Camden, New Jersey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Camden, New Jersey
City
City of Camden
Camden City Hall
Camden City Hall
Official seal of Camden, New Jersey
Seal
Motto: In a Dream, I Saw a City Invincible[1]
Map of Camden in Camden County. Inset: Location of Camden County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Map of Camden in Camden County. Inset: Location of Camden County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Camden, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Camden, New Jersey
Coordinates: 39°56′24″N 75°06′18″W / 39.94°N 75.105°W / 39.94; -75.105Coordinates: 39°56′24″N 75°06′18″W / 39.94°N 75.105°W / 39.94; -75.105[2][3]
Country United States
State  New Jersey
County Camden
Settled 1626
Incorporated February 13, 1828
Named for Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden
Government[8]
 • Type Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)
 • Body City Council
 • Mayor Dana Redd (D, term ends December 31, 2017)[4][5]
 • Administrator Christine T. J. Tucker[6]
 • Clerk Luis Pastoriza[7]
Area[2]
 • Total 10.341 sq mi (26.784 km2)
 • Land 8.921 sq mi (23.106 km2)
 • Water 1.420 sq mi (3.677 km2)  13.73%
Area rank 208th of 566 in state
7th of 37 in county[2]
Elevation[9] 16 ft (5 m)
Population (2010 Census)[10][11][12][13]
 • Total 77,344
 • Estimate (2015)[14] 76,119
 • Rank 12th of 566 in state
1st of 37 in county[15]
 • Density 8,669.6/sq mi (3,347.4/km2)
 • Density rank 42nd of 566 in state
2nd of 37 in county[15]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 08100-08105[16][17]
Area code(s) 856[18]
FIPS code 3400710000[2][19][20]
GNIS feature ID 0885177[2][21]
Website www.ci.camden.nj.us

Camden is a city in Camden County, New Jersey. Camden is located directly across the Delaware River from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. At the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 77,344.[10][12][13] Camden is the 12th most populous municipality in New Jersey. The city was incorporated on February 13, 1828. On March 13, 1844, Camden became a county seat in New Jersey.[25] The city derives its name from Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden.[26][27] Camden is made up of over twenty different neighborhoods.[22][23][24][25]

By the end of the nineteenth century Camden began to industrialize with the foundation of the Campbell Soup Company by Joseph Campbell. Other companies such as the New York Shipbuilding Corporation and the Victor Talking Machine Company opened their operations and helped Camden move into an industrial economy.[26] At the beginning of the twentieth century Camden's population consisted mostly of European immigrants. German, British, and Irish immigrants, as well as African Americans from the south made up the majority of the city in the mid nineteenth century. Around the turn of the twentieth century Italian and Eastern European immigrants had become the majority of the population.[27]

The city was consistently prosperous throughout the Great Depression and World War II. After World War II Camden manufacturers began closing their factories and moving out of the city. Camden's cultural history has been greatly affected by both its economic and social position over the years. With the loss of manufacturing jobs came a sharp decline in population. Suburbanization also had an effect on the drop in population. Civil unrest and crime became common in Camden with the decline in population. Most notable of these crimes were the Camden riots of 1971. The riots came in response to the death of Horacio Jimenez, a Puerto Rican motorist who was killed by two white police officers.[26]

Camden's industrial and post-industrial history gave rise to distinct neighborhoods and cultural groups that have effected the status of the city over the course of the 20th century. Over the years Camden has made many attempts to restore its economic stature. In the 1980s Mayor Randy Primas campaigned for the city to adopt two different nuisance industries: a prison and a trash-to-steam incinerator.[26] Despite opposition from Camden residents the Riverfront State Prison was opened in 1985 and the trash-to-steam plant opened in 1989. With the addition of the trash-to-steam plant Camden has faced numerous air and water pollution issues. Camden is also the home of a waste-water treatment facility. In the 1970s, dangerous pollutants were found in the wells from which many Camden citizens received their household water. These pollutants decreased property values in Camden and caused health problems among the city's residents. Pollution is an ongoing issue that local nonprofits are trying to solve.

Camden is home to hospitals, schools, and attractions. The Camden waterfront holds four tourist attractions, the USS New Jersey; the BB&T Pavilion; Campbell's Field; and the Adventure Aquarium.[28] Until recently Campbell's field was home to the Camden Riversharks. The city is the home of Rutgers University-Camden which opened in 1950.[29] Camden also houses both Cooper University Hospital and Our Lady of Lourdes Medical Center. The "eds and meds" institutions account for roughly 45% of Camden's total employment.[30] Forty percent of Camden residents are living below the national poverty line.[33] Camden had the highest crime rate in the United States in 2012, with 2,566 violent crimes for every 100,000 people,[34] 6.6 times higher than the national average of 387 violent crimes per 100,000 citizens.[35]

Camden has historically been a stronghold of the Democratic Party. Voter turnout is very low; approximately 50% of Camden's registered voters participated in the 2016 General Election.[31] Three of Camden's mayors have been jailed for corruption, the most recent being Milton Milan in 2000.[28] From 2005 to 2012, the school system and police department were operated by the state of New Jersey.[29][30][31][32] In 2015 Mayor Dana L. Redd announced a $830 million plan to continue development on the waterfront.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

In 1626 Fort Nassau was established by the Dutch West India Company in the area that is now knows as Camden, New Jersey. Europeans settled along the Delaware River, attempting to control the local fur trade. Throughout the 17th century more Europeans arrived in the area, developing it and making improvements. After the restoration period the land was controlled by nobles who served under Kind Charles II. ln 1673 the land was sold off to a group of New Jersey Quakers. The growth of the colony was the result of Philadelphia, a Quaker colony directly across from Camden along the Delaware River. In the Ferry systems were established to facilitate trade between Fort Nassau and Philadelphia. The ferry system operated along the east side of the Delaware River. The ferry system built by William Royden was located along Cooper Street and was turned over to Daniel Cooper in 1695.[27] The creation of the ferry system resulted in the creation of small settlements along the Delaware River which would eventually develop into Camden.

The initial structures and settlements that formed Camden were largely established by three families: The Coopers, The Kaighns, and the Mickels. The Cooper family had the greatest impact on the formation of Camden. In 1773 Jacob Cooper developed some of the land he had inherited through his family into a "townsite." It was Jacob Cooper who gave this town the name Camden after Charles Pratt, the Earl of Camden. The lands that these families owned would eventually be combined to create the future city.[27]

19th century[edit]

For over 150 years, Camden served as a secondary economic and transportation hub for the Philadelphia area. But that status began to change in the early 19th century. Camden was incorporated as a city on February 13, 1828, from portions of Newton Township, while the area was still part of Gloucester County. The city derives its name from Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden.[26][27] One of the U.S.'s first railroads, the Camden and Amboy Railroad, was chartered in Camden in 1830. The Camden and Amboy Railroad allowed travelers to travel between New York City and Philadelphia via ferry terminals in South Amboy, New Jersey and Camden. The railroad terminated on the Camden waterfront, and passengers were ferried across the Delaware River to their final Philadelphia destination. The Camden and Amboy Railroad opened in 1834 and helped to spur an increase in population and commerce in Camden.[32]

Walt Whitman House, Camden, New Jersey

Horse ferries, or team boats served Camden in the early 1800s. The ferries connected Camden and other Southern New Jersey towns to Philadelphia. Ferry systems allowed Camden to generate business and economic growth.[27] "These businesses included lumber dealers, manufacturers of wooden shingles, pork sausage manufacturers, candle factories, coachmaker shops that manufactured carriages and wagons, tanneries, blacksmiths and harness makers."[27] The Cooper's Ferry Daybook, 1819–1824, documenting Camden's Point Pleasant Teamboat, survives to this day.[33] Originally a suburban town with ferry service to Philadelphia, Camden evolved into its own city. Until 1844 Camden was a part of Gloucester County. In 1840 the city's population had reached 3,371 and Camden appealed to state legislature, which resulted in the creation of Camden County in 1844.[27]

The poet Walt Whitman spent his later years in Camden. He bought a house on Mickle Street in March 1884. Whitman spent the remainder of his life in Camden and died in 1892 of a stroke. Whitman was a prominent member of the Camden community at the end of the nineteenth century.[34]

Camden quickly became an industrialized city in the later half of the nineteenth century. In 1860 Census takers recorded eighty factories in the city and the number of factories grew to 125 by 1870.[27] Camden began to industrialize in 1891 when Joseph Campbell incorporated his business Campbell's Soup. Through the Civil War era Camden gained a large immigrant population which formed the base of its industrial workforce.[26] Between 1870 and 1920 Camden's population grew by 96,000 people due to the large influx of immigrants.[27] Like other industrial towns, Camden prospered during strong periods of manufacturing demand and faced distress during periods of economic dislocation.[35]

Remarks from FDR 1944 Camden visit

First half of the 20th century[edit]

At the turn of the 20th century Camden became an industrialized city. At the height of Camden's industrialization, 12,000 workers were employed at RCA,[36] while another 30,000 worked at New York Shipbuilding.[37] RCA had 23 out of 25 of its factories inside Camden. Campbell Soup was also a major employer.[38] In addition to major corporations Camden housed many small manufacturing companies as well as commercial offices.[26]

From 1899 to 1967, Camden was the home of New York Shipbuilding Corporation, which at its World War II peak was the largest and most productive shipyard in the world.[39] Notable naval vessels built at New York Ship include the ill-fated cruiser USS Indianapolis and the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk. In 1962, the first commercial nuclear-powered ship, the NS Savannah, was launched in Camden.[40] The Fairview Village section of Camden (initially Yorkship Village) is a planned European-style garden village that was built by the Federal government during World War I to house New York Shipbuilding Corporation workers.[41]

From 1901 through 1929, Camden was headquarters of the Victor Talking Machine Company, and thereafter to its successor RCA Victor, the world's largest manufacturer of phonographs and phonograph records for the first two-thirds of the 20th century.[42] Victor created some of the first commercial recording studios in the United States, where Enrico Caruso & The Carter Family among others, recorded. General Electric reacquired RCA and the Camden factory in 1986.[43]

In 1919 plans for the Delaware River Bridge were enacted as a means to reduce ferry traffic between Camden and Philadelphia. The bridge was estimated to cost $29 million, but the total cost at the end of the project was $37,103,765.42. New Jersey and Pennsylvania would each pay half of the final cost for the bridge. The bridge was opened at midnight on July 1, 1926. Thirty years later, in 1956 the bridge was renamed to the Benjamin Franklin Bridge.[44]

During the 1930s Camden faced a decline in economic prosperity due to the Great Depression. By the mid-1930s the city had to pay its workers in scrip because they could not pay them in currency. Camden's industrial foundation kept the city from going bankrupt. Major corporations such as Campbell's soup, New York Shipbuilding Corporation and RCA Victor employed close to 25,000 people through the depression years.[26] New companies were also being created during this time. On June 6, 1933, the city hosted the first drive-in movie.[45][46]

Camden's ethnic demographic changed drastically at the beginning of the twentieth century. German, British, and Irish immigrants made up the majority of the city at the beginning of the second half of the nineteenth century. By 1920 Italian and Eastern European immigrants had become the majority of the population.[27] African Americans had also been present in camden since the 1830s. The migration of African Americans from the south increased during World War II. The different ethnic groups began to form segregated communities within the city formed around religious organizations. Communities formed around figures such as Tony Mecca from the Italian neighborhood, Mario Rodriguez from the Puerto Rican neighborhood, and Ulysses Wiggins from the African American neighborhood.[26]

Second half of the 20th century[edit]

After close to 50 years of economic and industrial growth, the city of Camden faced a period of economic stagnation and deindustrialization: after reaching a peak of 43,267 manufacturing jobs in 1950, there was an almost continuous decline to a new low of 10,200 manufacturing jobs in the city by 1982. With this industrial decline came a plummet in population: in 1950 there were 124,555 residents, compared to just 84,910 in 1980.[26] Alongside these declines, civil unrest and criminal activity rose in the city. From 1981 to 1990, mayor Randy Primas fought to renew the city economically. Ultimately Primas had not secured Camden's economic future as his successor, mayor Miltan Milan, declared bankruptcy for the city in July 1999.

Civil unrest and crime[edit]

  • On September 6, 1949, mass murderer Howard Unruh went on a killing spree in his Camden neighborhood killing thirteen people. Unruh, who was convicted and subsequently confined to a state psychiatric facility, died on October 19, 2009.[47]
  • Camden experienced a fatal anti-police riot in September 1969.[48][49] Two years later, public disorder returned with widespread riots in August 1971, following the death of a Puerto Rican motorist at the hands of white police officers. When the officers were not charged, Hispanic residents took to the streets and called for the suspension of those involved. The officers were ultimately charged, but remained on the job and tensions soon flared. On the night of August 19, 1971, riots erupted, and sections of downtown were looted and torched over the next three days.[26][50] Fifteen major fires were set before order was restored, and ninety people were injured. City officials ended up suspending the officers responsible for the death of the motorist, but they were later acquitted by a jury.[51][52]
  • The Camden 28 were a group of anti-Vietnam War activists who, in 1971, planned and executed a raid on the Camden draft board, resulting in a high-profile trial against the activists that was seen by many as a referendum on the Vietnam War in which 17 of the defendants were acquitted by a jury even though they admitted having participated in the break-in.[53]
  • In 1996, Governor of New Jersey Christine Todd Whitman frisked Sherron Rolax, a 16-year-old African-American youth, an event which was captured in an infamous photograph. Rolax alleged his civil rights were violated and sued the state of New Jersey.[54]

Attempts at renewal[edit]

In 1981, Randy Primas was elected mayor of Camden, but was unfortunately "haunted by the overpowering legacy of financial disinvestment". Following his election, the state of New Jersey closed the $4.6 million deficit that Primas had inherited, but also decided that Primas should lose budgetary control until he began providing the state with monthly financial statements, among other requirements.[26] When he regained control, Primas had limited options regarding how to close the deficit, and so in an attempt to renew Camden, Primas campaigned for the city to adopt two different nuisance industries: a prison and a trash-to-steam incinerator. While these two industries would provide some financial security for the city, the proposals for them did not go over well with residents, who overwhelmingly opposed both the prison and the incinerator.

While the proposed prison, which was to be located on the North Camden waterfront, would generate $3.4 million for Camden, Primas faced extreme disapproval from residents. Many believed that a prison in the neighborhood would negatively effect North Camden's "already precaarious economic situation". Primas, however, was wholly concerned with the economic benefits: he told The New York Times, "The prison was a purely economic decision on my part."[26] Eventually, on August 12, 1985, the Riverfront State Prison opened its doors, despite the objections of residents.

