Krav Maga

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Krav Maga
קרב מגע
Krav Maga Training
Krav Maga Training
Focus Hybrid
Country of origin Israel Israel
Creator Imi Lichtenfeld
Parenthood Boxing, Wrestling, Aikido, Judo,Karate, KAPAP
Olympic sport No

Krav Maga (/krɑːv məˈɡɑː/; Hebrew: קְרַב מַגָּע[ˈkʁav maˈɡa], lit. "contact-combat") is a military self-defense system developed for the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) and Israeli security forces (Shin Bet and Mossad)[1][2] that consists of a combination of techniques sourced from Boxing, Wrestling, Aikido, Judo, Karate along with realistic fight training.[3][4] Krav Maga is also considered to be an early concept of MMA (Mixed Martial Arts) since it included both wrestling and striking elements.

Krav Maga is known for its focus on real-world situations and its extreme efficiency[5][6] and brutal counter-attacks.[7] It was derived from the street-fighting experience of Hungarian-Israeli martial artist Imi Lichtenfeld, who made use of his training as a boxer and wrestler as a means of defending the Jewish quarter against fascist groups in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia in the mid-to-late 1930s.[8] In the late 1940s, following his migration to Israel, he began to provide lessons on combat training to what was to become the IDF.

From the outset, the original concept of Krav Maga was to take the most simple and practical techniques of other fighting styles (originally European boxing, wrestling and street fighting) and to make them rapidly teachable to military conscripts.[9]

Krav Maga has a philosophy emphasizing aggression,[10] and simultaneous defensive and offensive maneuvers.[11] Krav Maga has been used by the Israel Defense Forces' special forces units, the security apparatus, and by regular infantry units.[12] Closely related variations have been developed and adopted by Israeli law enforcement and intelligence organizations. There are several organizations teaching variations of Krav Maga internationally such as the British SAS and the US Marine Corps.[13][14][15]

Etymology[edit]

The name in Hebrew can be translated as "contact combat". The root word krav (קרב) means "combat" and maga (מגע) means "contact".

Basic principles[edit]

IDF soldier sparring in full combat gear
US Air Force and British Royal Air Force security personnel during Krav Maga training.

Like most martial arts, Krav Maga encourages students to avoid physical confrontation.[16] If this is impossible or unsafe, it promotes finishing a fight as quickly and aggressively as possible. Attacks are aimed at the most vulnerable parts of the body, and training is not limited to techniques that avoid severe injury; some even permanently injure or cause death to the opponent.

Students learn to defend against all variety of attacks and are taught to counter in the quickest and most efficient way.

Ideas in Krav Maga include:[7]

  • Simultaneous attack and defense
  • Developing physical aggression (not to be confused with emotional aggression or anger), with the view that physical aggression is the most important component in a fight[17]
  • Continuing to strike the opponent until they are completely incapacitated.[18]
  • Attacking preemptively or counterattacking as soon as possible
  • Using any objects at hand that could be used to hit an opponent.[19]
  • Targeting attacks to the body's most vulnerable points, such as: the eyes, neck or throat, face, solar plexus, groin, ribs, knee, foot, fingers, liver, etc.
  • Using simple and easily repeatable strikes.[19]
  • Maintaining awareness of surroundings while dealing with the threat in order to look for escape routes, further attackers, objects that could be used to strike an opponent.
  • Recognizing the importance of and expanding on instinctive response under stress[20][21][22]

Training can also cover the study and development of situational awareness to develop an understanding of one's surroundings, learning to understand the psychology of a street confrontation, and identifying potential threats before an attack occurs. It may also cover ways to deal with physical and verbal methods to avoid violence whenever possible. It also teaches mental toughness, using controlled scenarios to strengthen mental fortitude in order for students to control the impulse and not do something rash, instead, attack only when it necessary and as a last resort.

Techniques[edit]

Krav Maga is a continuously evolving system (reflecting real-world experience) and so it is not clear cut to specify a universal curriculum, as may be the case for example within some eastern martial arts. However, of the major Krav Maga organisations worldwide, techniques are largely similar.

Adopted techniques
Some of the key focuses of techniques in Krav Maga are—as described above—effectiveness and instinctive response under stress. To that end, Krav Maga is an eclectic system that has not sought to replace existing effective techniques, taking what is useful from available systems, for example:

  • Strikes - per karate and boxing
  • Take-downs and throws - per judo, aikido, and freestyle wrestling
  • Ground work - per judo and freestyle wrestling

Techniques taken from such systems have in some cases been modified to reflect the fact that their genesis is in a sport with rules, which limits effectiveness in real fight situations. Beyond this, Krav Maga has developed several supplementary techniques, as necessary.

