Aerial view of Levittown circa 1959
|Townships||Bristol, Falls, Middletown|
|Elevation||30 ft (9.1 m)|
|Area||10.2 sq mi (26.4 km2)|
|- land||10.0 sq mi (26 km2)|
|- water||0.2 sq mi (1 km2), 1.96%|
|Density||5,298.3 / sq mi (2,045.7 / km2)|
|- summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|Designated||November 28, 1992|
Levittown is a census-designated place (CDP) and planned community in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, United States, within the Philadelphia metropolitan area. The population was 52,983 at the 2010 census. It is 40 feet (12 m) above sea level. Though not a municipality, it is sometimes recognized as the largest suburb of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania (while Upper Darby Township, Lower Merion Township, Bensalem Township, Abington Township and Bristol Township are municipalities larger in size in the three surrounding Pennsylvania counties). Starting with land purchased in 1951, it was planned and built by Levitt & Sons. The brothers Bill Levitt and architect Alfred Levitt designed its six typical houses.
The majority of the land on which it is built was purchased in 1951. Levitt and Sons only built six models of house in Levittown, all single-family dwellings with lawns: the Levittowner, the Rancher, the Jubilee, the Pennsylvanian, the Colonial and the Country Clubber, with only modest exterior variations. The homes were moderately priced and required only a low down payment. Construction of Levittown began in February 1952, soon after completion of Levittown, New York, located on Long Island. Levittown, Pennsylvania was the second "Levittown" built by William J. Levitt, who is often credited as the creator of the modern American suburb. To speed up construction, Levitt & Sons perfected a 26-step rationalized building method that was essentially an assembly line type of home building. The house remained stationary, while the construction workers moved from house to house. Each worker had one task such as pouring slabs, framing, installing electric sockets or installing washing machines. This highly regimented process enabled Levitt's workers to produce a finished house every 16 minutes. Construction of the homes commenced in 1952 and when completed in 1958, 17,311 homes were built.
What set Levittown apart from other developments at the time was that it was built as a complete community. Levitt & Sons designed neighborhoods with traffic-calming curvilinear roads, in which there were no four-way intersections. Each neighborhood had within its boundaries a site donated by Levitt & Sons for a public elementary school. Locations for churches and other public facilities were set aside on main thoroughfares such as the Levittown Parkway, likewise donated by the builder to religious groups and other organizations. Other amenities included Olympic-sized public pools, parks, "greenbelts", baseball fields and playgrounds, and a shopping center located in neighboring Tullytown borough that was considered large and modern at the time of its construction (and in fact was the largest east of the Mississippi). The first set of four sample homes were put on display in a swatch of land near the future Levittown Shop-a-Rama, and an estimated 30,000 people viewed them in that first weekend.
Residents (who are sometimes called Levittowners) were first expected to comply with a lengthy list of rules and regulations regarding the upkeep of their homes and use of their property. Two of these "rules" included a prohibition on hanging laundry out to dry on Sunday and not allowing homeowners to fence off their yards. These proved unenforceable over time, particularly when backyard pools became financially accessible to the working class and privacy concerns drove many to fence off their yards. In the years since Levitt & Sons ended construction, three- and four-story "garden apartments" and a number of non-Levitt owner-occupied houses have been built in Levittown.
Levitt & Sons would not sell homes to African Americans. Levitt did not consider himself to be a racist, considering housing and racial relations entirely separate matters. However, this did not prevent Bea and Lew Wechsler, a Jewish couple from the Bronx, from reselling a home to an African-American family. Levittown's first black couple, William and Daisy Myers, bought a home in the Dogwood Hollow section in 1957. Their move to Levittown was marked with racist harassment and mob violence, which required intervention by state authorities. This led to an injunction and criminal charges against the harassers while Myers and their supporters refused to surrender and received national acclaim for their efforts. For instance, Daisy Myers has been hailed as "The Rosa Parks of the North", who helped expose the northern states' problems with racial inequality of that time. Daisy Myers later wrote a book about her family's experiences. She died Dec. 5, 2011, in York, Pa. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the American Civil Liberties Union opposed Levitt’s racist policies, and the Federal Housing Administration threatened to refuse mortgages on his next Levittown. Levitt still refused sell to blacks, developed plans for yet another whites-only Levittown, in Willingboro Township, N.J., and fought legal challenges in New Jersey courts until the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear his case.