The trash-to-steam incinerator was another proposed industry, also objected to by Camden residents. Once again, Primas "...was motivated by fiscal more than social concerns," and he faced heavy opposition from Concerned Citizens of North Camden (CCNC) and from Michael Doyle, who was so opposed to the plant that he appeared on CBS's 60 Minutes, saying "Camden has the biggest concentration of people in all the county, and yet there is where they're going to send in this sewage... ...everytime you flush, you send to Camden, to Camden, to Camden".[26] Despite this opposition, which eventually culminated in protests, "the county proceeded to present the city of Camden with a check for $1 million in March 1989, in exchange for the eighteen acres of city-owned land where the new facility was to be built... ...The $112 million plant finally fired up for the first time in March 1991".[26]

Other notable events[edit]

Despite the declines in industry and population, other changes to the city took place during this period:

21st century[edit]

Originally a city whose industry focused mainly on manufacturing, in recent years Camden has shifted its focus to eds and meds (education and medicine) in an attempt to revitalize itself. Of the top employers in Camden, many are education and/or healthcare providers: Cooper University Hospital, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, Rowan University, Rutgers University-Camden, Camden County College, Virtua, Our Lady of Lourdes Medical Center, and CAMcare are all top employers.[57] The eds and meds industry itself is the single largest source of jobs in the city: of the roughly 25,000 jobs in the city, 7,500 (30%) of them come from eds and meds institutions. The second largest source of jobs in Camden is the retail trade industry, which provides roughly 3,000 (12%) jobs.[58] While already the largest employer in the city, the eds and meds industry in Camden is growing and is doing so despite falling population and total employment: From 2000 to 2014, population and total employment in Camden fell by 3% and 10% respectively, but eds and meds employment grew by 67%.[57]

Despite previous failures to transform the Camden Waterfront, in September 2015 Liberty Property Trust and Mayor Dana L. Redd announced a $830 million plan to rehabilitate the waterfront. The project, which is the biggest private investment in the city's history, aims to redevelop 26 acres of land south of the Ben Franklin Bridge and includes plans for 1.5 million square feet of commercial space, 211 residences, a 130-room hotel, more than 4,000 parking spaces, a downtown shuttle bus, a new ferry stop, a riverfront park, and two new roads. The project is a modification of a previous $1 billion proposal by Liberty Property Trust, which would have redeveloped 37.2 acres and would have included 500,000 square feet of commercial space, 1,600 homes, and a 140-room hotel.[59] On March 11, 2016 the New Jersey Economic Development Authority approved the modified plans and officials like Timothy J. Lizura of the NJEDA expressed their enthusiasm: "It's definitely a new day in Camden. For 20 years, we've tried to redevelop that city, and we finally have the traction between a very competent mayor's office, the county police force, all the educational reforms going on, and now the corporate interest. It really is the right ingredient for changing a paradigm which has been a wreck".[60]

In 2013 the New Jersey Economic Development Authority created the New Jersey Economic Opportunity Act, which provides incentives for companies to relocate to or remain in economically struggling locations in the state. These incentives largely come in the form of tax breaks, which are payable over 10 years and are equivalent to a project's cost. According to the New York Times, "...the program has stimulated investment of about $1 billion and created or retained 7,600 jobs in Camden".[26][33] This NJEDA incentive package has been utilized by organizations and firms such as the Philadelphia 76ers, Subaru of America, Lockheed Martin, and Holtec International.[61][62][63][64]

  • In late 2014 the Philadelphia 76ers broke ground in Camden (across the street from the BB&T Pavilion) to construct a new 125,000 square foot training complex. The Sixers Training Complex includes an office building and a 66,230 square foot basketball facility with two regulation-size basketball courts, a 2,800 square foot locker room, and a 7,000 square foot roof deck. The $83 million complex had its grand-opening on September 23, 2016 and is expected to provide 250 jobs for the city of Camden.[65][64][66]
  • Also in late 2014, Subaru of America announced that in an effort to consolidate their operations, their new 250,000 square foot headquarters would be located in Camden. The $118 million project broke ground in December 2015 but was put on hold in mid-2016 because the original plans for the complex had sewage and waste water being pumped into an outdated sewage system. Adjustments to the plans have been made and the project is expected to be completed in 2017, creating up to 500 jobs in the city upon completion.[63][67]

Several smaller-scale projects and transitions also took place during the 21st century:

  • In response to the 2000 Republican National Convention in Philadelphia, various strip clubs, hotels, and other businesses along Admiral Wilson Boulevard were torn down in 1999, and a park that once existed along the road was replenished.[68]
  • In 2004, conversion of the RCA Nipper Building to The Victor, an upscale apartment building was completed.[69] The same year, the River LINE, between the Entertainment Center at the Waterfront in Camden and the Transit Center in Trenton, was opened, with a stop directly across from The Victor.
  • In 2010, massive police corruption was exposed that resulted in the convictions of several policemen, dismissals of 185 criminal cases, and lawsuit settlements totaling $3.5 million that were paid to 88 victims.[70][71][72] On May 1, 2013 the Camden Police Department was dissolved and the newly formed Camden County Police Department took over full responsibility for policing the city. This move was met with some disapproval from residents of both the city and county.[73]

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 10.341 square miles (26.784 km2), including 8.921 square miles (23.106 km2) of land and 1.420 square miles (3.677 km2) of water (13.73%).[2][3]

Camden borders Collingswood, Gloucester City, Haddon Township, Pennsauken Township and Woodlynne in Camden County, as well as Philadelphia across the Delaware River in Pennsylvania.[74] Just offshore of Camden is Pettys Island, which is part of Pennsauken Township. The Cooper River (popular for boating) flows through Camden, and Newton Creek forms Camden's southern boundary with Gloucester City.

Camden contains the United States' first federally funded planned community for working class residents, Yorkship Village (now called Fairview).[75] The village was designed by Electus Darwin Litchfield, who was influenced by the "garden city" developments popular in England at the time.[76]

Neighborhoods[edit]

Camden has more than 20 generally recognized neighborhoods:[22][23][24][25]

Port[edit]

On the Delaware River, with access to the Atlantic Ocean, the Port of Camden handles break bulk and bulk cargo. The port consists of two terminals: the Beckett Street Terminal and the Broadway Terminal. The port receives hundreds of ships moving international and domestic cargo annually.[77]

In 2005, the Port of Camden (South Jersey Port Corporation) was subject to an unresolved criminal investigation[78] and a state audit.[79] Some activities in the port are under the jurisdiction of the Delaware River Port Authority.

Climate[edit]

Camden has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa in the Koeppen climate classification).

Climate data for Camden, New Jersey
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 41
(5)
45
(7)
54
(12)
65
(18)
74
(23)
82
(28)
87
(31)
85
(29)
78
(26)
67
(19)
57
(14)
46
(8)
65.083
(18.379)
Average low °F (°C) 24
(−4)
26
(−3)
33
(1)
42
(6)
52
(11)
61
(16)
67
(19)
65
(18)
58
(14)
46
(8)
38
(3)
29
(−2)
45.083
(7.268)
Source: <Weather.com >Camden, NJ (08102). Weather.com. 2016 https://weather.com/weather/monthly/l/Camden+NJ+08102:4:US. Retrieved 14 September 2016.  Missing or empty |title= (help)

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1840 3,371
1850 9,479 181.2%
1860 14,358 51.5%
1870 20,045 39.6%
1880 41,659 107.8%
1890 58,313 40.0%
1900 75,935 30.2%
1910 94,538 24.5%
1920 116,309 23.0%
1930 118,700 2.1%
1940 117,536 −1.0%
1950 124,555 6.0%
1960 117,159 −5.9%
1970 102,551 −12.5%
1980 84,910 −17.2%
1990 87,492 3.0%
2000 79,318 −9.3%
2010 77,344 −2.5%
Est. 2015 76,119 [14][80] −1.6%
Population sources: 1840–2000[81][82]
1840–1920[83] 1840[84] 1850–1870[85]
1850[86] 1870[87] 1880–1890[88]
1890–1910[89] 1840–1930[90]
1930–1990[91] 2000[92][93][94] 2010[10][11][12][13]
Demographic profile 1950[95] 1970[95] 1990[95] 2010[10]
White 85.9% 59.8% 19.0% 17.6%
 —Non-Hispanic N/A 52.9% 14.4% 4.9%
Black or African American 14.0% 39.1% 56.4% 48.1%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) N/A 7.6% 31.2% 47.0%
Asian 0.2% 1.3% 2.1%

As of 2006, 52% of the city's residents lived in poverty, one of the highest rates in the nation.[96] The city had a median household income of $18,007, the lowest of all U.S. communities with populations of more than 65,000 residents, making it America's poorest city.[97] A group of poor Camden residents were the subject of a 20/20 special on poverty in America broadcast on January 26, 2007, in which Diane Sawyer profiled the lives of three young children growing up in Camden.[98] A follow-up was shown on November 9, 2007.[99]

In 2011, Camden's unemployment rate was 19.6%, compared with 10.6% in Camden County as a whole.[100] As of 2009, the unemployment rate in Camden was 19.2%, compared to the 10% overall unemployment rate for Burlington, Camden and Gloucester counties and a rate of 8.4% in Philadelphia and the four surrounding counties in Southeastern Pennsylvania.[101]

2010 Census[edit]

The 2010 United States Census counted 77,344 people, 24,475 households, and 16,912 families residing in the city. The population density was 8,669.6 per square mile (3,347.4/km2). The city contained 28,358 housing units at an average density of 3,178.7 per square mile (1,227.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 17.59% (13,602) White, 48.07% (37,180) Black or African American, 0.76% (588) Native American, 2.12% (1,637) Asian, 0.06% (48) Pacific Islander, 27.57% (21,323) from other races, and 3.83% (2,966) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 47.04% (36,379) of the population.[10] The Hispanic population of 36,379 was the tenth-highest of any municipality in New Jersey and the proportion of 47.0% was the state's 16th-highest percentage.[102][103] The Puerto Rican population was 30.7%.[10]

Out of a total of 24,475 households, 37.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.3% were married couples living together, 37.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.9% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.02 and the average family size was 3.56.[10]

In the city, 31.0% of the population were under the age of 18, 13.1% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.5 years. For every 100 females the census counted 94.7 males, but for 100 females at least 18 years old, it was 91.0 males.[10]

The city of Camden was 47% Hispanic of any race, 44% non-Hispanic black, 6% non-Hispanic white, and 3% other. Camden is predominately populated by African Americans and Puerto Ricans.[10]

The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $27,027 (with a margin of error of +/- $912) and the median family income was $29,118 (+/- $1,296). Males had a median income of $27,987 (+/- $1,840) versus $26,624 (+/- $1,155) for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,807 (+/- $429). About 33.5% of families and 36.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 50.3% of those under age 18 and 26.2% of those age 65 or over.[104]

2000 Census[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census[19] there were 79,904 people, 24,177 households, and 17,431 families residing in the city. The population density was 9,057.0 people per square mile (3,497.9/km²). There were 29,769 housing units at an average density of 3,374.3 units per square mile (1,303.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 16.84% White, 53.35% African American, 0.54% Native American, 2.45% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 22.83% from other races, and 3.92% from two or more races. 38.82% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[92][93][94]

There were 24,177 households out of which 42.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.1% were married couples living together, 37.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.9% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.52 and the average family size was 4.00.[92][93][94]

In the city, the population is quite young with 34.6% under the age of 18, 12.0% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 16.3% from 45 to 64, and 7.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males.[92][93][94]

The median income for a household in the city was $23,421, and the median income for a family was $24,612. Males had a median income of $25,624 versus $21,411 for females. The per capita income for the city is $9,815. 35.5% of the population and 32.8% of families were below the poverty line. 45.5% of those under the age of 18 and 23.8% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.[92][93][94]

In the 2000 Census, 30.85% of Camden residents identified themselves as being of Puerto Rican heritage. This was the third-highest proportion of Puerto Ricans in a municipality on the United States mainland, behind only Holyoke, Massachusetts and Hartford, Connecticut, for all communities in which 1,000 or more people listed an ancestry group.[105]

Culture[edit]

Camden's role as an industrial city gave rise to distinct neighborhoods and cultural groups that have effected the growth and decline of the city over the course of the 20th century. Camden is also home to historic landmarks detailing its rich history in literature, music, social work, and industry such as the Walt Whitman House,[183] the Walt Whitman Cultural Arts Center, the Rutgers–Camden Center For The Arts and the Camden Children's Garden.

Camden's cultural history has been greatly affected by both its economic and social position over the years. From 1950 to 1970 industry plummeted, losing close to 20,000 jobs for Camden residents.[106] This mass unemployment as well as social pressure from neighboring townships caused an exodus of citizens, mostly white. This gap was filled by new African American and Latino citizens and led to a restructuring of Camden's communities. The mass number of White citizen who left to neighboring towns such as Collingswood or Cherry Hill, leaving both new and old African American and Latino citizens to begin to rebuild their community. To help this rebuilding process, numerous non-for-profit organizations such as Hopeworks or the Neighborhood Center have been formed to facilitate Camden's movement into the 21st century.[26]

A community sign near Camden's Cooper Grant neighborhood showcasing the cities unofficial tagline "A City Invincible"
A community sign near Camden's Cooper Grant neighborhood showcasing the cities official tagline "A City Invincible"

Due to its location as county seat, as well as its proximity to Philadelphia, Camden has had strong connections with its neighboring cities.

On July 17, 1951, they formed the Delaware River Port Authority, a bi-state agency created to develop ease of transportation between the two cities.[107]

In June 2014, the Philadelphia 76ers announced that they would move their practice facility and home offices to the Camden Waterfront, adding 250 permanent jobs in the city creating what CEO Scott O'Neil described as "biggest and best training facility in the country" using $82 million in tax savings offered by the New Jersey Economic Development Authority.

The Battleship New Jersey, a museum ship located on the Delaware Waterfront, was a contested topic for the two cities. Philadelphia's DRPA funded millions of dollars into the museum ship project as well as the rest of the Waterfront, but the ship was originally donated to a Camden-based agency called the Home Port Alliance. They argue that Battleship New Jersey is necessary for Camden's economic growth.[108][109] As of October 2001, the Home Port Alliance has maintained ownership of Battleship New Jersey.