Examples of techniques that were developed within the system include
Escapes from chokes and holds:

  • As alluded to above, often systems that employ holds, chokes, take-downs, etc. are competitive sports and do not allow strikes.
  • Krav Maga thus supplements escapes taken from these systems with strikes including foot stomps, groin strikes, headbutts, etc.http://kravmaganomad.com/bear-hug-from-behind-defense/[23]

Empty-hand weapon defences (based on the premise that the individual who is attacked in e.g. a mugging situation, is most likely to be unarmed), including:

  • Defence against an attacker wielding a knife [24][25]
  • Defence against an attacker wielding a stick/bat [26]
  • Pistol disarm [27]

As there is no universal authority on the system, students may find that different schools advocate different approaches. [28] [29] [30] [31]

History[edit]

Krav Maga lesson in paratrooper school in Israel, 1955

Imre Lichtenfeld (also known as Imi Sde-Or) was born in 1910 in Budapest, Hungary and grew up in Bratislava (Slovakia). Lichtenfeld became active in a wide range of sports, including gymnastics, wrestling, and boxing. In 1928, Lichtenfeld won the Slovak Youth Wrestling Championship, and in 1929 the adult championship (light and middle weight divisions).[32] That same year, he also won the national boxing championship and an international gymnastics championship. During the ensuing decade, Imi's athletic activities focused mainly on wrestling, both as a contestant and a trainer.

In the mid-1930s, anti-Semitic riots began to threaten the Jews of Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. Lichtenfeld became the leader of a group of Jewish boxers and wrestlers who took to the streets to defend Jewish neighborhoods against the growing numbers of national socialist party and anti-Semitic thugs. Lichtenfeld quickly discovered, however, that actual fighting was very different from competition fighting, and although boxing and wrestling were good sports, they were not always practical for the aggressive and brutal nature of street combat. It was then that he started to re-evaluate his ideas about fighting and started developing the skills and techniques that would eventually become Krav Maga. Having become a thorn in the side of the equally anti-Semitic local authorities, in 1940 Lichtenfeld left his home with his family and friends on the last refugee ship to escape Europe.

After making his way to Mandatory Palestine, Lichtenfeld joined the Haganah paramilitary organization to protect Jewish refugees from Arabs.[33] In 1944 Lichtenfeld began training fighters in his areas of expertise: physical fitness, swimming, wrestling, use of the knife, and defence against knife attacks. During this period, Lichtenfeld trained several elite units of the Haganah including Palmach (striking force of the Haganah and forerunner of the special units of the Israel Defense Forces) and the Pal-Yam, as well as groups of police officers.

In 1948, when the State of Israel was founded and the IDF was formed, Lichtenfeld became Chief Instructor for Physical Fitness and Krav Maga at the IDF School of Combat Fitness.[34] He served in the IDF for about 20 years, during which time he developed and refined his unique method for self-defense and hand-to-hand combat. Self-defense was not a new concept, since nearly all martial arts had developed some form of defensive techniques in their quest for tournament or sport dominance. However, self-defense was based strictly upon the scientific and dynamic principles of the human body. In 1965 judo training was added as part of the Krav Maga training, and until 1968 there were no grades in Krav Maga. Then a trainee's grades were determined largely by his knowledge in judo.[35]

In 1968 Eli Avikzar, Imi's principal student and first black belt, began learning aikido and in 1971 left for France where he received a brown belt in aikido. Upon his return, Eli started working as an instructor alongside Imi where they worked together to improve Krav Maga by incorporating aikido and counter defenses into Krav Maga. Then in 1974 Imi retired and handed Eli Avikzar the Krav Maga training center in Netanya. Shortly after, in 1976, Eli joined the permanent force of IDF, as head of the Krav Maga section. The role of Krav Maga in the army advanced greatly after Eli's appointment. More courses were given and every P.E. instructor was obliged to learn Krav Maga. Eli continued to develop Krav Maga within the IDF until his retirement in 1987. Up to this date, Eli had trained 80,000 male soldiers and 12,000 female soldiers.[35]

US Air Force Security forces members during Krav Maga training.

