office of the Presiding Justice - Enjoy precedence over the other members of the Sandiganbayan in all official functions; implements the policies, executes the resolutions and enforces the orders of the Court En Banc; performs the functions specifically vested upon him by law, rules and regulations or those implied therefrom; performs all other functions and duties inherent in his position.
  • Office of the Clerk of Court - The Clerk of Court is the administrative officer of the Sandiganbayan. He shall discharge his functions under the control and supervision of the Sandiganbayan en banc through the Presiding Justice. As administrative officer, he shall take direct charge of the administrative operations of the Sandiganbayan and exercise general supervision over its subordinate officials and employees except those belonging to the staff of the Presiding Justice and the Associate Justices. He shall assist the Presiding Justice in the formulation of programs and policies for consideration and action of the Sandiganbayan en banc. The Clerk of Court shall act as its secretariat and prepare its agenda, minutes of meetings and resolutions.
  • Legal Research and Technical Staff - Provides legal and technical assistance to the Court by conducting legal research and studies; takes charge of all legal and related matters.
  • Office of the Deputy Clerk of Court (7 Divisions) - Assists the Clerk of Court in providing technical and administrative support and assistance to their particular Division of the Court; takes charge of the pre and post adjudicative matters relative to cases assigned to the First Division.
  • Judicial Records Division - Takes charge of docketing of cases; plans, implements and evaluates programs for the systematic management of judicial records; and performs other related functions. Prepares entries of judgment; issues copies of decisions, resolutions and orders; maintains a systematic filing and records keeping; and handles the Court's information system, monitoring requests for statistical data.
  • Administrative Division - Attends to the manpower development and service needs of the Court; and performs all functions relative to administrative and personnel matters. Attends to the procurement and maintenance of the properties, supplies and equipment of the Court, including the Court's physical plant Takes charge of the collection and disbursement of the Court.
  • Budget and Finance Division - Prepares and executes the budget of the Court; initiates plans and formula for more effective utilization of funds allotted to the Court; fiscalizes the agency's financial interest including disclosure of deficiencies in control needing corrections. Keeps accounting records for the Court; prepares reports required by the Department of Budget and Management, Commission on Audit and other government agencies.
  • Management Information System Division - Provides technical services related to the planning, development, implementation and maintenance of information systems; takes care of all information and communications technology requirements of the Court.
  • Security and Sheriff Services Division - In charge of the formulation of plans, implements and evaluates program for the systematic management of security of the Sandiganbayan premises, property and personnel and performs other related functions; takes charge of the formulation of systems for the effective services of Court processes and enforcement of Writs issued by the various Divisions of the Court; serves as liaison office with the various law enforcement agencies and the media regarding all court orders and processes issued by the various divisions of the Court, and other court related matters; takes custody of all accused processing their bail for their temporary liberty and/or to turn-over accused who voluntarily surrenders to the authorized detention centers; oversee that all judicial and extrajudicial proceedings are accomplished; takes charge of the formulation of effective management and implementation of all kinds of court orders or processes and writs coming from the various divisions of the Court.

Cases[edit]

Procedures[edit]

The Sandiganbayan holds regular sessions in its principal office in Metro Manila. Sessions may be held outside of Metro Manila when authorized by the Presiding Justice. Cases are heard either en banc or more commonly, by divisions.[24]

Cases are distributed among the divisions through a raffle system. The assignment of a case to a division is permanent, regardless of changes in constitution. Justices may inhibit themselves from a case if they served as Ponente, the Member to whom the Court, after its deliberation on the merits of a case, assigns the writing of its decision or resolution in the case[25]. in the appealed decision of the lower court, or if they or their family members are personally related with the case, or for any other compelling reason. In case of inhibition or disqualification, the case will remain with the same division, but the inhibited justice will be replaced.[24]

Cases may reach the Sandiganbayan either through an appeal from a Regional Trial Court or by original petition filed with the Sandiganbayan.[24] After a case is raffled to a Division, the accused party must be arraigned within thirty days. A pre-trial conference is then held to reach an agreement and issue a pre-trial order. The case is then taken to trial.[26] Following the Speedy Trial Act of 1998, no trial may exceed six months from its starting date. However, the act also allows for certain delays that are excluded from the computed time of trial, including delays caused by other related proceedings involving the accused, absence of the accused or essential witness, and mental or physical incompetence of the accused to stand trial.[27]