African American Culture[edit]

In 1967, Charles 'Poppy' Sharp founded the Black Believers of Knowledge, an organization founded on the betterment of African America citizens in South Camden. He would soon rename his organization to the Black People's Unity Movement (BPUM). The BPUM was one of the first major cultural organizations to arise after the deindustrialization of Camden's industrial life. Going against the building turmoil in the city, Sharp founded BPUM on "the belief that all the people in our community should contribute to positive change".[26]

In 2001, Camden residents and entrepreneurs founded the South Jersey Caribbean Cultural and Development Organization (SJCCDO) as a non-profit organization aimed at promoting understanding and awareness of Caribbean Culture in South Jersey and Camden. The most prominent of the events that the SJCCDO organizes is the South Jersey Caribbean Festival, an event that is held for both cultural and economical reasons. The festival's primary focus is cultural awareness of all of Camden's residents. The festival also showcases free art and music as well as financial information and free promotion for Camden artists.[110]

In 1986, Tawanda 'Wawa' Jones began the Camden Sophisticated Sisters, a youth drill team. CSS serves as a self-proclaimed 'positive outlet' for the Camden' students, offering both dance lessons as well as community service hours and social work opportunities. Since it's conception CSS has grown to include two other organizations, all ran through Jones: Camden Distinguished Brothers and The Almighty Percussion Sound drum line.[111] In 2013, CSS was featured on ABC's Dancing with the Stars.[112]

Hispanic and Latino Culture[edit]

On December 31, 1987, the Latin American Economic Development Association (LAEDA). LAEDA is a non-profit economic development organization that helps with the creation of small business for minorities in Camden. LAEDA was founded under in an attempt to revitalize Camden's economy and provide job experience for its residents. LAEDA operates on a two major methods of rebuilding, The Entrepreneurial Development Training Program (EDTP) and the Neighborhood Commercial Expansion Initiative (NCEI). In 1990, LAEDA began a program called The Entrepreneurial Development Training Program (EDTP) which would offer residents employment and job opportunities through ownership of small businesses. The program over time created 506 businesses and 1,169 jobs. As of 2016, half of these businesses are still in operation. Neighborhood Commercial Expansion Initiative (NCEI) then finds locations for these business to operate in, purchasing and refurbishing abandoned real estate. As of 2016 four buildings have been refurbished including the First Camden National Bank & Trust Company Building.[113]

One of the longest standing traditions in Camden's Hispanic community is the San Juan Bautista Parade, a celebration of St. John the Baptist, conducted annually starting in 1957. The parade began in 1957 when a group of parishioners from Our Lady of Mount Carmel marched with the church founder Father Leonardo Carrieri. This march was originally a way for the parishioners to recognize and show their Puerto Rican Heritage, and eventually became the modern day San Juan Bautista Parade. Since its conception, the parade has grown into the Parada San Juan Bautista, Inc, a non-for-profit organization dedicated to maintaining the community presence of Camden's Hispanic and Latino members. Some of the work that the Parada San Juan Bautista, Inc has done include a month long event for the parade with a community commemorative mass and a coronation pageant. The organization also awards up to $360,000 in scholarships to high school students of Puerto Rican descent.[114]

On May 30, 2000 Camden resident and grassroots organizer Lillian Santiago began a movement to rebuild abandoned lots in her North Camden neighborhood into playgrounds. The movement was met with resistance from the Camden government, citing monetary issues. As Santiago's movement gained more notability in her neighborhoods she was able to move other community members into action, including Reverend Heywood Wiggins. Wiggins was the president of the Camden Churches Organized for People, a coalition of 29 churches devoted to the improvement of Camden's communities, and with his support Santiago's movement succeeded. Santiago and Wiggins were also firm believers in Community Policing, which would result in their fight against Camden's corrupt police department and the eventual turnover to the State government.[115]

Arts and Entertainment[edit]

Camden has two generally recognized neighborhoods located on the Delaware River waterfront, Central and South. The Waterfront South was founded in 1851 by the Kaighns Point Land Company. During World War Two, Waterfront South housed many of the industrial workers for the New York Shipbuilding Company. Currently, the Waterfront is home to many historical buildings and cultural icons. The Waterfront South neighborhood is considered a federal and state historic area due to its history and culturally significant buildings, such as the Sacred Heart Church, and the South Camden Trust Company[116] The Central Waterfront is located adjacent to the Benjamin Franklin Bridge and is home to the Nipper Building (also known as The Victor), the Adventure Aquarium, and Battleship New Jersey, a museum ship located at the Home Port Alliance.

Starting on February 16, 2012, Camden's Waterfront began an art crawl and volunteer initiative called Third Thursday in an effort to support local Camden business and restaurants.[117] Part of Camden's art crawl movement exists in Studio Eleven One, a fully restored 1906 firehouse opened in 2011 that operated as an art gallery owned by William and Ronja Butlers. The Butlers moved to Camden in 2011 from Des Moines, Iowa and began the Third Thursday art movement. William Butler and Studio Eleven One are a part of his wife's company Thomas Lift LLC, self described as a "socially conscious company" that works to connect Camden's art scene with philanthropic organizations. Some of the work they have done includes work against Human Trafficking, and ecological donations.[118]

Starting in 2014, Camden began Connect The Lots, a community program designed to revitalize unused areas for community engagement,. Connect the Lots was founded through The Kresge Foundation, and the project "seeks to create temporary, high-quality, safe outdoor spaces that are consistently programed with local cultural and recreational activities"[119] Other partnerships with the Connect the Lots foundation include the Cooper's Ferry Partnership, a private non-profit corporation dedicated to urban renewal. Connect the Lots' main work are their 'Pop up Parks' that they create around Camden. In 2014, Connect the lots created a pop up skate park for Camden youth with assistance from Camden residents as well as students.[120] As of 2016, the Connect the Lots program free programs have expanded to include outdoor yoga and free concerts.[27]

In October 2014, Camden finished construction of the Kroc Center, a Salvation Army funded community center located in the Cramer Hill neighborhood. The Kroc center's mission is to provide both social services to the people of Camden as well as community engagement opportunities.[121] The center was funded by a $59 million donation from Joan Kroc, and from the Salvation Army. The project was launched in 2005 with a proposed completion date of one year. However, due to the location of the site as well as governmental concerns, the project was delayed. The Kroc center's location was the an 85-acre former landfill which closed in 1971. Salvation Army Major Paul Cain states the landfill's location to the waterfront and the necessity to handle storm water management as main reasons for the delay. The Center was eventually opened on October 4, 2014, with almost citywide acclaim. Camden Mayor Dana Redd on the opening of the center called it "the crown jewel of the city".[122] The Kroc Center offers an 8-lane, 25-yard competition pool, a children's water park, various athletic and entertainment options, as well as an in center chapel.

Religious presence[edit]

Camden has a large religious presence, brought out by the necessity of citizens for both physical needs and societal support. Many of the churches in Camden operate as non-profit or as community centers.[citation needed]

The first Scientology church was incorporated in December 1953 in Camden by L. Ron Hubbard, his wife Mary Sue Hubbard, and John Galusha.[123][124]

Father Michael Doyle, the pastor of Sacred Heart Church located in North Camden, has played a large role in Camden's spiritual and social history. In 1971, Doyle was part of the Camden 28, a group of anti-Vietnam War activists who planned to raid a draft board office in the city. This is noted by many as the start of Doyle's activities as a radical 'catholic left'. Following these activities, Doyle went on to become a parishioner for Sacred Heart, as well as becoming a poet and an activist.[44] Father Doyle and the Sacred Heart Church's main mission is to form a connection between the primarily white suburban surrounding areas and the inner-city of Camden.[125]

In 1982, Father Mark Aita of Holy Name of Camden founded the St. Luke's Catholic Medical Services. Aita, a medical doctor and a member of the Society of Jesus, created the first medical system in Camden that did not use rotating primary care physicians. Since its conception, St. Luke's has grown to include Patient Education Classes as well as home medical services, aiding over seven thousand Camden residents.[126][127]

Philanthropy[edit]

Ck Kitchen Catering

Camden, N.J has a variety of Non-Profit Tax-Exempt Organizations aimed to assist city residents with a wide range of health and social services free or reduced charge to residents. Camden City, having one of the highest rates of poverty in New Jersey, fueled residents and local organizations to come together and develop organizations aimed to provide relief to its citizens. The 2000 Census cites that Camden's income per capita was $9,815. This ranking made Camden the poorest city in the state of New Jersey, as well as one of the poorest cities in all of the United States.[128] Camden also has one of the highest rates of childhood poverty in the nation.[128] Camden was once a thriving industrialized city home to the RCA Victor, Campbell Soup Company and containing one of the largest shipping companies. Camden's decline stemmed from the lack in jobs once these companies moved over seas. Many of Camden's Non-Profit Organizations emerged during the 1900s when the city suffered a large decline in jobs which affected the city's growth and population. These organizations can be located in all of Camden NJ sub-sections and offer free services to all city residents in an attempt to combat poverty and aid low income families. The services offered range from preventative health care, homeless shelters, early childhood education, to home ownership and restoration services. Nonprofits in Camden strive to aid assist Camden residents in need of all ages, from children to the elderly. Each nonprofit organization in Camden has a unique history and impact on the community with specific goals and services. These organizations survive through donations, partnerships, and fundraising. Volunteers are needed at many of these organizations to assist with various programs and duties. Camden's nonprofits also focus on development, prevention, and revitalization of the community. Nonprofit organizations serve as resource for the homeless, unemployed, or financially insufficient.

One of Camden's most prominent and longest running organizations with a span of 103 years of service, is The Neighborhood Center located in the Morgan Village section of Camden.[129] The Neighborhood Center was founded in 1913 by Eldridge Johnson, George Fox Sr., Mary Baird, and local families in the community geared to provide a safe environment for the city's children.[130] The goal of Camden's Neighborhood Center is to promote and enable academic, athletic and arts achievements. The Neighborhood Center was created to assist the numerous families living in Camden in poverty. The services offered at The Neighborhood Center are Urban Child Care Learning Center, Arts and Education Program, Kumbaya summer camp, and Community Kitchen program. The Neighborhood Center also has an Urban Community Garden as of the year 2015. Many of the services and activities offered for the children are after school programs, and programs for teenagers are also available.[131] These teenage youth programs aim to guide students toward success during and after their high school years. The activities at the Neighborhood Center are meant to challenge youth in a safe environment for fun and learning. These activities are developed in the hopes of The Neighborhood Center helping to break the cycle of poverty that is common in the city of Camden. The Neighborhood Center is located at 278 Kaighns Avenue Camden, NJ 08103.

Center for Family Services Inc[132] Offers a number of services and programs that total 76 free individual programs. This organization has operated in South Jersey for over 90 years and is one of the leading Non Profits in the city. Cure4Camden is a community ran program focused on stopping the spread of violence in Camden and surrounding communities. They focus on stopping the spread of violence in the Camden City communities of:

  • Liberty Park
  • Whitman Park
  • Centerville
  • Cooper Plaza/Lanning Square

Center for Family Services offers additional programs such as : Active parenting and Baby Best Start program, Mental Health & Crisis Intervention, and Rehabilitative Care. They are located at 584 Benson St Camden NJ 801[133] Center for Family Services is a nonprofit organization helping adults, children, and families. Center for Family Services' main focus is "prevention". Center for Family Services has over 50 programs, aimed at the most "vulnerable" members of the community.[134] These programs are made possible by donors, a board of trustees, and a professional staff. Their work helps prevent possible victims of abuse, neglect, or severe family problems. Their work helps thousands of individuals in the community and also provides intervention services to individuals and families. Their programs for children are home-based, community-based, as well as school-based.[134] Center for Family Services is funded through partners, donors, and funders from the community and elsewhere.

Cathedral Soup Kitchen, Inc.[135] A Human Service-based Non- Profit Organization that is the largest emergency food distribution agency in Camden N.J. The organization was founded in 1976 by four Camden residents after attending a lecture given by Mother Theresa. They ran off of donated food and funds for fourteen years until they were granted tax exempt status as a 501(c) (3) corporation in 1990. In the 1980s, a new program started at The Cathedral Kitchen called the "casserole program", which consisted of volunteers cooking and freezing casseroles to be donated and dropped off at the Cathedral Kitchen, and then be served to guests.[136] Cathedral Kitchen faced many skeptics at first, despite the problems they were attempting to solve in the community, such as hunger. The Cathedral Kitchen's first cooking staff consisted of Clyde and Theresa Jones. Next, Sister Jean Spena joined the crew and the three members ran cooking operations over the course of several years.[136] They provide 100,000 meals a year and launched a Culinary Arts Catering[134] program in 2009.The organization offers Employment Preparation & Procurement, Food Programs and Culinary Arts Programs. They are located at 1514 Federal street Camden NJ 08105. They provide hot meals Monday through Saturday to Camden County residents. The Cathedral Kitchen's annual revenue is $3,041,979.00.[137] A fundraising component of the Cathedral Kitchen is CK Cafe. CK Cafe is a small lunch restaurant used by the Cathedral Kitchen to provide employment to those who graduate from their programs as well as generate profits to continue to provide food to the hungry.[138] CK Cafe is open Monday through Friday from 11:00 am to 2:00 pm. You can even place an order for takeout by calling their telephone number. CK Cafe even offers catering and event packages. The Cathedral Kitchen is innovative and unique compared to other soup kitchens, because those who eat at The Cathedral Kitchen are referred to as "dinner guests" rather than the homeless, the hungry,etc.[139] The Cathedral Kitchen also offers various opportunities for those interested to volunteer. Another feature of The Cathedral Kitchen is their free health clinics with a variety of services offered including dental care and other social services.[139] The Cathedral Kitchen's case manager assists guests and Camden students with referrals for utility bills, childcare, etc. Project HOPE also partners with The Cathedral Kitchen to provide screenings for overall general health.[citation needed]

Catholic Charities of Camden, Inc. is a Faith-based organization which advocates and uplifts the lives of the poor and unemployed.[140] They provide services in six New Jersey counties and serve over 28,000 people each year. The extent of the services offered exceed those of any of Camden's other Non- Profit Organizations. Catholic Charities Refugee[141] Resettlement program is one of the only Non-Profit that offers resettlement services in the area. They currently provide relief to over 100 refugees each year, from various countries. Some of the services Catholic Charities offer include; Adoption services, Immigration Legal Assistance, Veteran Services, Substance Abuse Assistance, Disaster Response, Housing Assistance, Domestic Violence Counseling, Community & Neighborhood Development, Economic Development, Education, Homeless & Housing, Housing Support, Preschools, Urban & Community Economic Development The Catholic Charities of Camden Inc. is located at 601-603 Clinton St Camden NJ 08103.