Further pursuing excellence as a student of martial arts, Eli went to Germany in 1977 and received a black belt in aikido from the European Federation.[35][36] Then in 1978 the Krav Maga association was established, and in 1989, as an active member of the judo association, Eli Avikzar helped to establish the professional and rank committees by founding the Israeli Krav Maga Association (IKMA or KAMI).[35] Eli retired as the Chief Krav Maga instructor in 1987 and Boaz Aviram became the third person to hold the position, being the last head instructor to have studied directly with both Lichtenfeld and Avikzar.[37][38]

Krav Maga in the Israeli government[edit]

The IDF Krav Maga instructor course is five weeks long.[39]

Competition in the Israeli government[edit]

The IDF has had an annual Krav Maga competition since May 2013.[40]

Krav Maga for civilians[edit]

Krav Maga Grand Master Imi Lichtenfeld and Yaron Lichtenstein

Upon Lichtenfeld's retirement from the IDF, he decided to open a school and teach Krav Maga to civilians.[41] The first Krav Maga course took place at the Wingate Institute, Netanya, Israel, in 1971, under the direct supervision of Imi Lichtenfeld.[42] Some of the first students to receive a black belt in Lichtenfeld's civilian Krav Maga Association of 1st Dan, were: Haim Gidon, James Rubenis (UK), Eli Avikzar, Ami Niv Krav Maga Aiki, Eyal Yanilov, Richard Douieb, Raphy Elgrissy, Meni Ganis, Haim Zut, Shmuel Kurzviel, Haim Hakani, Shlomo Avisira, Vicktor Bracha, Yaron Lichtenstein, Avner Hazan and Miki Asulin.[43]

In 1978, Lichtenfeld founded the non-profit Israeli Krav Maga Association (IKMA) with several senior instructors. Upon his retirement Imi nominated Haim Gidon as his successor to be Grand Master and the president of the IKMA.[44] Lichtenfeld died in January 1998 in Netanya, Israel.[45]

When Krav Maga started to spread beyond the borders of Israel, there arose a need to found an international civilian organization. A few of Lichtenfeld's first- and second-generation students, among these being Arviat Zagal, Asaf Halevi, and Dan Levy, eventually formed a new, civilian, international Krav Maga federation.[46]

Grading system[edit]

International Krav Maga Federation belt colors/patches
White Ceinture blanche.png Krav Maga P0 Patch.svg
Yellow Ceinture jaune.png Krav Maga P1 Patch.svg
Krav Maga P2 Patch.svg
Orange Ceinture orange.png Krav Maga P3 Patch.svg
Krav Maga P4 Patch.svg
Green Ceinture verte.png Krav Maga P5 Patch.svg
Krav Maga G1 Patch.svg
Blue Ceinture bleue.png Krav Maga G2 Patch.svg
Krav Maga G3 Patch.svg
Brown Ceinture marron.png Krav Maga G4 Patch.svg
Krav Maga G5 Patch.svg
Black Ceinture noire.png Krav Maga E1 Patch.svg
Krav Maga E2 Patch.svg
Krav Maga E3 Patch.svg
Krav Maga E4 Patch.svg
Krav Maga E5 Patch.svg

Some of the Krav Maga organizations in Israel, such as the Krav Maga Aiki Ami Niv Federation, IKMA (Israeli Krav Maga Association, by Haim Gidon), KMF (Krav Maga Federation, by Haim Zut) and Bukan (by Yaron Lichtenstein), KAMI (Israeli Krav Magen Association) (by Eli Avikzar),[47] TKM (Traditional Krav Maga by Erez Sharabi), as well as Ultimate Survivor krav Maga International USKMI and international KMW, Alpha Krav Maga, by Sam Sade, Krav Maga Worldwide, by Darren Levine,[48] use Imi Lichtenfeld's original colored belt grading system which is based upon the judo ranking system. It starts with White belt, and then Yellow, Orange, Green, Blue, Brown and Black belts. Black belt students can move up the ranks from 1st to 9th Dan. The time and requirements for advancing have some differences between organizations.

Other organizations that teach Krav Maga in and outside of Israel, like the Krav Maga Aiki Ami Niv Federation, International Krav Maga Federation (IKMF), Krav Maga Global (KMG) and International Krav Maga (IKM), use the same grading system awarding a series of patches.[49] The patch system was developed by Imi Lichtenfeld after the belt system in the late 1980s. The grades are divided into 3 main categories; Practitioner, Graduate and Expert. Each of the categories, which are often abbreviated to their initials, has 5 ranks. Grades P1 through to P5 are the student levels and make up the majority of the Krav Maga community.[citation needed] After P5 are G1-G5, and in order to achieve Graduate level the student has to demonstrate a proficiency in all of the P level techniques before advancing. The majority of instructors hold a G level grade and are civilian instructors. However, passing the instructor's training course is a requirement, and holding a Graduate rank does not necessarily make one an instructor. The Graduate syllabus also builds on the Practitioner syllabus by focusing more on developing fighting skills. The Expert grades cover more advanced military and third-party protection techniques as well as advanced sparring and fighting skills. People who hold these ranks tend to teach in other sectors such as military and law enforcement in addition to civilian. In order to progress to Expert level, one has to demonstrate proficiency in all of the Practitioner and Graduate syllabi and have excellent fighting skills. Beyond Expert 5 there is the rank of Master. However, this rank is held by only a small number of individuals and reserved only for those who have dedicated a lifetime to Krav Maga and made valuable contributions in teaching and promoting the style.