Adjudication[edit]

Cases are deemed submitted for decision after the last brief, pleading, or memorandum is filed, or after the deadline for doing so has passed. All adjudicatory action is exercised through the divisions of the Sandiganbayan. The rendition of judgment or final order is based on the unanimous vote of the three Justices in the deciding division. When the Sandiganbayan sits en banc to resolve motions and other incidents, at least eight justices must vote in order to adopt a resolution.[24]

In a joint trial involving multiple cases, a joint or separate judgment may be rendered by the division. In cases involving multiple accused, the division may also render judgment for one or more of the accused by a unanimous vote.[24]

If a unanimous vote cannot be reached in any case, a special division of five will be formed to decide the case by majority vote. Promulgation is done by reading the judgment aloud with the accused present along with any Justice from the deciding division. Decisions are published in the Official Gazette or the official website of the Sandiganbayan.[24]

Appeals[edit]

In general, a party sentenced to any penalty lower than death, life imprisonment, or reclusion perpetua may appeal by filing a motion for reconsideration or a motion for new trial within fifteen days of promulgation of judgment. If a new trial is granted, the previous judgment will be overruled and the new judgment rendered. New trials must also not exceed six months in duration, albeit allowing for certain delays as specified in the Speedy Trial Act.[27] For civil cases, the accused party may file for a petition for a writ of certiorari with the Supreme Court. If the party files an appeal to the Supreme Court, any motion of reconsideration filed to the Sandiganbayan will be deemed abandoned.[24]

If the accused party wishes to appeal from a sentence of life imprisonment or reclusion perpetua, a notice of appeal is filed with the Sandiganbayan and presented to the adverse party. In cases where the Sandiganbayan sentences the accused to death penalty, an automatic appeal follows where the Supreme Court will conduct a review of judgment before the final decision is rendered.[24]

Notable cases[edit]

Jinggoy Estrada vs. Sandiganbayan[edit]

In June 2014, plunder charges against former Philippine senator Jinggoy Estrada and several other members of Congress allegedly involved in the pork barrel scam run by Janet Lim-Napoles were filed by the Ombudsman before the Sandiganbayan. Estrada was accused of plundering P183 million from the Priority Development Assistance Fund.[28]

Withdrawal of justices[edit]

In December 2014, all three justices of the Sandiganbayan division (Associate Justices Roland Jurado, Alexander Gesmundo and Ma. Theresa Dolores Estoesta of the Fifth Division) assigned to the case against Estrada inhibited themselves from the case for "personal reasons." This marked the first time in the court's history that an entire division withdrew from hearing a case. Though the justices refused to elaborate on their reasons for inhibition, the withdrawal was said to have been due to "pressure" from the public to deny Estrada's petition for bail.[29]

Imelda Marcos vs. Sandiganbayan[edit]

In 1991, ten counts of graft were filed against former first lady Imelda Marcos before the Sandiganbayan. Marcos was accused of creating private Swiss foundations during her time as governor of Metro Manila, between 1978 and 1984. She was also accused of violating the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act by holding financial interests in multiple private enterprises. The government has since uncovered Marcos Swiss deposits amounting to $658 million.[30]

Another corruption case against Marcos involving "unlawfully acquired" art collections amounting to $24 million has been brought to the Sandiganbayan by appeals from the Presidential Commission on Good Government and the Office of the Solicitor General. The case is being handled by the Special First Division of the Sandiganbayan.[30]

Delays in court proceedings[edit]

The case against Imelda Marcos has been ongoing for over 26 years due to multiple causes of delay in court proceedings. In 2017, Marcos was absent from what was scheduled to be her last day of trial for the graft case. In the same year, the trial was reset by the Fifth Division due to the failure of the defense to present their last evidence in the case.[30]

Membership[edit]

Incumbent Justices[edit]

Name of Sandiganbayan Justices Position Date of Appointment Date of Birth Date of Retirement Division Position
Hon. Amparo M. Cabotaje-Tang Presiding Justice June 11, 2012 as Associate Justice;