Camden Churches Organized for People (CCOP) is an arrangement between various congregations of Camden to partner together against issues in the community.[142] CCOP is affiliated with Pacific Institute for Community Organization (PICO). CCOP is a non-religious, non-profit organization that works with believers in the Camden to solve social issues in the community. Their beliefs and morals are the foundation for their efforts to solve a multitude of issues in the Camden community. CCOP's system for community organizing was modeled after PICO, which stresses the importance of social change instead of social services when addressing the causes of residents and their families' problems. CCOP's initial efforts began in 1995, and was composed only of two directors and about 60 leaders from the 18 churches in the organization.[128] The congregation leaders of CCOP all had a considerable amount of networking contacts but were also looking to expand and share their networking relationship with others.[128] CCOP congregation leaders also had to listen to the concerns of those in their networking contacts, the community, and the congregations. One of the main services of CCOP was conducting one-on-one's with individuals in the community, to recognize patterns' of residents' issues in the community.[128] An example of this was CCOP's realization of drug dealings taking place in the city's vacant houses. These drug dealings were also often violent and dangerous. CCOP conducted more than 200 one-on-ones with citizens in the city of Camden. As a result of their findings, CCOP met with institutions who were knowledgeable with regards to crime or housing from both the public and private sectors. It is approximated that about 20 of these meetings were held, with various attendees including the Camden police, local housing authority, and elected officials.

Cooper Grant Neighborhood Association is located in the historic Cooper Grant neighborhood that once housed William Cooper an English Quaker with long ties to Camden.[143] His son Richard Cooper[144] along with his four children are responsible for contributing to the creation of the Cooper Health System.[145] This organizations goal is to enrich the lives of citizens living in the Cooper Grant neighborhood located from the Camden Waterfront up to Rutgers University Camden campus. This center offers community service to the citizens living in the historic area that include activism, improving community health and involvement, safety and security, housing development, affordable childcare services, and connecting neighborhoods and communities together. The Cooper Grant Neighborhood Association owns the Cooper Grant Community Garden.[146] Project H.O.P.E rganization offers healthcare to the homeless, preventative health Care, substance abuse programs, social work services, behavioral health care.[147] Their address is 519-525 West Street Camden, NJ 80103. Project H.O.P.E staff consists of administrative, security, and clinical teams. Donations accepted by Project H.O.P.E. are used to support their medical facility. Project H.O.P.E. also offers mobile vans for various health services at specific sites. Another feature of Project H.O.P.E. is the Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH). PCMH offers a wide variety of unique services ranging from personalized care packages and bilingual services for patients.[148]

Heart of Camden rganization that offers home renovation and restoration services, home ownership programs. Their address is 1840 S. Broadway, Camden NJ 08104. Heart of Camden receives donations from online shoppers through Amazon Smile.[149] Heart of Camden Organization is partners with District Council Collaborative Board (DCCB).[150] Heart of Camden Organization's accomplishments include the economic development of various entities such as the Waterfront South Theatre, Neighborhood Greenhouse, and a community center with a gymnasium. Another accomplishment of Heart of Camden Organization is its revitalization of Camden, which includes Liney's Park Community Gardens and Peace Park.[151]

Cathedral Kitchen in Camden New Jersey

Fellowship House of South Camden organization that offers Christian (Nondenominational) based after school and summer programs.[152] Fellowship House of South1722 South Broadway, Camden, NJ 08104. Fellowship House was founded in 1965 and started as a weekly Bible club program for students in the inner-city of Camden. Settlement was made on a house located at Fellowships House's current location in the year 1969.[153] Fellowship House hired its first actual staff member, director Dick Wright, in the year 1973.

Volunteers of America.org [154] helps families facing poverty and is a community based organization geared toward helping families live self-sufficient, healthy lives. With a 120 years of service the Volunteers of America has dedicated their services to all Americans in need of help. Home for the Brave[155] is a housing program aimed to assist homeless veterans. This program is a 30-bed housing program that coincides with the Homeless Veterans Reintegration program which is funded through the Department of Labor. Additional services include ; Emergency Support, Community Support, Employment Services, Housing Services, Veterans Services, Behavioral Services, Senior Housing. They are located at 525 Cooper Street.

Economy[edit]

Entrance to Campbell Soup Company headquarters in Camden.

About 45% of employment in Camden is in the "eds and meds" sector, providing educational and medical institutions.[30]

Largest employers[edit]

Urban enterprise zone[edit]

Portions of Camden are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.[156]

Redevelopment[edit]

Camden suffers from unemployment, urban decay, poverty, and many other social issues.

Campbell Soup Company has decided to go forward with a scaled down redevelopment of the area around its corporate headquarters in Camden, including an expanded corporate headquarters.[157] In June 2012, Campbell Soup Company acquired the 4-acre (1.6 ha) site of the vacant Sears building located near its corporate offices, where the company plans to construct the Gateway Office Park, and razed the Sears building after receiving approval from the city government and the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.[158]

In 2013, Cherokee Investment Partners had a plan to redevelop north Camden with 5,000 new homes and a shopping center on 450 acres (1.8 km2). Cherokee dropped their plans in the face of local opposition and the slumping real estate market.[159][160][161]

In 2014, Lockheed Martin, Holt Logistics, Subaru of America, WebiMax, Holtec International and the Philadelphia 76ers announced plans to open facilities in the city.[162][163][164] [165][166] They are among several companies receiving New Jersey Economic Development Authority (EDA) tax incentives to relocate jobs in the city.[167][168]

Government[edit]

Federal Courthouse in Camden

Camden has historically been a stronghold of the Democratic Party. Voter turnout is very low; approximately 19% of Camden's voting age population participated in the 2005 gubernatorial election.[169]

Local government[edit]

Camden's City Hall opened in 1931.

Since July 1, 1961, the city has operated within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under a Mayor-Council form of government.[8] Under this form of government, the City Council consisted of seven Council members originally all elected at-large. In 1994, the City divided the city into four council districts, instead of electing the entire Council at-large, with a single council member elected from each of the four districts. In 1995, the elections were changed from a partisan vote to a non-partisan system.[170]

As of 2016, the Mayor of Camden is Democrat Dana Redd, who was re-elected to a second term in office in 2013 and whose current term ends December 31, 2017.[4] Members of the City Council are Council President Francisco "Frank" Moran (2015; Ward 3), Vice President Curtis Jenkins (D, 2017; at large), Dana M. Burley (2015; Ward 1), Brian K. Coleman (2015; Ward 2), Angel Fuentes (D, 2017; at large - appointed to serve an unexpired term), Luis A. Lopez (2015; Ward 4) and Marilyn Torres (D, 2017; at large).[171][172][173][174]

Angel Fuentes was appointed to the at-large term ending in December 2017 that was vacated by Arthur Barclay when he took office in the New Jersey General Assembly in January 2016.

Mayor Milton Milan was jailed for his connections to organized crime. On June 15, 2001, he was sentenced to serve seven years in prison on 14 counts of corruption, including accepting mob payoffs and concealing a $65,000 loan from a drug kingpin.[175]

Federal, state and county representation[edit]

Camden is located in the 1st Congressional District[176] and is part of New Jersey's 5th state legislative district.[12][177][178]

New Jersey's First Congressional District is represented by Donald Norcross (D, Camden).[179] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark, term ends 2021)[180] and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus, 2019).[181][182]

For the 2016–2017 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 5th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Nilsa Cruz-Perez (D, Barrington) and in the General Assembly by Arthur Barclay (D, Camden) and Patricia Egan Jones (D, Barrington).[183] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[184] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[185]

Camden County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders, whose seven members chosen at-large in partisan elections to three-year terms office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year.[186] As of 2015, Camden County's Freeholders are Freeholder Director Louis Cappelli, Jr. (Collingswood, term as freeholder ends December 31, 2017; term as director ends 2015),[187] Freeholder Deputy Director Edward T. McDonnell (Pennsauken Township, term as freeholder ends 2016; term as deputy director ends 2015),[188] Michelle Gentek (Gloucester Township, 2015),[189] Ian K. Leonard (Camden, 2015),[190] Jeffrey L. Nash (Cherry Hill, 2015),[191] Carmen Rodriguez (Merchantville, 2016)[192] and Jonathan L. Young, Sr. (Berlin Township, November 2015; serving the unexpired term of Scot McCray ending in 2017)[193][194][195]

Camden County's constitutional officers, all elected directly by voters, are County clerk Joseph Ripa,[196] Sheriff Charles H. Billingham,[197] and Surrogate Patricia Egan Jones.[195][198] The Camden County Prosecutor Mary Eva Colalillo was appointed by the Governor of New Jersey with the advice and consent of the New Jersey Senate (the upper house of the New Jersey Legislature).[199]

Political corruption[edit]

Three Camden mayors have been jailed for corruption: Angelo Errichetti, Arnold Webster, and Milton Milan.[200]

In 1981, Errichetti was convicted with three other individuals for accepting a $50,000 bribe from FBI undercover agents in exchange for helping a non-existent Arab sheikh enter the United States.[201] The FBI scheme was part of the Abscam operation. The 2013 film American Hustle is a fictionalized portrayal of this scheme.[202]

In 1999, Webster, who was previously the superintendent of Camden City Public Schools, pleaded guilty to illegally paying himself $20,000 in school district funds after he became mayor.[203]

In 2000, Milan was sentenced to more than six years in federal prison for accepting payoffs from associates of Philadelphia organized crime boss Ralph Natale,[204] soliciting bribes and free home renovations from city vendors, skimming money from a political action committee, and laundering drug money.[205]

The Courier-Post dubbed former State Senator Wayne R. Bryant, who represented the state's 5th Legislative District from 1995 to 2008, the "king of double dipping" for accepting no-show jobs in return for political benefits.[206] In 2009, Bryant was sentenced to four years in federal prison for funneling $10.5 million to the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) in exchange for a no-show job and accepting fraudulent jobs to inflate his state pension and was assessed a fine of $25,000 and restitution to UMDNJ in excess of $110,000.[207] In 2010, Bryant was charged with an additional 22 criminal counts of bribery and fraud, for taking $192,000 in false legal fees in exchange for backing redevelopment projects in Camden, Pennsauken Township and the New Jersey Meadowlands between 2004 and 2006.[208]

Politics[edit]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 43,893 registered voters in Camden, of which 17,403 (39.6%) were registered as Democrats, 885 (2.0%) were registered as Republicans and 25,601 (58.3%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 4 voters registered to other parties.[209]

In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 96.8% of the vote (22,254 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 3.0% (683 votes), and other candidates with 0.2% (57 votes), among the 23,230 ballots cast by the city's 47,624 registered voters (236 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 48.8%.[210][211] In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 91.1% of the vote (22,197 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain, who received around 5.0% (1,213 votes), with 24,374 ballots cast among the city's 46,654 registered voters, for a turnout of 52.2%.[212] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 84.4% of the vote (15,914 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush, who received around 12.6% (2,368 votes), with 18,858 ballots cast among the city's 37,765 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 49.9.[213]

In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 79.9% of the vote (6,680 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 18.8% (1,569 votes), and other candidates with 1.4% (116 votes), among the 9,796 ballots cast by the city's 48,241 registered voters (1,431 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 20.3%.[214][215] In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 85.6% of the vote (8,700 ballots cast), ahead of both Republican Chris Christie with 5.9% (604 votes) and Independent Chris Daggett with 0.8% (81 votes), with 10,166 ballots cast among the city's 43,165 registered voters, yielding a 23.6% turnout.[216]

Transportation[edit]

Roads and highways[edit]

The Ben Franklin Bridge at sunrise, connecting Camden, at right, to Philadelphia.

As of May 2010, the city had a total of 181.92 miles (292.77 km) of roadways, of which 147.54 miles (237.44 km) were maintained by the municipality, 25.39 miles (40.86 km) by Camden County, 6.60 miles (10.62 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation and 2.39 miles (3.85 km) by the Delaware River Port Authority.[217]

Interstate 676[218] and U.S. Route 30 run through Camden to the Benjamin Franklin Bridge on the north side of the city. Interstate 76 passes through briefly and interchanges with Interstate 676.

Route 168 passes through briefly in the south, and County Routes 537, 543, 551 and 561 all travel through the heart of the city.

Public transportation[edit]

The River Line (NJ Transit) at Walter Rand – a light rail system connecting Camden to Trenton.

NJ Transit's Walter Rand Transportation Center is located at Martin Luther King Boulevard and Broadway. In addition to being a hub for NJ Transit (NJT) buses in the Southern Division, Greyhound Lines, the PATCO Speedline and River Line make stops at the station.[219]

The PATCO Speedline offers frequent train service to Philadelphia and the suburbs to the east in Camden County, with stations at City Hall, Broadway (Walter Rand Transportation Center) and Ferry Avenue. The line operates 24 hours a day.

Since its opening in 2004, NJ Transit's River Line has offered light rail service to towns along the Delaware north of Camden, and terminates in Trenton. Camden stations are 36th Street, Walter Rand Transportation Center, Cooper Street-Rutgers University, Aquarium and Entertainment Center.