The community's otherwise placid exterior was again disturbed during the so-called suburban gas riots of June 1979 in the wake of the Camp David Peace Accords, which resulted in a second embargo by Arab oil-producing nations. The unrest occurred June 24–25, 1979, as lines swelled and tempers flared in the heart of Levittown at an intersection known as Five Points, a location surrounded by six service stations, two of which were severely damaged by vandalism in the riots. The two days of riots made national headlines and were mentioned (although not directly by name) in the draft of an address to the nation that was to have been delivered by President Jimmy Carter on July 5, 1979.
The Levittown Shopping Center (known officially as—but rarely called—the "Levittown Shop-a-Rama"), located in Tullytown, was unusually designed. Two parallel strips of stores faced the parking lot with a courtyard that had green spaces, benches, and entrances to the stores. The center had one large anchor department store (Pomeroys, which was acquired by Boscov's) as well as staple stores of a growing suburban demand (JC Penney, Woolworth's, Sears-just hardware). The shopping center began a slow decline in the mid-1970s from which it never recovered with the building of the Oxford Valley Mall. The mall, located just north of Levittown, in Langhorne in Middletown Township, drew shoppers away from the older Levittown facility, given Oxford Valley's much larger size and enclosed shopping environment. In 2002, the redeveloped site of the Shop-a-rama was reopened as the Levittown Town Center. The completed facility contains 468,675 square feet (43,541.3 m2) of retail space.
Of the five public pools built by Levitt & Sons and operated by the Levittown Public Recreation Association (LPRA), four were closed in 2002 with the exception of one located in the Pinewood section. LPRA Headquarters (and other landmarks) of this prototypical post-war suburb of sometimes mythic importance have been the focus of historic preservation efforts. Since 2002, studies have been underway to establish the Levittown Historic District.
Since its inception in 1988, the Bucks County St. Patrick's Day Parade has been held in Levittown. Every year, the parade steps off from St Joseph the Worker Church, and proceeds two miles (3 km) on New Falls Road to Conwell-Egan Catholic High School.
Municipalities and sections
Levittown is not an incorporated place, though efforts in the early 1950s were made to incorporate. Some Levittown residents feared that incorporation would lead to higher taxes, by robbing the prospective municipality of a commercial tax base.
Levittown's 42 neighborhoods (locally called "sections") are found in parts of four separate municipalities:
- Bristol Township (including the sections of Plumbridge, Mill Creek, Indian Creek, Goldenridge, Blue Ridge, Bloomsdale, Whitewood, Orangewood, Yellowood, Violetwood, Red Cedar Hill, Apple Tree Hill, Holly Hill, Crabtree Hollow, Oaktree Hollow, Greenbrook, Farmbrook, Dogwood Hollow, Junewood, Magnolia Hill, Green Lynne and most of Kenwood and Stonybrook, and a small part of Birch Valley)
- Falls Township (including the sections of Vermillion Hill, Thornridge, Elderberry Pond, North Park, Willow Wood, and portions of Pinewood, Lakeside and most of Birch Valley and 1 house in Magnolia Hill)
- Middletown Township (including the sections of Deep Dale East, Deep Dale West, Highland Park, Twin Oaks, Forsythia Gate, Snowball Gate, Red Rose Gate, Upper Orchard, Lower Orchard, Juniper Hill, Cobalt Ridge and Quincy Hollow)
- Borough of Tullytown (including portions of Stonybrook, Kenwood, Pinewood and Lakeside). These neighborhoods' populations are counted by the U.S. Census Bureau as residing within Tullytown only, not the Levittown CDP.