October 7, 2013 as Presiding Justice

November 8, 1954 November 8, 2024 3 Division Chairperson
Hon. Efren N. de la Cruz Associate Justice October 10, 2003 June 18, 1954 June 18, 2024 1 Division Chairperson
Hon. Alex L. Quiroz Associate Justice December 11, 2008 May 27, 1957 May 27, 2027 4 Division Chairperson
Hon. Rafael R. Lagos Associate Justice December 9, 2010 December 22, 1954 December 22, 2024 5 Division Chairperson
Hon. Oscar C. Herrera, Jr. Associate Justice April 26, 2011 May 23, 1954 May 23, 2024 2 Division Chairperson
Hon. Ma. Theresa C. Gómez-Estoesta Associate Justice June 20, 2014 March 17, 1967 March 17, 2037 7 Division Chairperson
Hon. Sarah Jane T. Fernandez Associate Justice May 5, 2015 May 14, 1969 May 14, 2039 6 Division Chairperson
Hon. Michael Frederick Musngi Associate Justice January 20, 2016 April 14, 1965 April 14, 2035 2 Division Member
Hon. Reynaldo P. Cruz Associate Justice January 20, 2016 July 8, 1955 July 8, 2025 4 Division Member
Hon. Geraldine Faith A. Econg Associate Justice January 20, 2016 August 6, 1967 August 6, 2037 1 Division Member
Hon. Ma. Theresa V. Mendoza-Arcega Associate Justice January 20, 2016 December 18, 1965 December 18, 2035 5 Division Member
Hon. Karl B. Miranda Associate Justice January 20, 2016 October 9, 1957 October 9, 2027 6 Division Member
Hon. Zaldy V. Trespeses Associate Justice January 20, 2016 December 30, 1972 December 30, 2042 7 Division Member
Hon. Bernelito R. Fernandez Associate Justice October 28, 2016 June 9, 1955 June 9, 2025 3 Division Member
Hon. Lorifel L. Pahimna Associate Justice March 1, 2017 February 10, 1961 February 10, 2031 2 Division Member
Hon. Edgardo M. Caldona Associate Justice March 10, 2017 February 12, 1970 February 12, 2040 1 Division Member
Hon. Bayani H. Jacinto Associate Justice May 29, 2017 April 30, 1969 April 30, 2039 4 Division Member
Hon. Maryann E. Corpus-Mañalac Associate Justice December 8, 2017 July 27, 1966 July 27, 2036 5 Division Member
Hon. Kevin Narce B. Vivero Associate Justice November 28, 2017 January 2, 1960 January 2, 2030 6 Division Member
Hon. Georgina D. Hidalgo Associate Justice January 18, 2018 April 14, 1964 April 14, 2034 7 Division Member
Vacant Associate Justice

Sandiganbayan Presiding Justices Since June 11, 1978 to Present[edit]

No. Name of Sandiganbayan Presiding Justices Start of Term End of Term Position
1 Manuel R. Pamaran June 11, 1978 March 31, 1986 Presiding Justice
2 Francis E. Garchitorena APRIL 18, 1986 January 16, 2002 Presiding Justice
3 Minita V. Chico-Nazario January 16, 2002 February 10, 2004 Presiding Justice
1 Edilberto G. Sandoval February 11, 2004 December 14, 2004 Acting Presiding Justice
4 Teresita J. Leonardo-de Castro December 15, 2004 December 3, 2007 Presiding Justice
2 Edilberto G. Sandoval December 4, 2007 March 27, 2008 Acting Presiding Justice
5 Diosdado M. Peralta March 28, 2008 January 14, 2009 Presiding Justice
6 María Cristina Cortez-Estrada January 14, 2009 February 27, 2010 Presiding Justice
7 Norberto Y. Geraldez February 28, 2010 April 4, 2010 Presiding Justice
8 Edilberto G. Sandoval April 5, 2010 October 4, 2011 Presiding Justice
9 Francisco H. Villaruz, Jr. October 5, 2011 June 8, 2013 Presiding Justice
3 Gregory S. Ong June 9, 2013 October 6, 2013 Acting Presiding Justice
10 Amparo M. Cabotaje-Tang October 7, 2013 Present Presiding Justice