NJ Transit bus service is available to and from Philadelphia on the 313, 315, 317, 318 and 400, 401, 402, 404, 406, 408, 409, 410, 412, 414, and 417, to Atlantic City is served by the 551 bus. Local service is offered on the 403, 405, 407, 413, 418, 419, 450, 451, 452, 453, and 457 lines.[220][221]

Studies are being conducted to create the Camden-Philadelphia BRT, a bus rapid transit system, with a 2012 plan to develop routes that would cover the 23 miles (37 km) between Winslow Township and Philadelphia with a stop at the Walter Rand Transportation Center.[222]

RiverLink Ferry is seasonal service across the Delaware River to Penn's Landing in Philadelphia.[223]

Environmental issues[edit]

Air and water pollution[edit]

Situated on the Delaware River waterfront, the city of Camden contains many pollution-causing facilities, such as a trash incinerator and a sewage plant. Despite the additions of new waste-water and trash treatment facilities in the 1970s and 1980s, pollution in the city remains an issue due to faulty waste disposal practices and outdated sewer systems.[26] The open-air nature of the waste treatment plants cause the smell of sewage and other toxic fumes to permeate through the air. This has encouraged local grass roots organizations to protest the development of these plants in Camden.[224] The development of traffic-heavy highway systems between Philadelphia and South Jersey also contributed to the rise of air pollution in the area. Water contamination has been an issue in Camden for decades. In the 1970s, dangerous pollutants were found near the Delaware River at the Puchack Well Field, where many Camden citizens received their household water from, decreasing property values in Camden and causing health problems among the city's residents. Materials contaminating the water included cancer-causing metals and chemicals, affecting as many as 50,000 people between the early 1970s and late 1990s, when the six Puchack wells were officially shut down and declared a Superfund site.[225] Camden also contains 22 of New Jersey's 217 combined sewer overflow outfalls, or CSOs, down from 28 in 2013.[226][227]

CCMUA[edit]

The Camden City Municipal Utilities Authority, or CCMUA, was established in the early 1970s in order to treat sewage waste in Camden County, by City Democratic chairman and director of public works Angelo Errichetti, who became the authority's executive director. Errichetti called for a primarily state or federally funded sewage plant, which would have costed $14 million, and a region-wide collection of trash-waste.[26] The sewage plant was a necessity in order to meet the requirements of the Federal Clean Water Act, as per the changes implemented to the act in 1972.[228] James Joyce, chair of the county's Democratic Party at the time, had his own ambitions in regard to establishing a sewage authority that clashed with Errichetti's. While Errichetti formed his sewage authority through his own power, Joyce required the influence of the Camden County Board of Chosen Freeholders in order to form his. Errichetti and Joyce competed against each other to gain the cooperation of Camden's suburban communities, with Errichetti ultimately succeeding. Errichetti's political alliance with the county freeholders of Cherry Hill gave him an advantage and Joyce was forced to disband his County Sewerage Authority.[26] Errichetti later replaced Joyce as county Democratic chairman, after the latter resigned due to bribery charges, and retained control of the CCMUA even after leaving his position as executive director in 1973 in order to run for mayor of Camden. The CCMUA originally planned for the sewage facilities in Camden to treat waste water through a primary and secondary process before having it deposited into the Delaware River; however, funding stagnated and byproducts from the plant began to accumulate, causing adverse environmental effects in Camden. Concerned about the harmful chemicals that were being emitted from the waste build-up, the CCMUA requested permission to dump five million gallons of waste into the Atlantic Ocean. Their request was denied and the CCMUA began searching for alternative ways to dispose of the sludge, which eventually lead to the construction of an incinerator, as it was more cost effective than previously proposed methods. In 1975, the CCMUA purchased Camden's two sewage treatment plants for $11.3 million, the first payment consisting of $2.5 million and the final payment to be made by the end of 1978.[26]

Contamination in Waterfront South[edit]

Camden's Waterfront South neighborhood, located in the southern part of the city between the Delaware River and Interstate 676, is home to two dangerously contaminated areas, Welsbach/General Gas Mantle and Martin Aaron, Inc., the former of which has been emanating low-levels of radiation since the early 20th century.[229][230][231] Several industrial pollution sites, including the Camden County Sewage Plant, the County Municipal Waste Combustor, the world's largest licorice processing plant, chemical companies, auto shops, and a cement manufacturing facility, are present in the Waterfront South neighborhood, which covers less than one square mile. The neighborhood contains 20% of Camden's contaminated areas and over twice the average number of pollution-emitting facilities per New Jersey zip code.[232] According to the Rutgers University Journal of Law and Urban Policy, African-American residents of Waterfront South have a greater chance of developing cancer than anywhere else in the state of Pennsylvania, 90% higher for females and 70% higher for males.[44] 61% of Waterfront South residents have reported respiratory issues, with 48% of residents experiencing chronic chest tightness. Residents of Waterfront South formed the South Camden Citizens in Action, or SCCA, in 1997 in order to combat the environmental and health issues imposed from the rising amount of pollution and the trash-to-steam facilities being implemented by the CCMUA.[44] One such facility, the Covanta Camden Energy Recovery Center (formerly the Camden Resource Recovery Facility), is located on Morgan Street in the Waterfront South neighborhood and burns 350,000 tons of waste from every town in Camden County, aside from Gloucester Township. The waste is then converted into electricity and sold to utility companies that power thousands of homes.[233]

Superfund sites[edit]

Identified by the EPA in 1980, the Welsbach/General Gas Mantle site contained soil and building materials contaminated with radioactive materials. Radiation became prominent when the companies used thorium, a radioactive material withdrawn from monazite ore, in the production of their gas mantles. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, Welsbach Company was located in Gloucester City, which borders Camden, and was a major producer of gas mantles until gas lights were replaced by electric lights. The fabric of the Welsbach gas mantle was put into a solution that consisted of 99% thorium nitrate and 1% cerium nitrate in distilled water, causing it to emit a white light.[26] Operating from 1915 to 1940 in Camden, General Gas Mantle, or GGM, was a manufacturer of gas mantles and served as a competitor for Welsbach. Unlike Welsbach, General Gas Mantle used only a refined, commercial thorium solution in order to produce its gas mantles. Welsbach and General Gas Mantle went out of business in the 1940s and had no successors.[32]

In 1981, the EPA began investigating the area where the companies once operated for radioactive materials.[32][26] Five areas were identified as having abnormally high levels of gamma radiation, including the locations of both companies and three primarily residential areas. In 1993, a sixth area was identified.[26] Radioactive materials were identified at 100 properties located near the companies' former facilities in Camden and Gloucester City, as well as the company locations themselves. In 1996, due to the levels of contamination in the areas, the Welsbach and General Gas Mantle site was added to the National Priorities List, which consists of areas in the United States that are or could become contaminated with dangerous substances.[26][234] The EPA demolished the General Gas Mantle building in late 2000 and only one building remains at the former Welsbach site.[32][26] Since it was declared a Superfund site, the EPA has removed over 350,000 tons of contaminated materials from the Welsbach/General Gas Mantle site.[32]

The Martin Aaron, Inc. site operated as a steel drum recycling facility for thirty years, from 1968 to 1998, though industrial companies have made use of the site since the late 19th century, contaminating soil and groundwater in the surrounding area.[235][236] The drums at the facility, containing residue of hazardous chemicals, were not correctly handled or disposed of, releasing substances such as arsenic and polychlorinated biphenyl into the groundwater and soil. Waste such as abandoned equipment and empty steel drums was removed from the site by the EPA and NJDEP, the latter of which initially tested the site for contamination in 1987. Like the Welsbach/General Gas Mantle site, the Martin Aaron, Inc. site was placed on the National Priorities list in 1999.[235]

Environmental justice[edit]

Residents of Camden have expressed discontent with the implementation of pollution-causing facilities in their city. Father Michael Doyle, a pastor at Waterfront South's Sacred Heart Church, blamed the city's growing pollution and sewage problem as the reason why residents were leaving Camden for the surrounding suburbs.[26] Local groups protested through petitions, referendums, and other methods, such as Citizens Against Trash to Steam (CATS), established by Linda McHugh and Suzanne Marks. In 1999, the St. Lawrence Cement Company reached an agreement with the South Jersey Port Corporation and leased land in order to establish a plant in the Waterfront South neighborhood of Camden, motivated to operate on state land by a reduction in local taxes.[26][44] St. Lawrence received backlash from both the residents of Camden and Camden's legal system, including a lawsuit that accused the DEP and St. Lawrence of violating the Civil Rights Act of 1964, due to the overwhelming majority of minorities living in waterfront South and the already poor environmental situation in the neighborhood. The cement grinding facility, open year-round, processed approximately 850,000 tons of slag, a substance often used in the manufacturing of cement, and emitted harmful pollutants, such as dust particles, carbon monoxide, radioactive materials, and lead among others.[26] Also, due to the diesel-fueled trucks being used to transport the slag, a total of 77,000 trips, an additional 100 tons of pollutants were produced annually.[27]

South Camden Citizens in Action v. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection[edit]

In 2001, the SCCA filed a civil rights lawsuit against the NJDEP and the St. Lawrence Cement Company. Unlike other environmental justice cases, the lawsuit itself did not include specific accusations in regard to the environment, instead focusing on racial discrimination.[27] The SCCA accused the NJDEP of discrimination after they issued air quality permits to St. Lawrence, which would have allowed the company to run a facility that violated Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.[33] Title VI's role is to prevent agencies that receive federal funding from discriminating on the basis of race or nationality.[237] A predominantly minority neighborhood, Waterfront South, where the cement manufacturing company would operate out of, was already home to over 20% of Camden's dangerously contaminated sites.[238] In April 2001, the court, lead by Judge Stephen Orlofsky, ruled in favor of the SCCA, stating that the NJDEP was in violation of Title VI, as they had not completed a full analysis of the area in order to judge how the environmental impact from the cement facility would effect the residents of Camden.[27][35] This decision was challenged five days later with the ruling of US Supreme Court case Alexander v. Sandoval, which stated that only the federal agency in question could enforce rules and regulations, not citizens themselves. Orlofsky held his initial decision on the case and enacted another ruling that would allow citizens to make use of Section 1983, a civil rights statute which gave support to those whose rights had been infringed upon by the state,[239][240] in regard to Title VI.[27] The NJDEP and St. Lawrence went on to appeal both of Orlofsky's rulings and the Third Circuit Court of Appeals subsequently reversed Orlofsky's second decision. The appeals court ruled that Section 1983 could not be used in order to enforce a ruling regarding Title VI and that private action could not be taken by the citizens. The final ruling in the case was that, while the NJDEP and St. Lawrence did violate Title VI, the decision could not be enforced through Section 1983.[27][35] The lawsuit delayed the opening of the St. Lawrence cement facility by two months, costing the company millions of dollars. In the years following the court case, members of the SCCA were able to raise awareness concerning environmental justice at higher levels than before; they were portrayed in a positive light by news coverage in major platforms such as The New York Times, Business Week, The National Law Journal, and The Philadelphia Inquirer, and garnered support from long-time civil rights activists and the NAACP. The SCCA has engaged in several national events since the conclusion of South Camden, such as a press conference at the U.S. Senate, the Second National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, and the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights environmental justice hearings, all of which dealt with the advocacy of environmental justice.[27]

Fire department[edit]

Camden Fire Department (CFD)
Operational area
State New Jersey
City Camden
Agency overview
Established 1869
Annual calls ~10,000
Employees ~200
EMS level BLS First Responder
Facilities and equipment
Divisions 1
Battalions 2
Stations 6
Engines 5
Ladders 3
Squads 1
Rescues 1
Tenders 1
HAZMAT 1
USAR 1
Fireboats 1

Officially organized in 1869, the Camden Fire Department (CFD) is the oldest paid fire department in New Jersey and is among the oldest paid fire departments in the United States. In 1916, the CFD was the first in the United States that had an all-motorized fire apparatus fleet.[241][242] Layoffs have forced the city to rely on assistance from volunteer fire companies in surrounding communities when firefighters from all 10 fire companies are unavailable due to calls.[243]

The Camden Fire Department currently operates out of six fire stations, located throughout the city in 2 Battalions, commanded by 2 Battalion Chiefs per shift, in addition to an on-duty Deputy Chief. The CFD fire apparatus fleet consists of 5 Engine Companies, 3 Ladder Companies, 1 Squad Company, 1 Rescue Company, and several other special, support, and reserve units. Since 2010, the Camden Fire Department has suffered severe economic cutbacks, including company closures and staffing cuts.[244]

Fire station locations and apparatus[edit]

Below is a list of all fire stations and company locations in the city of Camden according to Battalion.

Engine company Ladder Company Special Unit Chief Battalion Address Neighborhood
Engine 1 Ladder 1 Car 1(Chief of Department), Car 2(Assistant Chief), Car 3(Deputy Chief), Car 4(Deputy Chief), Car 5(Fire Marshal) 1 4 N. 3rd St. Center City
Squad 7 2 1115 Kaighns Ave. Whitman Park
Engine 8 Ladder 2 Rescue 1, Rescue 2(USAR/Collapse Unit), Haz-Mat. 1 Battalion 1 1 1301 Broadway South Camden
Engine 9 Tower Ladder 3 Battalion 2 2 3 N. 27th St. East Camden
Engine 10 1 2500 Morgan Blvd. South Camden
Engine 11 2 901 N. 27th St. Cramer Hill

Waterfront[edit]

Main article: Camden Waterfront
View of the Camden waterfront from Philadelphia in 2005

One of the most popular attractions in Camden is the city's waterfront, along the Delaware River. The waterfront is highlighted by its four main attractions, the USS New Jersey; the BB&T Pavilion; Campbell's Field; and the Adventure Aquarium.[28] The waterfront is also the headquarters for Catapult Learning, a provider of K−12 contracted instructional services to public and private schools in the United States, and WebiMax, a full-service internet marketing company.

The Adventure Aquarium was originally opened in 1992 as the New Jersey State Aquarium at Camden. In 2005, after extensive renovation, the aquarium was reopened under the name Adventure Aquarium.[245] The aquarium was one of the original centerpieces in Camden's plans to revitalize the city.[246]

The Susquehanna Bank Center (formerly known as the Tweeter Center) is a 25,000-seat open-air concert amphitheater opened in 1995 and renamed after a 2008 deal in which the bank would pay $10 million over 15 years for naming rights.[247]

Campbell's Field, opened in 2001, was home to the Camden Riversharks (which folded in 2015)[248] of the independent Atlantic League; and the Rutgers–Camden baseball team.

The USS New Jersey (BB-62) was a U.S. Navy battleship that was intermittently active between the years 1943 and 1991. After its retirement, the ship was turned into the Battleship New Jersey Museum and Memorial, opened in 2001 along the waterfront. The New Jersey saw action during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and provided support off Lebanon in early 1983.[249]

Other attractions at the Waterfront are the Wiggins Park Riverstage and Marina, One Port Center, The Victor Lofts, the Walt Whitman House,[250] the Walt Whitman Cultural Arts Center, the Rutgers–Camden Center For The Arts and the Camden Children's Garden.

In June 2014, the Philadelphia 76ers announced that they would move their practice facility and home offices to the Camden Waterfront, adding 250 permanent jobs in the city creating what CEO Scott O'Neil described as "biggest and best training facility in the country" using $82 million in tax savings offered by the New Jersey Economic Development Authority.[251][252]

The Waterfront is also served by two modes of public transportation. NJ Transit serves the Waterfront on its River Line, while people from Philadelphia can commute using the RiverLink Ferry, which connects the Waterfront with Old City Philadelphia.[253]

Riverfront State Prison,[254] was a state penitentiary located near downtown Camden north of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, which opened in August 1985 having been constructed at a cost of $31 million.[255] The prison had a design capacity of 631 inmates, but housed 1,020 in 2007 and 1,017 in 2008.[256] The last prisoners were transferred in June 2009 to other locations and the prison was closed and subsequently demolished, with the site expected to be redeveloped by the State of New Jersey, the City of Camden, and private investors.[257] In December 2012, the New Jersey Legislature approved the sale of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) site, considered surplus property to the New Jersey Economic Development Authority.[258]

Education[edit]

Public schools[edit]

Camden's public schools are operated by Camden City Public Schools district. As of the 2014-15 school year, the district's 26 schools had an enrollment of 14,157 students and 982.3 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 14.4:1.[259] The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide,[260] which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.[261][262]

High schools in the district (with 2014-15 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[263]) are:

Charter schools[edit]

An important transition to education in Camden was when Chris Christie announced on March 25, 2013 at Woodrow Wilson High school that the sate of New Jersey would be taking over administration of the public schools in the city of Camden. The Department of Education had done an investigation that found in 2012, graduation rates fell 49.27%, down from 56.89% the year before. From 2011 to 2012, only 2% of camden students scored above a 1550 out of a possible 2400 on the scholastic Aptitude Test(SAT), compared with 43% students nationally. Only 19% and 30.4% of third-through eight-grade students tested proficient in language arts and in math, respectively, both numbers are below state average. Therefore, Chris Christie felt he had to take partnership with the state of New Jersey.