Krav Maga organizations in the United States, South America and Europe such as Krav Maga Worldwide, Krav Maga Alliance, Fit to Fight, National Krav Maga Association (NKMA), Apolaki Krav Maga, United States Krav Maga Association (USKMA), Krav Maga Street Defence, South American Federation of Krav Maga, European Federation of Krav Maga, Hagana System and Krav Maga Academy Slovenia (KMAS, by Karli Zaniug) also use a belt ranking system like that of the IKMA, KMF and Bukan. Although there are some subtle differences, the various organizations teach the same core techniques and principles.[50] Some other organizations such as Pure Krav Maga (founded by Boaz Aviram) and Urban Krav Maga have less formal grading ranks without belts or patches but do have levels by which students can monitor their progress.

Sparring[edit]

U.S. Marines practicing Krav Maga

In some organizations like Krav Maga Global (KMG), sparring is slow and light until the student reaches G2 level. This takes approximately four to six years, because rising one level in the Practitioner and Graduate categories takes at minimum half a year of consistent training. (It is, however, more common to observe regular trainees grading only once a year from P3 and up.)[51]

Once in G2, students also do simulated "real" fighting with protective gear.[52]

Some organizations encourage sparring as soon as students start training. For example, the International Kapap Association starts from beginner levels, and will train full contact with minimal gear in both stand-up and ground fighting, using semi-professional MMA rules for safety. Sparring should always be supervised and monitored carefully by a qualified instructor.

Competition for civilians[edit]

Some Krav Maga organizations do not support a competition component, taking the stance that Krav Maga is not a sport. So-called "fighting" sports tend to operate under principles of using safe techniques, doing minimal harm, and consequently wearing down opponents and using other tactics supported by the "rules" of safe competition. In its role as self-defence and as a hand-to-hand combat system, Krav Maga operates under a completely different set of principles in which techniques may indeed cause significant damage and fights are to be ended as quickly as possible when the conflict cannot be avoided. Krav Maga organizations that involve competition are usually founded and named specifically to focus on using Krav Maga-based techniques specifically under a set of sporting principles.

Federations[edit]

Since the creation of Krav Maga by Imi Lichtenfeld, many federations have been formed by his students.

Among the most popular are :

  • the Israeli Krav Magen Association (K.A.M.I) founded by Eli Avikzar in 1989[53]
  • the European Federation of Krav Maga (FEKM), founded by Richard Douieb in 1997. The FEKM counts more than 18,000 members in 12 differents countries in 2017[54]
  • the International Krav Maga Federation (IKMF), founded in 1995[55]
  • Krav Maga Worldwide (formerly Krav Maga Association of America), founded in 1983 by Darren Levine and his closest students [56]
  • United States Krav Maga Association, founded by Mark Slane
  • Fit to Fight® co-founded by Ryan Hoover, 2nd-degree black belt under Darren Levine[57]
  • the South America Federation of Krav Maga, founded by Kobi Lichtenstein
  • the Israeli Krav Maga Expert Gheorghe Husar is founder and Chief Instructor of Spartans Academy of Krav Maga and founder of Krav Maga United Kingdom [58] [59].
  • Hellenic Krav Maga Federation (HKMF), founded in 2005 by Ioannis Papavlachopoulos (Greece)
  • Italian Academy of Krav Maga (AIKM), founded in 2009 by Rosario Citarda (Italia)[60]
  • Krav Maga Global (KMG) established in 2010 by Eyal Yanilov[61]
  • Krav Maga Experts (KME) established in 2010 by Tsahi Shemesh (Experts II under Gabi Noah)
  • Krav Maga Federation of America (KMF-AC) founded by Alain Cohen (co-founder of the Israeli Krav Maga program at the Wingate Institute)
  • Krav Maga Academy Slovenia (KMAS) founded by Karli Zaniug in 2004

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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Krav Maga at Wikimedia Commons