The names of the streets within each section uniformly begin with the same letter that begins the name of the section in question except for the section of Green Lynn, which was not constructed by Bill Levitt. This plan offers a good clue as to where any particular street might be located. "X" and "Z" are not used for section or street names. As there are more than 24 section names, "road" is used for street names in sections to the west of Edgely Road, "lane" is used in those section to the east. Sections are surrounded by a "drive" with the same name as the section. For example, the Pinewood section is circled by Pinewood Drive, while Snowball Gate is surrounded by Snowball Drive. Some sections have their drive broken into multiple parts, with similar names. Forsythia Gate has Forsythia Drive North and Forsythia Drive South.
Almost all other roads or lanes in the sections connect on one or both ends to the drive of that section. In some sections, such as Goldenridge, the shape of the section prevents the drive from surrounding the section, or allowing all roads in the section from connecting to the drive. The drives of adjacent sections, are frequently connected with small connector streets. In addition, small connector streets are used to connect the section drive with a nearby main thoroughfare. The names of these small connectors typically start with one of the letters from the adjacent sections, and tend to have a name reminiscent of their purpose or their location. Some examples: Learning Lane connects Lakeside and Pinewood, and borders an elementary school. Short Lane connects Stoneybrook and Farmbrook. Not all small connector streets are named.
Red Rose Gate, Forsythia Gate, and Snowball Gate are collectively known as "The Gates." (These were the only sections without sidewalks so as to lend a more "executive" appearance to the neighborhoods.) Lakeside sits next to Levittown Lake. Magnolia Hill is on a prominent hill. Mill Creek is found next to a creek by the same name.
Middletown residents are served by public schools run by the Neshaminy School District. Bristol Township public schools are managed by the Bristol Township School District. Falls Township and Tullytown Borough residents are served by the Pennsbury School District.
Levittown is located at  Levittown lies in the southern end of Bucks County ("Lower Bucks"), between Philadelphia and Trenton, New Jersey; Downtown Philadelphia ("Center City") is approximately 22 miles (35 km) away. It is part of the Philadelphia metropolitan area (an area also known generally as the Delaware Valley). It is adjacent to and nearly surrounds Fairless Hills, a suburban community more modest in scale, but that shares many of Levittown's characteristics..
Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) regional rail serves Levittown to the south at its Levittown-Tullytown station, and to the north at its Langhorne and Woodbourne stations. Interstate 95 runs to the north and west of Levittown (connecting it with Philadelphia and the suburbs north of Trenton); the Pennsylvania Turnpike runs southwest of Levittown (connecting it with the western suburbs and the New Jersey Turnpike), and U.S. 1 runs to the north, carrying traffic directly into downtown Trenton. The nearest international airport is Philadelphia International Airport (Airport Code PHL), approximately 34 miles (55 km) southwest of Levittown. The nearest Amtrak station is just across the Delaware River in Trenton, just over 9 miles (14 km) to the east.
Though a steel mill once operated by U.S. Steel Corporation provided employment in nearby Fairless Hills, many Levittowners have historically commuted by automobile or train to Philadelphia, some to Trenton, still others to more distant locales in as many as four states. Just over ten percent of employed Levittowners both live and work in the community.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 10.2 square miles (26 km2), of which 0.5 km² (0.59%) is water.
As of the 2010 census, Levittown was 87.7% White, 3.6% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.3% were some other race, and 1.6% were two or more races. 5.1% of the population was of Hispanic or Latino ancestry (of any race).
As of the census of 2000, there were 53,966 people, 18,603 households, and 14,510 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 5,309.5 people per square mile (2,050.8/km²). There were 19,044 housing units at an average density of 1,873.7/mi² (723.7/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 97.9% White, 0.35% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, and 1.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.21% of the population.