Camden is not the first city to be taken over by the state. Other cities like Jersey City in 1989, Paterson in 1991, Newark in 1995[269] and are currently being operated by state control according to Barbara Morgan, a spokeswoman for the New Jersey Department of Education.

Christie claimed, " I can't be a guarantor of results, none of us can, but just because we can't guarantee a positive result or because there have been some mixed results in the past, should not be used as in excuse for inaction".

On February 5, 2015 superintendent Paymon Rhouhanifard announced that the 105-year-old J.G Whittier Family School will permiantely be closed at the end of 2015.[270]

The Henry L. Bonsai Family School is becoming Camden Prep Bonsall Elementary under Renaissance charter system, East Camden Middle School will become Master, Francis X. Mc Graw Elementary School and Rafael Cordero Molina Elementary School is going to be Master. The J.G Whittier Family school will become part of the KIPP Cooper Norcross Academy charter school system.

Students were given the option to stay with the school under their transition or seek other alternatives.

On March 9, 2015 the first year of new Camden Charter Schools the enrollment raised concern. Mastery and Uncommon charter schools failed to meet enrollment projections for their first year of operation by 15% and 21%, according to Education Law Center.[271] Also, the KIPP and Uncommon Charter Schools had enrolled students with disabilities and English Language learners at a level far below the enrollment of these students in the Camden district. The enrollment data on the Mastery, Uncommon and KIPP charter chains comes form the state operated Camden district and raised questions whether or not the data is viable, especially since it had said that Camden parents prefer charters over neighborhood public schools. In addition, there was a concern that these charter schools are not serving students with special needs at comparable level to district enrollment, developing the idea of growing student segregation and isolation in Camden schools as these chains expand in the coming years.

In October 2016, Governor Chris Christie, Camden Mayor Dana L. Redd, Camden Public Schools Superintendent Paymon Rouhanifard, and state and local representatives announced a historical $133 million investment of a new Camden High School Project.[272] The new school is planned to be ready for student occupancy in 2021. It would have 9th and 12th grade. The school has a history of a 100 years and has needed endless repairs. The plan is to give students a 21st-century education.

Chris Christie states, " This new, state-of-the-art school will honor the proud tradition of the Castle on the Hill, enrich our society and improve the lives of students and those around them".

Charter/Renaissance schools in Camden[edit]

  • Hope Community CS 836 S. 4th Street Camden, NJ 08103
  • Freedom Prep Charter School 1000 Atlantic ave Camden, NJ 08104
  • Environment Community Opportunity Charter School 817 Carpenter street, Bridgeview complex camden, NJ 08102)
  • Camden's Promise Charter School 879 Beideman Ave Camden, NJ 08105
  • Camden Community Charter School 9th & Linden Streets Camden, NJ 08102
  • Leap Academy University Charter School 549 Cooper street, Camden, NJ 08102
  • Kipp Academy has four schools in one.

Private education[edit]

Holy Name School, Sacred Heart Grade School, St. Anthony of Padua School and St. Joseph Pro-Cathedral School are K-8 elementary schools operating under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Camden.[273] They operate as four of the five schools in the Catholic Partnership Schools, a post-parochial model of Urban Catholic Education.[274] The Catholic Partnership Schools are committed to sustaining safe and nurturing schools that inspire and prepare students for rigorous, college preparatory secondary schools or vocations.

Higher education[edit]

View of Rutgers University–Camden with Philadelphia skyline in background in Autumn

The University District, adjacent to the downtown, is home to the following institutions:

Libraries[edit]

The city was once home to two Carnegie libraries, the Main Building[283] and the Cooper Library in Johnson Park.[284] The city's once extensive library system has been beleaguered by financial difficulties and in 2010 threatened to close at the end of the year, but was incorporated into the county system.[285][286] The main branch closed in February 2011,[287] and was later reopened by the county in the bottom floor of the Paul Robeson Library at Rutgers University.[288]

In addition to the Paul Robeson Library at Rutgers University, there are academic libraries at Cooper Medical School at Rowan and Camden County College.

Sports[edit]

Camden Riversharks[edit]

The Camden Riversharks were an American professional baseball team based in Camden. They were a member of the Liberty Division of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball. From the 2001 season to 2015, the Riversharks played their home games at Campbell's Field, which is situated next to the Benjamin Franklin Bridge. Due to its location on the Camden Waterfront the field offers a clear view of the Philadelphia skyline. The "Riversharks" name refers to the location of Camden on the Delaware River.[citation needed] The Riversharks were the first professional baseball team in Camden, New Jersey since the 1904 season.[289]

Outside of the stadium with two campbell's mascotts leaning on a campbell's soup can.
Campbell's Field

The team wore navy, Columbia blue and white on their uniforms. The home jerseys were white with navy blue outlining and the word "Sharks" across the front in white with navy and a lighter shade of Columbia blue outlining it. The away jerseys were gray with the word "Camden" in the center across the jersey in navy blue with Columbia blue outlining.[citation needed]

When Rutgers-Camden owned the team in 2001, the River Sharks logo was a navy blue ring with the words Camden in between. Underneath was a sharp toothed shark eating the words "River Sharks." [290] The Riversharks' last logo, introduced in 2005 with a new ownership group, consisted of a shark biting a baseball bat superimposed over a depiction of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge.[291]

On October 21, 2015, the Camden Riversharks announced they would cease operations immediately due to the inability to reach an agreement on lease terms with the owner of Campbell's Field, the Camden County Improvement Authority. The Atlantic League of Professional Baseball, whom the Riversharks play for, announced New Britain Rock Cats had joined the league and Camden was one of two teams which could potentially replace the New England team. Since negotiations with the Riversharks and The Camden County Improvement Authority could not be met, the Riversharks ended their 15 years playing at Cambell's field.[292] The Riversharks folded after losing their lease, a development that followed the purchase of the financially troubled stadium by the CCIA for $3.5 million.[293]

Campbell's Field[edit]

Campbell's Field opened alongside of the Ben Franklin Bridge in May 2001 after two years of construction. Campbell's Field is a 6,700-seat baseball park in Camden, New Jersey, United States that hosted its first regular season baseball game on May 11, 2001. The riverfront project was a joint venture backed by the state, Rutgers University, Cooper's Ferry Development Association and the Delaware River Port Authority. The construction of the ballpark was a 24 million dollar project that also included 7 million dollars in environmental remediation costs before building.[294] Before the construction of Cambell's Field, the plot of land was vacant and historically known to house industrial buildings and businesses such as Campbell Soup Company Plant No. 2, Pennsylvania & Reading Rail Road's Linden Street Freight Station. The park, located at Delaware and Penn Avenues on the Camden Waterfront features a view of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge connecting Camden and a clear view of the Philadelphia Skyline.

The ballpark remains home to the Rutgers Camden's college baseball team, and until 2015 was home to the Camden Riversharks of the independent Atlantic League of Baseball. The naming rights are owned by the Camden-based Cambell Soup Company, which paid $3 million over ten years.

The stadium remains mostly unused because the Camden County Improvement Authority declined to renew a lease with the Camden Riversharks in October 2015 and has yet to sign a new tenant for the 6,700-seat stadium.[293]

On June 15, 1999, former New Jersey Governor Christine Todd Whitman attended the stadium's first game.[294]

Cambell's field was one of the projects designed to bring urban renewal in Camden. In 2003, Campbell's Field was honored by Digitalballparks.com as "Ball Park of the Year." [295] Campbell's Field was again honored in 2004 by Baseball America as the "Ballpark of the Year."[296] Campbell's Field has been honored with several local awards, including the Camden County Improvement Authority Entertainment Award in 2000, the International Masonry Institute Golden Trowel Award in 2001, the Urban Land Institute's Award for Excellence in 2002, the Downtown New Jersey Excellence Award, the New Jersey Business and Industry Association Good Neighbor Award, and the Distinguished Award for Engineering Excellence given by the Consulting Engineers Council of New Jersey in 2003.

Campbell's Field was bought in August 2015 by the Camden County Improvement Authority (CCIA). In October 2015, after failing to reach an agreement with CCIA, the stadium's primary professional tenant, the Camden Riversharks, ceased operations.

The Acme Fun Zone is a playground are that provides entertainment for children. The zone is hosted by the Riversharks mascot, Finely, and includes a carousel and various inflatables. It was formerly called the Utz Fun Zone and Holman Fun Zone.[297]

Campbell's Field offers multiple seating options for its patrons. Executives can enjoy the Diamond Café. The diamond cafe includes a gourmet buffet, waiting service, and clear view of the skyline.

Club Sport League Venue Logo
Camden Riversharks (from 2001 to 2015) Baseball Atlantic League of Professional Baseball Campbell's Field Camden Riversharks (logo).jpg

Crime[edit]

Camden
Crime rates* (2009)
Violent crimes
Homicide 34
Robbery 766
Aggravated assault 1,020
Total violent crime 1,880
Property crimes
Burglary 1,035
Larceny-theft 2,251
Motor vehicle theft 649
Arson 137
Total property crime 3,935
Notes

*Number of reported crimes per 100,000 population.

2009 population: 78,980

Source: 2009 FBI UCR Data

Morgan Quitno has ranked Camden as one of the top ten most dangerous cities in the United States since 1998, when they first included cities with populations less than 100,000. Camden was ranked as the third-most dangerous city in 2002. Camden was ranked as the most dangerous city overall in 2004 and 2005.[298][299] It improved to the fifth spot for the 2006 and 2007 rankings but rose to number two in 2008[300][301][302] and to the most dangerous spot in 2009.[303] Morgan Quitno based its rankings on crime statistics reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in six categories: murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, and auto theft.[304] In The Nation, journalist Chris Hedges describes Camden as "the physical refuse of postindustrial America",[305] plagued with homelessness, drug trafficking, prostitution, robbery, looting, constant violence, and an overwhelmed police force (which in 2011 lost nearly half of its officers to budget-related layoffs).[306]

In 2005, reported homicides in Camden dropped to 34, 15 fewer murders than in 2004.[307] Though Camden's murder rate was still much higher than the national average, the reduction in 2005 was a drop of over 30%. In 2006, the number of murders climbed to 40. While murders fell by 10% across New Jersey in 2009, Camden's murder rate declined from 55 in 2008 down to 33, a drop of 40% that was credited to anti-gang efforts and more firearms seizures.[308] Despite significant cuts in the police department due to the city's fiscal difficulties, murders in 2009 and 2010 were both under 40, staying below the peak that had occurred in 2008, and continued to decline into early 2011. However, in 2012, the city's murder rate spiked and reached 62.[309]

On October 29, 2012, the FBI announced Camden was ranked first in violent crime per capita of cities with over 50,000 residents.[310] In December 2012, Camden residents surrendered approximately 1,137 firearms to two local churches over a two-day period.[311]

Law enforcement[edit]

In 2015, the Camden Police Department was operated by the state.[312] In 2011, it was announced that a county police department would be formed.[313] On May 1, 2013, the police department was disbanded and the newly created Camden County Police Department took over full responsibility for policing the city of Camden.[314]

Points of interest[edit]

Campbell's Field

In popular culture[edit]

The fictional Camden mayor Carmine Polito in the 2013 film American Hustle is loosely based on 1970s Camden mayor Angelo Errichetti.[319]

The 1995 film 12 Monkeys contains scenes on Camden's Admiral Wilson Boulevard.[320]

Camden is a setting in "Self-Destruct", a third-season episode of The CW television show Nikita, in which Alex and Nikita destroys a drug and human trafficking gang and their headquarters.

Notable people[edit]

Community members[edit]

Artists[edit]

Politicians[edit]

Athletes[edit]