Sandiganbayan Justices Since June 11, 1978 to Present[edit]

No. Name of Sandiganbayan Justices Start of Term End of Term Position End Year-Month-Day
1 Manuel R. Pamaran June 11, 1978 March 31, 1986 Presiding Justice 1986-03-31
2 Bernardo P. Fernández June 11, 1978 June 11, 1981 Justice 1981-06-11
3 Romeo M. Escareal June 11, 1978 March 5, 1996 Justice 1996-03-05
4 Buenaventura J. Guerrero December 8, 1980 May 16, 1986 Justice 1986-05-16
5 Conrado M. Molina December 8, 1980 July 18, 1992 Justice 1992-07-18
6 Moises C. Kallos December 8, 1980 December 15, 1983 Justice 1983-12-15
7 Ramon V. Jabson November 20, 1981 May 18, 1988 Justice 1988-05-18
8 Fidel P. Purísima August 4, 1982 March 10, 1984 Justice 1984-03-10
9 Francisco Z. Consolación August 4, 1982 March 10, 1984 Justice 1984-03-10
10 Romulo S. Químbo August 4, 1982 May 16, 1986 Justice 1986-05-16
11 Augusto M. Amores October 7, 1984 July 5, 1995 Justice 1995-07-05
12 Amante Q. Alconcel October 7, 1984 May 16, 1986 Justice 1986-05-16
13 Bienvenido C. Vera Cruz October 7, 1984 May 16, 1986 Justice 1986-05-16
14 Francis E. Garchitorena April 18, 1986 January 16, 2002 Presiding Justice 2002-01-16
15 Regino C. Hermosísima, Jr. May 16, 1986 July 18, 1995 Justice 1995-07-18
16 Luciano A. Jóson May 21, 1986 March 17, 1990 Justice 1990-03-17
17 Jose S. Balajádia May 30, 1986 February 14, 1998 Justice 1998-02-14
18 Cipriano A. del Rosario May 22, 1986 March 15, 2001 Justice 2001-03-15
19 Nathanael M. Grospe December 2, 1988 January 16, 1993 Justice 1993-01-16
20 Sabino R. de León Jr. MARCH 13, 1990 October 11, 1999 Justice 1999-10-11
21 Narciso T. Atienza September 14, 1992 December 17, 1993 Justice 1993-12-17
22 Minita Chico-Nazario May 10, 1993 January 16, 2002 Justice 2002-01-16
23 Roberto M. Lagmán November 28, 1994 February 14, 1998 Justice 1998-02-14
24 Harriet Demetriou August 28, 1995 February 14, 1998 Justice 1998-02-14
25 Edilberto G. Sandóval March 11, 1996 April 5, 2010 Justice 2010-04-05
26 Leonardo I. Cruz March 11, 1996 March 11, 1997 Justice 1997-03-11
27 Teresita de Castro September 8, 1997 December 15, 2004 Justice 2004-12-15
28 Narciso S. Nario, Sr. September 8, 1997 January 15, 2002 Justice 2002-01-15
29 Anacleto Bádoy, Jr. September 8, 1997 March 11, 2002 Justice 2002-03-11
30 Catalino R. Castañeda, Jr. September 8, 1997 January 15, 2002 Justice 2002-01-15
31 German G. Lee, Jr. September 8, 1997 December 17, 1998 Justice 1998-12-17
32 Godofredo L. Legaspí September 8, 1997 September 8, 2006 Justice 2006-09-08
33 Alfredo J. Gustillo October 5, 1998 March 3, 1999 Justice 1999-03-03
34 Gregory S. Ong October 5, 1998 September 23, 2014 Justice 2014-09-23