There were 18,603 households, out of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.7% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.0% were non-families. 17.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.28.
In the CDP the population was spread out, with 26.4% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 30.4% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.6 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $52,514, and the median income for a family was $57,220. Males had a median income of $40,411 versus $29,685 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $20,047. About 3.1% of families and 4.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.6% of those under the age of 18 and 3.5% of those 65 and older.
85.4% of Levittown residents ages 25 or older had at least a high school diploma, while 13.4% had at least a bachelor's degree.
Notable natives and residents
- Keith Armstrong, former NFL player and current Special Teams coach for the Miami Dolphins
- Susan Barnett, anchor of the CBS 3 Philadelphia evening news.
- Anna Burger, Secretary-Treasurer of the Service Employees International Union
- Jim Cawley, Bucks County Commissioner and Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania
- David A. Christian, U.S. Army captain and decorated Vietnam veteran
- John P. Connolly, actor and former Executive Head of the AFTRA and Actor's Equity unions
- Steven E. de Souza, Hollywood screenwriter and director
- Mike Fitzpatrick, U.S. Representative for the 8th District
- Eric Goldberg, Disney animator and director
- Jeri Massi, evangelical Christian author
- Joe McEwing, former Major League Baseball player
- Bill O'Neill, four-time All American ten-pin bowler for Saginaw Valley State University who is now competing on the PBA Tour
- Robert Schooley, creator of "Kim Possible"
- Jim Schumann, Daytime Emmy Award winner for Outstanding Directing in an Animated Program
- Mark S. Schweiker, Republican former Governor of Pennsylvania
- Steve Slaton, running back for the NFL's Miami Dolphins
- David Uosikkinen, drummer for rock band The Hooters
- Troy Vincent, former NFL defensive back, attended Pennsbury High School
- Earl "the Twirl" Williams, former professional basketball player
- "PHMC Historical Markers Search" (Searchable database). Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- "Race, Hispanic or Latino, Age, and Housing Occupancy: 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File (QT-PL), Levittown CDP, Pennsylvania". U.S. Census Bureau, American FactFinder 2. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
- John Fischer, "Philadelphia PA – South Jersey Metro Area Population and Geography", About.com. Last accessed on March 24, 2006.
- server1.fandm.edu Archived February 20, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- server1.fandm.edu Archived February 20, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- Famous Landmark Documentary On Racism In A United States Neighborhood / Video Film http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bp22YlJlfHo&feature=PlayList&p=D9D691839B350F13&index=51
- Chris English, "Levitt had vision for community", Bucks County Courier Times, 1/11/2008
- McClure, Jim (October 26, 2005). "York Town Square". Yorkblog.com. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- McClure, Jim (May 23, 2009). "York Town Square". Yorkblog.com. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- York Daily Record/Sunday News.  December 7, 2011. "Daisy Myers, civil rights pioneer, dies at age 86"
- Jew vs Jew in Levittown The Forward, 13 April 2009
- Michael E. Eidenmuller. "americanrhetoric.com". americanrhetoric.com. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- Census 2010: Pennsylvania. Usatoday.Com. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
-  Archived November 6, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- Anderson, David, Levittown is Burning: Gas Line Riot and the Decline of the Blue-Collar American Dream," Labor: Studies in Working-Class History in the Americas (Duke University Press: Fall 2005)
- Caldwell, Christopher, "Levittown to Littleton: Seclusion of Affluent Suburbs Prevents Normal Socialization For Children," National Review, (May 31, 1999) (arguing that the multi-acre lots of the western suburbs such as those who attend Columbine High School in Colorado, largely unknown in the east, isolate affluent suburban children in "McMansions," and present a problem no child in Levittown ever faced)