Other[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anthony DePalma, "The Talk of Camden; A City in Pain Hopes for Relief Under Florio", The New York Times, February 7, 1990.
  2. ^ a b c d e f 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
  3. ^ a b US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 29, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Mayor's Office, City of Camden. Accessed June 24, 2016.
  5. ^ 2016 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed June 14, 2016.
  6. ^ Office of the Business Administrator, City of Camden. Accessed December 1, 2011.
  7. ^ Office of the City Clerk, City of Camden. Accessed July 2, 2012.
  8. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 28.
  9. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: City of Camden, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h DP-1 – Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Camden city, Camden County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 1, 2011.
  11. ^ a b The Counties and Most Populous Cities and Townships in 2010 in New Jersey: 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed November 20, 2016.
  12. ^ a b c Municipalities Grouped by 2011–2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 3. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  13. ^ a b Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Camden city, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed September 7, 2011.
  14. ^ a b PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015 - 2015 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 22, 2016.
  15. ^ a b GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – State – County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed October 4, 2012.
  16. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code, United States Postal Service. Accessed November 15, 2013.
  17. ^ Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed October 21, 2013.
  18. ^ Area Code Lookup – NPA NXX for Camden, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed October 22, 2013.
  19. ^ a b American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 29, 2014.
  20. ^ "A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey", Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed July 2, 2012.
  21. ^ US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed July 29, 2014.
  22. ^ a b How Will Camden Be Counted in the 2010 Census?, CamConnect.org. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  23. ^ a b Camden Facts, Camconnect.org. Accessed May 27, 2012.
  24. ^ a b Camden, New Jersey Neighborhood Map, City-data.com. Accessed May 27, 2012.
  25. ^ a b Locality Search, State of New Jersey. Accessed May 21, 2015.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Gillette Jr., Howard (2006). Camden After the Fall: Decline and Renewal in a Post-Industrial City. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1968-6. 
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "History | City of Camden". www.ci.camden.nj.us. Retrieved 2016-11-09. 
  28. ^ a b Attractions, CamdenWaterfront.com. Accessed December 1, 2011.
  29. ^ a b History, Rutgers University–Camden. Accessed April 5, 2016.
  30. ^ a b The Camden Higher Education and Healthcare Task Force: A Winning Investment for the City of Camden
  31. ^ "Election Results | Camden County, NJ". www.camdencounty.com. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  32. ^ a b c d e Greenberg, Gail. "County History", Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  33. ^ a b c Haines family. Cooper's Ferry daybook, 1819–1824. Retrieved April 17, 2014. 
  34. ^ Reynolds, David S. (1996). Walt Whitman's America: A Cultural Biography. New York: First Vintage Books Edition. ISBN 0-394-58023-0. 
  35. ^ a b c "Rutgers University Computing Services – Camden".[dead link]
  36. ^ O'Reilly, David. "An RCA museum grows at Rowan", The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 27, 2013. Accessed October 13, 2015. " Radio Corp. of America's "contributions to South Jersey were enormous," said Joseph Pane, deputy director of the RCA Heritage Program at Rowan, which he helped create two years ago.'At its peak in the 1960s it employed 12,000 people; 4,500 were engineers.'"
  37. ^ New York Shipbuilding, Camden NJ, Shipbuilding History, March 17, 2014. Accessed October 13, 2015. "At its peak, New York Ship employed 30,000 people. It continued in both naval and merchant shipbuilding after WWII but closed in 1967."
  38. ^ "Made in S.J.: Campbell Soup Co.". Portal to gallery of photographs (20) related to The Campbell Soup Company. Courier-Post. Undated. Accessed December 25, 2009.
  39. ^ "Made in S.J.: Shipbuilding". Portal to gallery of photographs (16) related to shipbuilding in Camden. Courier-Post. Undated. Accessed December 25, 2009.
  40. ^ Encarta Encyclopedia: Ship. Accessed June 23, 2006. Archived October 31, 2009.
  41. ^ Staff. "Unnecessary excellence: what public-housing design can learn from its past.", Harper's Magazine, March 1, 2005. Accessed July 3, 2011. "'If it indicates the kind of Government housing that is to follow, we may all rejoice.' So wrote a critic for The Journal of the American Institute of Architects in 1918 about Yorkship Village, one of America's first federally funded public-housing projects. Located in Camden, New Jersey, Yorkship Village was designed to be a genuine neighborhood, as can be seen from these original architectural plans."
  42. ^ "Made in S.J.: RCA Victor". Portal to gallery of photographs (22) related to the Victor Talking Machine Company. Courier-Post, January 30, 2008. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  43. ^ Staff. "General Electric gets go-ahead to acquire RCA", Houston Chronicle, June 5, 1986. Accessed July 3, 2011. "The Federal Communications Commission cleared the way today for General Electric Co. to acquire RCA Corp. and its subsidiaries, including the NBC network. In allowing the transfer of RCA, the commission rejected four petitions to block the $6.28 billion deal.'
  44. ^ a b c d e "Ben Franklin Bridge". www.whyy.org. Retrieved 2016-12-16. 
  45. ^ Slavin, Barbara (August 8, 1978). "It's Technology to the Rescue of Drive-In Movie Theaters; 4,000 Drive-In Theaters in 1958". The New York Times. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  46. ^ Lewis, Mary Beth. "Ten Best First Facts", in Car and Driver, January 1988, p. 92.
  47. ^ a b Ramsland, Katherine. "Rampage in Camden", TruTV. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  48. ^ Staff. "2 Killed in Camden Rioting; Sniper Fire Blamed", The New York Times, September 3, 1969. Accessed November 26, 2016.
  49. ^ Winkler, Renee. "Rioting Deepened Camden's Divisions", Courier-Post, February 1, 2007. Accessed November 26, 2016.
  50. ^ Dorwart, Jeffery M. Camden County, New Jersey: the making of a metropolitan community, 1626–2000, p. 154. Rutgers University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8135-2958-1. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  51. ^ "CAMDEN NJ - The Riot of 1971". dvrbs.com. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  52. ^ "A Riot That Redefined A City 20 Years Ago, Camden Erupted". philly-archives. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  53. ^ Staff. "17 OF CAMDEN 28 FOUND NOT GUILTY; Admitted Draft-Office Raid—Both Sides Ask Dismissal of Charges on 11 Others", The New York Times, May 21, 1973. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  54. ^ Staff. "Man Frisked by Whitman Awaits Appeal in Unrelated Drug Case ", The New York Times, July 19, 2000. Accessed December 20, 2014.
  55. ^ L-3 Communications Holdings, Inc. History, Funding Universe. Accessed November 17, 2014.
  56. ^ Colimore, Edward. "A new battle for the USS New Jersey", The Philadelphia Inquirer, March 12, 2012. Accessed July 29, 2014. "'The Home Port Alliance "has had the ship in the best of times and worst of times and couldn't make it work,' said von Zwehl, a member of the USS New Jersey Battleship Commission that helped bring the vessel to the state in 1999."
  57. ^ a b "Eds and Meds as an Economic Engine for the City of Camden and the State of New Jersey" (PDF). rurcbog.com. Rowan University/Rutgers-Camden Board of Governors. Retrieved December 5, 2016. 
  58. ^ "American FactFinder". factfinder.census.gov. United States Census Bureau. 2014. Retrieved December 5, 2016. 
  59. ^ Walsh, Jim (March 13, 2016). "Waterfront complex not just buildings". Courier-Post. Retrieved December 5, 2016. 
  60. ^ Hurdle, Jon (September 29, 2015). "A Bold Plan to Remake Camden's Waterfront". New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2016. 
  61. ^ Walsh, Jim (July 9, 2014). "EDA to vote on $260 million for Holtec Camden project". Courier-Post. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  62. ^ Shelly, Jared (November 11, 2014). "Lockheed Martin gets $107 million in tax credits to operate in Camden". Retrieved December 6, 2016 – via bizjournals.com. 
  63. ^ a b Steele, Allison (July 21, 2016). "As Subaru plans move to Camden, a few bumps in the road". The Inquirer. Retrieved December 6, 2016 – via philly.com. 
  64. ^ a b Gelston, Dan (September 22, 2016). "Sixers practice facility set to open on Camden Waterfront". Courier-Post. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  65. ^ Whittaker, Celeste (September 23, 2016). "Sixers training facility rises above Camden". Courier-Post. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  66. ^ "Sixers Training Complex". nba.com. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  67. ^ McQuade, Dan (December 4, 2014). "Subaru to Move U.S. Headquarters to Camden". Philly Mag. Retrieved December 6, 2016. 
  68. ^ Admiral Wilson Boulevard, DVRBS.com. Accessed July 29, 2014. "In anticipation of the 2000 Republican Convention held in Philadelphia, then New Jersey Governor Christine Todd Whitman spent a great amount of taxpayer dollars in acquiring all the commercial properties on the south side of the boulevard east of the Cooper River to the Airport Circle. Every building was razed, grass and trees were planted, and a park, which no one can park at or really use, was created."
  69. ^ Levins, Hoag. "A HUNDRED YEARS OF CAMDEN'S RCA BUILDING 17; Former Employees Pack Centennial Event in Famed 'Nipper' Landmark", HistoricCamdenCounty.com, July 17, 2009. Accessed December 20, 2014. "Although once officially known as number 17, but colloquially called the 'Nipper Building,'" the structure was extensively renovated and rebranded as 'The Victor' in 2002 by developer Carl Dranoff. The floors above the restaurant are now luxury apartments."
  70. ^ Staff. "185 Camden cases tossed, 'corrupt' police work blamed", New York Post, April 3, 2010. Accessed December 21, 2014.
  71. ^ "Camden Agrees to Pay $3.5M to Victims of Police Corruption", American Civil Liberties Union, January 10, 2013. Accessed December 21, 2014. "The City of Camden has agreed to pay $3.5 million in damages to 88 people whose convictions were overturned because of widespread corruption in the Camden Police Department."
  72. ^ via Associated Press. "2 NJ officers charged in police corruption case", Fox News, October 14, 2010. Accessed April 5, 2016. "Corruption charges were announced Thursday against two Camden police officers accused of falsifying evidence in drug cases in what are expected to be the last charges filed in a case that led authorities to dismiss more than 200 criminal cases."
  73. ^ Mast, George (May 1, 2013). "New Boots on the Ground". Courier-Post. pp. 1A, 6A. 
  74. ^ Areas touching Camden, MapIt. Accessed April 5, 2016.
  75. ^ Staff. "Fairview begins new experiment", Courier-Post, December 6, 2001. Accessed February 17, 2011. "This village-like neighborhood at the southern edge of Camden was America's first planned community for the working class."
  76. ^ "A Place Called Yorkship — Electus Litchfield's Plan". Accessed June 23, 2006.
  77. ^ Port History, South Jersey Port Corporation. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  78. ^ Port Audit Decried As Political Attack, Red Orbit, September 8, 2005.
  79. ^ Fair, Richard L. "South Jersey Port Corporation", Office of the State Auditor", October 28, 2005. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  80. ^ Census Estimates for New Jersey April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 29, 2016.
  81. ^ Barnett, Bob. Population Data for Camden County Municipalities, 1800 – 2000, WestJersey.org, January 6, 2011. Accessed October 15, 2012.
  82. ^ Barnett, Bob. Population Data for Camden County Municipalities, 1850 – 2000, WestJersey.org. December 6, 2010. Accessed July 2, 2012.
  83. ^ Compendium of censuses 1726–1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed August 12, 2013.
  84. ^ Bowen, Francis. American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1843, p. 232, David H. Williams, 1842. Accessed August 12, 2013. Population of 3,366 listed for 1840 is five less than the value shown in other sources.
  85. ^ Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 278, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed August 12, 2013. "The city of Camden contained in 1850, 9,479 inhabitants; in 1860, 14,358; and in 1870, 20,045. This city is divided into eight wards."
  86. ^ Debow, James Dunwoody Brownson. The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, p. 137. R. Armstrong, 1853. Accessed August 12, 2013.
  87. ^ Staff. A compendium of the ninth census, 1870, p. 259. United States Census Bureau, 1872. Accessed August 12, 2013.
  88. ^ Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III – 51 to 75, p. 97. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed August 12, 2013.
  89. ^ Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 335. Accessed July 2, 2012.
  90. ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 – Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 710. Accessed December 1, 2011.
  91. ^ Table 6. New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed August 9, 2016.
  92. ^ a b c d e Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Camden city, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 25, 2011.
  93. ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 – Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Camden city, Camden County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed October 4, 2012.
  94. ^ a b c d e State & County QuickFacts: Camden, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  95. ^ a b c "Table 31. New Jersey – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Large Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990", United States Census Bureau, released July 13, 2005. Accessed July 21, 2015. For 1970, data was used from the 15% sample for Hispanic / Non-Hispanic percentage counts.
  96. ^ "Poverty in the City of Camden", Legal Services of New Jersey, April 2007. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  97. ^ Fahim, Kareem. "Rethinking Revitalization; In Crumbling Camden, New Challenges for a Recovery Plan", The New York Times, November 5, 2006. Accessed February 17, 2011.
  98. ^ Diaz, Joseph. "Waiting on the World to Change", 20/20 (US television series), January 25, 2007. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  99. ^ Diaz, Joseph. "Camden's Little Citizens With Big Dreams: Community Still Full of Children With Great Promise and Great Need", 20/20 (US television series), November 9, 2007, backed up by the Internet Archive as of October 28, 2009. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  100. ^ 2011 NJ Annual Average Labor Force Estimates by Municipality, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development Labor Planning and Analysis, March 30, 2012. Accessed July 2, 2012.
  101. ^ Staff. "S. Jersey faring worse on jobs than Phila. area", The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 29, 2009. Accessed July 26, 2011. "The unemployment rate in Burlington, Camden, and Gloucester Counties was 10 percent in September, compared with 7.1 percent in Bucks, Montgomery, Chester, and Delaware Counties.... The jobless rate of 19.2 percent in the troubled city of Camden weighs on the figure for South Jersey, but even without it the aggregate rate for the three counties which are home to nearly a quarter of the region's population was 9.6 percent. Add Philadelphia's 11 percent unemployment rate to the mix in Southeastern Pennsylvania and the overall rate there jumps to 8.4, still significantly below the rate in South Jersey."
  102. ^ Staff. "New census data shows N.J.'s population grew most in southern counties, became more racially diverse", The Star-Ledger, February 3, 2011. Accessed October 22, 2013.
  103. ^ Mascarenhas, Rohan. "Census data shows Hispanics as the largest minority in N.J.", The Star-Ledger, February 3, 2011. Accessed October 22, 2013.
  104. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Camden city, Camden County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed January 17, 2012.
  105. ^ Puerto-Rican Communities, EPodunk. Accessed July 26, 2011.
  106. ^ "Welcome". 1940census.archives.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-28. 