35 Ricardo M. Ilarde October 7, 1998 March 3, 2001 Justice 2001-03-03
36 Rodolfo G. Palattao October 9, 1998 March 3, 2003 Justice 2003-03-03
37 Ma. Cristina Cortéz-Estrada October 19, 1998 January 14, 2009 Justice 2009-01-14
38 Raoul V. Victorino January 31, 2000 February 15, 2005 Justice 2005-02-15
39 Nicodemo T. Ferrer January 31, 2000 February 15, 2002 Justice 2002-02-15
40 Francisco Villaruz, Jr. October 2, 2001 October 5, 2011 Justice 2011-10-05
41 Diosdado M. Peralta June 14, 2002 March 28, 2008 Justice 2008-03-28
42 Norberto Y. Geraldez January 21, 2003 February 28, 2010 Justice 2010-02-28
43 Roland B. Jurado October 3, 2003 February 1, 2017 Justice 2017-02-01
44 Efren N. de la Cruz October 10, 2003 June 18, 2024 Justice 2024-06-18
45 Teresita V. Díaz-Baldos October 17, 2003 July 22, 2016 Justice 2016-07-22
46 José R. Hernández March 9, 2004 November 22, 2016 Justice 2016-11-22
47 Rodolfo A. Ponferrada August 23, 2004 September 13, 2017 Justice 2017-09-13
48 Alexander G. Gesmundo October 15, 2005 August 14, 2017 Justice 2017-08-14
49 Samuel R. Martires October 15, 2005 March 2, 2017 Justice 2017-03-02
50 Napoleón E. Inoturan April 4, 2008 August 1, 2016 Justice 2016-08-01
51 Alex L. Quíroz December 11, 2008 May 27, 2027 Justice 2027-05-27
52 Ma. Cristina J. Cornejo May 1, 2010 March 1, 2017 Justice 2017-03-01
53 Rafael R. Lagos December 9, 2010 December 22, 2024 Justice 2024-10-22
54 Oscar C. Herrera, Jr. April 26, 2011 May 23, 2024 Justice 2024-05-23
55 Amparo M. Cabotaje-Tang June 11, 2012 October 7, 2013 Justice 2013-10-07
56 Ma. Theresa C. Gómez-Estoesta June 20, 2014 March 17, 2037 Justice 2037-03-17
57 Sarah Jane T. Fernández May 5, 2015 May 14, 2039 Justice 2039-05-14
58 Michael Frederick Musngi January 20, 2016 April 14, 2035 Justice 2035-04-14
59 Reynaldo P. Cruz January 20, 2016 July 8, 2025 Justice 2025-07-08
60 Geraldine Faith A. Econg January 20, 2016 August 6, 2037 Justice 2037-08-06
61 Ma. Theresa V. Mendóza-Arcega January 20, 2016 December 18, 2035 Justice 2035-12-18
62 Karl B. Miranda January 20, 2016 October 9, 2027 Justice 2027-10-09
63 Zaldy V. Trespeses January 20, 2016 December 30, 2042 Justice 2042-12-30
64 Bernelito R. Fernandez October 28, 2016 June 9, 2025 Justice 2025-06-09
65 Lorifel L. Pahimna March 1, 2017 February 10, 2031 Justice 2031-02-10
66 Edgardo M. Caldona March 10, 2017 February 12, 2040 Justice 2040-02-12
67 Bayani H. Jacinto May 29, 2017 April 30, 2039 Justice 2039-04-30
68 Maryann E. Corpus-Mañalac December 8, 2017 July 27, 2036 Justice 2036-07-27
69 Kevin Narce B. Vivero November 28, 2017 January 2, 2030 Justice 2030-01-02
70 Georgina D. Hidalgo January 18, 2018 April 14, 2034 Justice 2034-04-14
71 Vacante

