|Hangul||쪽발이 / 쪽바리|
According to one survey, it was Korea's second-most commonly used slur against Japanese people, ahead of wae-nom and behind ilbon-nom (both roughly mean "Japanese bastards").
The original meaning is "A cloven foot".Jjok means a "piece" and bal means "feet" in Korean, and when combined it roughly translates to "split feet" or "cloven hoof". This etymology refers to the fact that the Japanese wore geta, a traditional Japanese wooden sandal, which separates the big toe from the others.
Unlike Korean-style straw shoes which completely cover the foot, Japanese-style straw shoes and wooden geta consist of only a sole and straps to bind it to the sole of the foot. This leaves the rest of the foot exposed, including the "split" between the toes. Koreans thought of Japanese shoes as incomplete compared to their own, and the visible split as a distinctive enough trait to inspire an ethnic slur.
The term has also been borrowed into Japanese language spoken by ethnic Koreans in Japan, where it is rendered Choppari. The form ban-jjokbari (literally, "half jjokbari") originated as a derogatory reference to Japanized Koreans during the Japanese colonial period in Korea; later, it came to be used by Koreans to refer to Japanese with Korean ancestry. The Japanized pronunciation of this form, ban-choppari, is also widely used by Koreans in Japan, either to refer to Japanized Koreans or to people with both Japanese and Korean ancestry.
- Anti-Japanese sentiment
- Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea
- Guizi (Chinese)
- Jap (English)
- Xiao riben (Chinese)
- Zainichi Korean language
- "Jjok-bari (noun)". Standard Korean Language Dictionary. National Institute of the Korean Language. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
1) a single-footed object. 2) an object/animal with split-feet. 3) a derogatory slur for Japanese people. derived from "split feet" (짜개발) and originated from the fact that Japanese people traditionally wore geta. [쪽-발이 (명사) 1) 한 발만 달린 물건. 2) 발통이 두 조각으로 된 물건. 3) 일본 사람을 낮잡아 이르는 말. 엄지발가락과 나머지 발가락들을 가르는 게다를 신는다는 데서 온 말이다.≒짜개발]
- Miyazaki, Mina (2001). "チョッパリからイルボンヘ 文化交流の効果 (From Choppari to Ilbon: the effects of cultural exchange)" (PDF) (in Japanese). Seikei University: 23. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
- 『Dictionnaire coréen-français』 (1880) Paris Foreign Missions Society
- Lee, O-Young (1999). Things Korean. North Clarendon, Vermont, United States: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-2129-1.
- Constantine, Peter (1992). Japanese Street Slang. Boston, Massachusetts, United States: Weatherhill. ISBN 0-8348-0250-3.
- Shoji, Kaori (2001-03-24). "From Tokyo, a Film of Us vs. Them". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 28 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-10.
- Kramer, Eric Mark (2003). The Emerging Monoculture: Assimilation and the Model Minority. Westport, Connecticut, United States: Praeger/Greenwood. pp. 162–163. ISBN 0-275-97312-3.
- Gohl, Gerhard (1976). Die koreanische Minderheit in Japan als Fall einer"politisch-ethnischen" Minderheitengruppe (The Korean minority in Japan as a case of a "political-ethnic" minority group). Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz. pp. 139–141.