- Duncan, Susan Kirsch, Levittown: The Way We Were, Maple Hill Press (1999), ISBN 0-930545-18-4
- Dubya, Jay, Black Leather and Blue Denim: A '50s Novel, CyberRead Publishing (2001), ISBN 1-931921-76-8 (an fictionalized account of "greasers" in Levittown's Dogwood Hollow and Kenwood sections during the 1950s)
- Gans, Herbert J., The Levittowners: Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community, Columbia University Press (1967, reprinted 1982), ISBN 0-231-05571-4 (though written about Levittown, New Jersey, which had since reverted to its original name, Willingboro, New Jersey, the book includes information relevant to Levitt & Sons development in general)
- Goetz, Sam, Bruno, 16 mm black and white film (2006) (Sam Goetz grew up in Lower Orchard section of Levittown; the production was filmed at locations in the "urban wasteland" of Trenton, New Jersey, and at locations in and around Levittown, including Core Creek Park, the former Best Department Store, Neshaminy High School and a Jubilee-style Levittown home)
- Harris, Dianne, ed. Second Suburb: Levittown, Pennsylvania (University of Pittsburgh Press; 2010) 429 pages. Scholarly essays, oral histories, and other writings on the town
- Hurst, Richard, "My Bay", Christopher Street (New York: February 1994, issue 210), ISSN 0146-7921 (written by a former Levittowner about Little League baseball, "the only tradition in our otherwise ahistoric lives of glass-ceiling experimental schools and clean theme-park summers," recounting summers marching as the season began from Carl Sandburg Middle School to the ball fields south of Twin Oaks)
- Jackson, Kenneth T. (1985). Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-504983-7.
- Kimmel, Chad, Levittown, Pennsylvania: A Sociological History, University of Western Michigan Dissertation (2004) (examines the arrival of Levittown's first African-American family, the 1979 gas riots and the decline of the steel industry on local residents)
- Krass, Alfred C., "Growing Together in Spirituality: Pastor and Parish Have a Check-Up," Christian Century, (April 1987) (Krass was pastor of the United Christian Church in Levittown, and still a resident of the community; he asks how mainstream Protestants might move beyond the "autonomy of the individual member" that is so often part and parcel of a liberal world view)
- Levittown: Voices of the Millennium (video), Harcourt School Publishers (no date)
- Popenoe, David, The Suburban Environment: Sweden and the United States, University of Chicago Press, (1977), ISBN 0-226-67542-4 (a comparison of Levittown and Vällingby, Sweden, a Stockholm suburb of similar size, construction date and demographics; see also Hässelby-Vällingby Borough, Vällingby)
- Wechshler, Lewis, The First Stone: A Memoir of the Racial Integration of Levittown, Pennsylvania, Grounds for Growth Press (2004), ISBN 0-615-12565-4
- Wetherell, W.D., The Man Who Loved Levittown, University of Pittsburgh Press (1985), ISBN 0-8229-3520-1 (fiction, winner of the 1985 Drue Heinz Literature Prize)
- Wiessner, John, pen name Jay Dubya, author of 31 books. Lived in Dogwood Hollow from 1954–'59. His action/adventure work Black Leather and Blue Denim, A '50s Novel is set in Levittown, Pa.
- Levittown: Building the Suburban Dream, a website of a 2003 exhibit about Levittown at the State Museum of Pennsylvania
- Levittown Community Profile
- Levittown Detailed Profile
- Coming Home: Levittown Revisited, a photographic essay by former Levittowner Joan Klatchko who has lived abroad for many years
- LevittownAlive.com - Community Website for Levittown and Surrounding Areas
- BucksCountyAlive.com - Community Website for Bucks County, PA
- Film images of Levittown's construction
- More film images of Levittown's construction
- Mastrull, Diane, "A Bit Worn, But Still Solid, Philadelphia Inquirer, (December 7, 2005)
- Middletown Township Millennium Park and Recreation Plan, including a map of Levittown's greenbelt parks in Middletown Township on pages 161–62
- Metropolitan Philadelphia population and geography
- The People of Levittown, Pa. – slideshow by The New York Times
- Documents on Integration in Levittown from the Pennsylvania State Archives