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 1486 : CREATING A SPECIAL COURT TO BE KNOWN AS "SANDIGANBAYAN" AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES". lawphil.net. June 11, 1978. 
  2. ^ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 1606 : December 10, 1978 : REVISING PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1486 CREATING A SPECIAL COURT TO BE KNOWN AS "SANDIGANBAYAN" AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES
  3. ^ REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7975 : AN ACT TO STRENGTHEN THE FUNCTIONAL AND STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE SANDIGANBAYAN, AMENDING FOR THAT PURPOSE PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1606, AS AMENDED, March 30, 1995.
  4. ^ Republic Act No. 8249 : AN ACT FURTHER DEFINING THE JURISDICTION OF THE SANDIGANBAYAN, AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1606, AS AMENDED, PROVIDING FUNDS THEREFOR, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES., February 5, 1997.
  5. ^ PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1606, as amended by R.A. NO. 7975* and R.A. NO. 8249*
  6. ^ Stephenson, Matthew (July 2016). "Specialised anti-corruption courts: Philippines". U4 Brief. 3: 4 – via U4. 
  7. ^ a b c "Sandiganbayan". http://sb.judiciary.gov.ph/. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved 15 July 2018.  External link in |website= (help)
  8. ^ Gutierrez, Natashya (21 April 2015). "Aquino signs law expanding Sandiganbayan to 7 divisions". Rappler. Retrieved 15 July 2018. 
  9. ^ Malin, Herbert (February 1985). "The Philippines in 1984: Grappling with Crisis". Asian Survey. 25 (2): 198–205. doi:10.2307/2644303. JSTOR 2644303. 
  10. ^ Manning, Robert (Winter 1984). "The Philippines in Crisis". Foreign Affairs. 63 (2): 20. doi:10.2307/20042190. JSTOR 20042190. 
  11. ^ Villegas, Bernardo (February 1986). "The Philippines in 1985: Rolling with the Political Punches". Asian Survey. 26 (2): 127–140. doi:10.2307/2644448. JSTOR 2644448. 
  12. ^ Hernandez, Carolina (February 1988). "The Philippines in 1987: Challenges of Redemocratization". Asian Survey. 28 (2): 229–241. doi:10.2307/2644824. JSTOR 2644824. 
  13. ^ Reidinger, Jeffrey (February 1995). "The Philippines in 1994: Renewed Growth and Contested Reforms". Asian Survey. 35 (2): 209–216. doi:10.2307/2645032. JSTOR 2645032. 
  14. ^ a b "[REPUBLIC ACT NO. 1379] AN ACT DECLARING FORFEITURE IN FAVOR OF THE STATE ANY PROPERTY FOUND TO HAVE BEEN UNLAWFULLY ACQUIRED BY ANY PUBLIC OFFICER OR EMPLOYEE AND PROVIDING FOR THE PROCEEDINGS THEREFOR". napolcom. Archived from the original (PDF) on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved 9 July 2018. 
  15. ^ a b "[REPUBLIC ACT NO. 1379] AN ACT DECLARING FORFEITURE IN FAVOR OF THE STATE ANY PROPERTY FOUND TO HAVE BEEN UNLAWFULLY ACQUIRED BY ANY PUBLIC OFFICER OR EMPLOYEE AND PROVIDING FOR THE PROCEEDINGS THEREFOR". napolcom. Archived from the original (PDF) on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved 9 July 2018. 
  16. ^ "AN ACT DEFINING AND PENALIZING THE CRIME OF PLUNDER". https://www.lawphil.net. 12 July 1991. Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= (help). Retrieved 15 July 2018.  External link in |website= (help)
  17. ^ "Sandiganbayan" (PDF). 
  18. ^ a b c "JURISDICTION OF SANDIGANBAYAN". Retrieved July 9, 2018. 
  19. ^ "The Judiciary : Sandiganbayan" (PDF). 
  20. ^ a b c http://www.ombudsman.gov.ph/docs/presdecrees/Presidential_Decree_No_1606.pdf
  21. ^ http://www.ombudsman.gov.ph/docs/presdecrees/Revised_Internal_Rules_of_Sandiganbayan.pdf
  22. ^ https://www.rappler.com/nation/90674-sandiganbayan-reform-aquino
  23. ^ http://sb.judiciary.gov.ph/aboutsb.html
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h Supreme Court of the Philippines. "Revised Internal Rules of the Sandiganbayan." Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  25. ^ "Internal Rules of the Supreme Court". 
  26. ^ "Plunder and graft trials: How do cases proceed in the courts?". Rappler. Retrieved 2018-07-09. 
  27. ^ a b "Speedy Trial Act of 1998". February 12, 1998. Retrieved July 7, 2018. 
  28. ^ News, Arianne Merez, ABS-CBN. "TIMELINE: Jinggoy Estrada's pork barrel scam case". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved 2018-07-09. 
  29. ^ Ramos, Marlon. "3 Sandiganbayan justices quit cases vs Jinggoy Estrada". Retrieved 2018-07-09. 
  30. ^ a b c "Imelda Marcos snubs last day of trial for 1991 graft case". Rappler. Retrieved 2018-07-09. 

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