Ipomoea aquatica is a semiaquatic, tropical plant grown as a vegetable for its tender shoots and leaves. It is found throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, although it is not known where it originated. This plant is known in English as water spinach, river spinach, water morning glory, water convolvulus, or by the more ambiguous names Chinese spinach, Chinese Watercress, Chinese convolvulus, swamp cabbage or kangkong in Southeast Asia. Occasionally, it has also been mistakenly called "kale" in English, although kale is a variety of cabbage and is completely unrelated to water spinach, which is a species of morning glory.
It is known as phak bung (ผักบุ้ง) in Thai and Laotian, eng chai in Teochew and Hokkien, ong choy (蕹菜) in Cantonese, kongxincai (空心菜) in Mandarin Chinese, rau muống in Vietnamese, kangkong in Tagalog, kangkung in Indonesian, Malay and Sinhalese, gazun in Myanmar, trokuon (ត្រកួន) in Khmer, kolmou xak in Assamese,"வள்ளல்" (vallal) in Tamil, kalmi saag in Hindi, kalmi shak (কলমি শাক) in Bengali, Thooti Koora in Telugu, Kalama Saga in Odia, hayoyo in Ghana. In Suriname it is known as dagoeblad or dagublad.
Ipomoea aquatica grows in water or on moist soil. Its stems are 2–3 metres (7–10 ft) or longer, rooting at the nodes, and they are hollow and can float. The leaves vary from typically sagittate (arrow head-shaped) to lanceolate, 5–15 cm (2–6 in) long and 2–8 cm (0.8–3 in) broad. The flowers are trumpet-shaped, 3–5 cm (1–2 in) in diameter, and usually white in colour with a mauve centre. Propagation is either by planting cuttings of the stem shoots that will root along nodes or planting the seeds from flowers that produce seed pods.
Ipomoea aquatica is most commonly grown in East, South and Southeast Asia. It flourishes naturally in waterways and requires little, if any, care. It is used extensively in Burmese, Thai, Lao, Cambodian, Malay, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese cuisine, especially in rural or kampung (village) areas. The vegetable is also extremely popular in Taiwan, where it grows well. During the Japanese occupation of Singapore in World War II, the vegetable grew remarkably easily in many areas, and became a popular wartime crop. In the Philippines, a variety of kangkong is grown in canals dug during the American occupation after the Spanish–American War, while another variety growing on land is called Chinese kangkong.
In non-tropical areas, it is easily grown in containers given enough water in a bright sunny location. It readily roots from cuttings.
Ipomoea aquatica is listed on the USDA internet site as a "Class A noxious weed", especially in the states of Florida, California, and Hawaii, where it can be observed growing in the wild. I. aquatica has been extensively cultivated in Texas for over 30 years, having been originally brought there by Asian immigrants. Because no evidence indicates the plant has escaped into the wild, Texas lifted its ban on cultivation for personal use with no restrictions or requirements, noting its importance as a vegetable in many cultures, and also began permitting cultivation for commercial sales with the requirement of an exotic species permit. In Sri Lanka, it invades wetlands, where its long, floating stems form dense mats which can block the flow of water and prevent passage of boats.
The vegetable is a common ingredient in Southeast Asian dishes. Stir-fried water spinach is a popular vegetable dish in Southeast Asia. In Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia, the tender shoots along with the leaves are usually stir-fried with chili pepper, garlic, ginger, dried shrimp paste (belacan/terasi) and other spices. In Penang and Ipoh, it is cooked with cuttlefish and a sweet and spicy sauce. Also known as eng cai in the Hokkien dialect, it can also be boiled with preserved cuttlefish, then rinsed and mixed with spicy rojak paste to become jiu hu eng cai. Boiled eng cai also can be served with fermented krill noodle belacan bee hoon and prawn noodle.
In Indonesian cuisine it is called kangkung, boiled or blanched together with other vegetables it forms the ingredient of gado-gado or pecel salads in peanut sauce. Some recipes that use kangkung is plecing kangkung from Lombok, and mie kangkung (kangkong noodle) from Jakarta.
Indonesian plecing kangkung from Lombok
Indonesian mie kangkung (with noodles)
Thai pak boong fai daeng
Vietnamese canh chua
In the Philippines, where it is called kangkóng, the tender shoots are cut into segments and cooked, together with the leaves, in fish and meat stews, such as sinigang. The vegetable may also be eaten alone, such as in adobong kangkóng, where it is sautéed in cooking oil, onions, garlic, vinegar, soy sauce, and bouillon cube. A local appetiser called crispy kangkóng has the leaves coated in a flour-based batter and fried until crisp, similar to Japanese vegetable tempura.[better source needed]
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||79 kJ (19 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||2.1 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.||
|Pantothenic acid (B5)||
†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
- Gupta, A.K. (2013). "Ipomoea aquatica". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.T168908A1252058. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T168908A1252058.en. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
- "Kangkong / Ipomoea aquatica Forsk./ POTATO VINE / Herbal Medicinal Therapies / Philippine Alternative Medicine". Stuartxchange.org. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Growing kangkong in water". curiousgardener.com.
- "Kangkungking.com". Kangkungking.com. Archived from the original on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/weeds/downloads/weedlist.pdf "USDA Noxious Weed List"
- "Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. swamp morning-glory". plants.usda.gov. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- "Texas Invasives". texasinvasives.org.
- Gunasekera Lalith. Invasive Plants, A Guide to the Identification of the Most Invasive Plants in Sri Lanka, Colombo 2009.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- "Nutritional composition of traditional Thai foods used local vegetables" (PDF). Archived from the original on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- "Crispy Kangkong Recipe (River Spinach) - Filipino Recipes Portal". Pinoyrecipe.net. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
- "Transmission: a Case Study of the Vuon-Ao-Chung Agricultural System on the Mekong Delta of Vietnam". Stanford University. 28 April 2002. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ipomoea aquatica.|
|Wikispecies has information related to Ipomoea aquatica|
- Germplasm Resources Information Network: Ipomoea aquatica
- " Multilingual taxonomic information". University of Melbourne.
- Water spinach nutritional information from Kasetsart University
- Aquatic, Wetland and Invasive Plant Particulars and Photographs
- USDA Noxious Weed Regulations (Possession in USA requires permit)
- Species Profile- Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Water Spinach.
- Helminths and Helminthiosis of Pigs in the Mekong Delta Vietnam with Special Reference to Ascariosis and Fasciolopsis buski Infection
- Ipomoea aquatica in West African plants – A Photo Guide.