  107. ^ "DRPA - Delaware River Port Authority". www.drpa.org. Retrieved 2016-12-04. 
  108. ^ "Courier Post". May 31, 2000 – via http://www.courierpostonline.com/. 
  109. ^ "Battleship New Jersey Museum & Memorial". Battleship New Jersey. Retrieved 2016-12-04. 
  110. ^ "About SJCF". sjcaribbean.org. Retrieved 2016-12-12. 
  111. ^ "Camden Sophisticated Sisters – How We Got Here". camdensophisticatedsisters.org. Retrieved 2016-12-18. 
  112. ^ "Watch this Camden drill team stun on 'Dancing with the Stars'". Philly.com. Retrieved 2016-12-18. 
  113. ^ Association, Latin American Economic Development. "Latin American Economic Development Association > Home". www.laeda.com. Retrieved 2016-12-12. 
  114. ^ "San Juan Bautista Parade | Just another WordPress site". sjbp.org. Retrieved 2016-12-12. 
  115. ^ Riley, Clint (August 23, 1971). "Courier Post" – via http://courierpostonline.newspapers.com/. 
  116. ^ "Waterfront South | www.livecamden.org". www.livecamden.org. Retrieved 2016-11-09. 
  117. ^ "Camden s 3rd Thursday Art Crawl". www.camdenwaterfront.com. Retrieved 2016-12-04. 
  118. ^ "ThomasLift | THOMAS LIFT, LLC". thomaslift.com. Retrieved 2016-12-12. 
  119. ^ "Connect the Lots - Camden - About | Facebook". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  120. ^ "Google". www.google.com. Retrieved 2016-12-18. 
  121. ^ "Kroc Center - Camden | Facebook". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2016-12-07. 
  122. ^ "Salvation Army's Kroc center finally opens in Camden". Courier-Post. Retrieved 2016-12-07. 
  123. ^ Atack, Jon (1990). A Piece of Blue Sky. New York, NY: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8184-0499-3. 
  124. ^ Hubbard, L. Ron. "Pulpateer". Church of Scientology International. Retrieved 2006-06-07. 
  125. ^ "Sacred Heart | Our Parish". www.sacredheartcamden.org. Retrieved 2016-12-18. 
  126. ^ "St. Luke's Catholic Medical Services in North Camden | Catholic Star Herald". catholicstarherald.org. Retrieved 2016-12-18. 
  127. ^ stlukescms. "St. Luke's Catholic Medical Services". Retrieved 2016-12-18. 
  128. ^ a b c d e Speer, Paul W.; Ontkush, Mark; Schmitt, Brian; Raman, Padmasini; Jackson, Courtney; Rengert, Kristopher M.; Peterson, N. Andrew (2003-09-01). "The intentional exercise of power: community organizing in Camden, New Jersey". Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology. 13 (5): 399–408. doi:10.1002/casp.745. ISSN 1099-1298. 
  129. ^ "Welcome". The Neighborhood Center in Camden. Retrieved 2016-12-19. 
  130. ^ S, Paul. "Meet Eldridge Reeves Johnson: Inventor of the Recording Industry – Cohesion Arts". Retrieved 2016-12-19. 
  131. ^ "Programs". The Neighborhood Center in Camden. Retrieved 2016-12-18. 
  132. ^ "Center for Family Services |". www.centerffs.org. Retrieved 2016-11-28. 
  133. ^ "Center for Family Services". Yahoo Local. Retrieved 2016-12-07. 
  134. ^ a b c "Message from the President | Center for Family Services". www.centerffs.org. 2011-04-04. Retrieved 2016-12-16. 
  135. ^ "Cathedral Kitchen – Cathedral Kitchen Uses food to change lives". www.cathedralkitchen.org. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  136. ^ a b "CK's History – Cathedral Kitchen". www.cathedralkitchen.org. Retrieved 2016-12-16. 
  137. ^ "The Cathedral Soup Kitchen Inc - Camden, NJ - Company Profile". www.dandb.com. Retrieved 2016-12-15. 
  138. ^ "CK Café – Cathedral Kitchen". www.cathedralkitchen.org. Retrieved 2016-12-15. 
  139. ^ a b "Serving Community – Cathedral Kitchen". www.cathedralkitchen.org. Retrieved 2016-12-15. 
  140. ^ "Home - Catholic Charities". Catholic Charities. Retrieved 2016-12-19. 
  141. ^ "Donated reading materials to benefit refugee families | Diocese of Camden". cdtest.camdendiocese.org. Retrieved 2016-12-17. 
  142. ^ "About CCOP - CCOP". www.camdenchurches.org. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  143. ^ "Cooper-Grant". Cooper-Grant. Retrieved 2016-12-19. 
  144. ^ "Cooper Grant Historic District, Camden City, Camden County, Camden, NJ, 08102". www.livingplaces.com. Retrieved 2016-12-17. 
  145. ^ anonymous. "About Us - Our History | Cooper University Health Care - World-Class Healthcare for South Jersey, Philadelphia and the Delaware Valley". www.cooperhealth.org. Retrieved 2016-12-17. 
  146. ^ "Healthy Cooper-Grant neighborhood seen as bridge to rest of Camden". PhillyVoice. 2016-09-08. Retrieved 2016-12-19. 
  147. ^ "Project H.O.P.E. – Camden Healthcare for the Homeless". projecthopecamden.org. Retrieved 2016-12-19. 
  148. ^ "Project H.O.P.E. – Camden Healthcare for the Homeless". projecthopecamden.org. Retrieved 2016-12-18. 
  149. ^ "Amazon Smile - Heart of Camden". www.heartofcamden.org. Retrieved 2016-12-18. 
  150. ^ "Camden DCCB | Improving Camden's Quality Of Life". camdendccb.org. Retrieved 2016-12-19. 
  151. ^ "Economic Development - Heart of Camden". www.heartofcamden.org. Retrieved 2016-12-18. 
  152. ^ "Home". Fellowship House of South Camden. Retrieved 2016-12-19. 
  153. ^ "Mission & History". Fellowship House of South Camden. Retrieved 2016-12-18. 
  154. ^ "Volunteers of America". Volunteers of America: Delaware Valley. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  155. ^ "Home For The Brave | Volunteers of America". Volunteers of America: Delaware Valley. Retrieved 2016-12-18. 
  156. ^ Geographic & Urban Redevelopment Tax Credit Programs: Urban Enterprise Zone Employee Tax Credit, State of New Jersey, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 25, 2009. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  157. ^ "Campbell's Soup Topping Off Ceremony". Portal to gallery of photographs (36) related to the topping-off ceremony of the headquarters of the Campbell Soup Company. Courier-Post. April 24, 2009. Accessed December 25, 2009.
  158. ^ "Campbell Soup Company Acquires 1300 Admiral Wilson Boulevard in Camden", Business Wire, June 11, 2012. Accessed December 21, 2014. "Campbell Soup Company (NYSE:CPB) today announced it has purchased 1300 Admiral Wilson Boulevard in Camden, from Camden Gateway Properties, I, LLC. The 4-acre property includes the vacant Sears building."
  159. ^ Lune, Jack. "$1.1B Redevelopment Targets Camden, N.J., One of Nation's Poorest Cities". Site Selection. Retrieved December 12, 2013. 
  160. ^ Merritt, Athena D. (March 30, 2009). "Constructive Ideas in Camden". Philadelphia Business Journal. Retrieved December 12, 2013. 
  161. ^ Katz, Matt. "Feds: Bryant took bribes to gentrify Camden", The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 28, 2010. Accessed April 5, 2016.
  162. ^ Laday, Jason (July 10, 2014). "Paulsboro port construction, Camden's Holtec manufacturing plant boosted by $260M tax break". South Jersey Times. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  163. ^ DiStefano, Joseph N. DiStegano (July 10, 2014). "NJ approves $260M in tax breaks for Holtec Camden factory". The Star-Ledger. Retrieved July 10, 2014. 
  164. ^ Laday, Jason (November 10, 2014). "New Jersey EDA awards 10-year, $107 million tax break to Lockheed Martin to open facilities in Camden". South Jersey Times. Retrieved December 9, 2014. 
  165. ^ Parmley, Suzette (October 26, 2014). "Holt Logistics part of move to Camden waterfront". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved December 9, 2014. 
  166. ^ Laday, Jason. "Subaru of America announces move to Camden pending $118M in state tax breaks", South Jersey Times, December 5, 2014. Accessed May 21, 2015.
  167. ^ "Camden-bound companies set to receive $630 million in state tax breaks". NJ.com. 
  168. ^ "Chris Christie's Latest Camden Giveaways Deserve as Much Skepticism as the 76ers Deal". nextcity.org. 
  169. ^ Voter Participation in Camden City: Gubernatorial Election. Accessed June 23, 2006.
  170. ^ City Council: Government Structure and Services, City of Camden. Accessed June 24, 2016.
  171. ^ Council Members, City of Camden. Accessed March 14, 2015.
  172. ^ 2016 Municipal Data Sheet, City of Camden. Accessed June 24, 2016.
  173. ^ Official Election Results 2015 General Election November 3, 2015, Camden County, New Jersey, November 19, 2015. Accessed June 23, 2016.
  174. ^ Official Election Results 2013 General Election November 5, 2013, Camden County, New Jersey, November 14, 2013. Accessed June 23, 2016.
  175. ^ Staff. "Milan Begins Sentence", The New York Times, July 16, 2001. Accessed July 2, 2012. "Former Mayor Milton Milan, 38, convicted of corruption charges in December, is now serving his seven-year sentence at a low-security federal prison in Loretto, Pa., where he was transferred Friday. ... On June 15, Mr. Milan was sentenced on 14 counts of corruption, including taking payoffs from the mob, as well as concealing the source of a $65,000 loan from a drug kingpin."
  176. ^ Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  177. ^ 2016 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 55, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed July 20, 2016.
  178. ^ Districts by Number for 2011–2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  179. ^ Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
  180. ^ About Cory Booker, United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "He now owns a home and lives in Newark's Central Ward community."
  181. ^ Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "He currently lives in Paramus and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
  182. ^ Senators of the 114th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
  183. ^ Legislative Roster 2016-2017 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 17, 2016.
  184. ^ "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  185. ^ "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  186. ^ What is a Freeholder?, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  187. ^ Freeholder Louis Cappelli, Jr., Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  188. ^ Freeholder Edward T. McDonnell, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  189. ^ Freeholder Michelle Gentek, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  190. ^ Freeholder Ian K. Leonard, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  191. ^ Freeholder Jeffrey L. Nash, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  192. ^ Freeholder Carmen Rodriguez, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  193. ^ Jonathan L. Young, Sr., Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  194. ^ Daniels, Mark. "Carpenters union official tapped for Camden County Freeholder seat", South Jersey Times, January 22, 2015. Accessed May 12, 2015. "Democratic leaders in Camden County have nominated a construction union official from Berlin Township to fill an open seat on the board of chosen freeholders. Jonathan L. Young Sr., 45, has been nominated to replace Scot McCray, who resigned from the board in late December, citing a desire to spend more time with his family."
  195. ^ a b Board of Freeholders, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  196. ^ County Clerk, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  197. ^ Sheriff, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  198. ^ Surrogate's Office, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  199. ^ Prosecutor's Office, Camden County, New Jersey. Accessed May 12, 2015.
  200. ^ Hedges, Chris. " City of RuinsWalt Whitman's hometown is a Dickensian nightmare—and a warning for the rest of America", Utne Reader, March–April 2011. Accessed July 29, 2014. "Corruption is rampant, with three mayors convicted of felonies in a little more than two decades."
  201. ^ via United Press International. "Pennsylvania Congressman, Three Others Found Guilty in Abscam Corruption Trial", The Hour (newspaper), August 30, 1980. Accessed December 20, 2014.
  202. ^ Sherman, Ted. "Jersey Hustle: The real-life story of Abscam", The Star-Ledger, November 25, 2013. Accessed December 20, 2014. "The producers of American Hustle call it a work of fiction.... But while names have been changed, and many of its characters transformed or wholly invented by the screenwriters, it is no secret that the highly awaited film, which opens later this month, is based on the infamous Abscam case."
  203. ^ Schurr, Brendan, via Associated Press. "Camden, N.J., Mayor Convicted of Corruption", Portsmouth Daily Times, December 22, 2000. Accessed December 20, 2014.
  204. ^ Peterson, Iver, "In Camden, Another Mayor Is Indicted on Corruption Charges", The New York Times, March 31, 2000. Accessed December 20, 2014.
  205. ^ Vargas, Caudia. "Milton Milan Jr. to seek Camden Council seat", The Philadelphia Inquirer, June 7, 2011. Accessed December 21, 2014. "The elder Milan – the city's first Hispanic mayor – was convicted in December 2000 of accepting payoffs from organized crime, soliciting bribes and free home renovations from city vendors, skimming money from a political-action committee, and laundering drug money."
  206. ^ "Bryant is region's king of double dipping". Courier-Post. Retrieved June 30, 2012. 
  207. ^ Graber, Trish G. "Former Sen. Wayne Bryant gets four years in prison for bribery, fraud", NJ.com, July 25, 2009. Accessed December 21, 2014. "Bryant, who left office in 2007, helped steer $10.5 million in state grants to his employer, a school within the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. Now he will have to pay $113,167 in restitution to UMDNJ and a $25,000 fine."
  208. ^ Ryan, Joe. "Ex-N.J. senator Wayne Bryant is indicted on additional bribery charges", The Star-Ledger, September 27, 2010. Accessed December 20, 2014.
  209. ^ Voter Registration Summary – Camden, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed October 15, 2012.
  210. ^ "Presidential General Election Results – November 6, 2012 – Camden County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. March 15, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2014. 
  211. ^ "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast – November 6, 2012 – General Election Results – Camden County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. March 15, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2014. 
  212. ^ 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Camden County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed October 15, 2012.
  213. ^ 2004 Presidential Election: Camden County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed October 15, 2012.
  214. ^ "Governor – Camden County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014. 
  215. ^ "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast – November 5, 2013 – General Election Results – Camden County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014. 
  216. ^ 2009 Governor: Camden County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed October 15, 2012.
  217. ^ Camden County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
  218. ^ Interstate 676 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2008. Accessed July 29, 2014.
  219. ^ Broadway Station (Walter Rand Transportation Center), PATCO Speedline. Accessed October 22, 2013.
  220. ^ Camden County Bus/Rail Connections, NJ Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  221. ^ South Jersey Transit Guide, Cross County Connection, as of April 1, 2010. Accessed December 13, 2014.
  222. ^ Barna, John. "NJ Transit advances rapid transit bus plan for Gloucester, Camden counties", Gloucester County Times, June 12, 2012. Accessed October 4, 2012. "The 'Bus Rapid Transit System' envisioned by NJ Transit would have a 23-mile line run from the existing Avandale Park and Ride station in Winslow along the Atlantic City Expressway, Route 42 and Interstates 76 and 676 with stops at Camden County College in Gloucester Township, the Walter Rand Transportation Center in Camden and Center City Philadelphia."
  223. ^ RiverLink Ferry Service, RiverLink Ferry System. Accessed July 29, 2014.
  224. ^ Pomar, Olga (2002). "Fighting for Air". www.nhi.org. National Housing Institute. Retrieved 14 November 2016. 
  225. ^ Van Sant, Will (5 February 2002). "Camden residents plan suit over polluted drinking water - The city and a Pennsauken landfill were told they would be targets in a lawsuit over six wells on a Superfund site. Camden, landfill are facing lawsuit over tainted wells". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 14 November 2016 – via Access World News. 
  226. ^ Redd, Dana; Mitchell, Meishka (8 January 2015). "Reinvesting in Urban Water Infrastructure through Combined Sewer Outflow Long Term Control Plans" (PDF). nj.gov/. Camden SMART. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  227. ^ "Combined Sewer Outfall Individual NJPDES Discharge Permits Camden Area Permits FAQs 2013" (PDF). nj.gov/. Camden SMART. Retrieved 3 December 2016. 
  228. ^ "Camden County MUA - Welcome". www.ccmua.org. Retrieved 2 November 2016. 
  229. ^ Foster, Sheila. "The Challenge of Environmental Justice". Rutgers University Journal of Law and Urban Policy. 1. 
  230. ^ "Superfund Record of Decision: Welsbach & General Gas Mantle Contamination Site (Camden), Camden & Gloucester City, NJ (7/23/1999)". nepis.epa.gov/. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 23 July 1999. Retrieved 28 November 2016. 
  231. ^ "Site Information for WELSBACH & GENERAL GAS MANTLE (CAMDEN RADIATION)". cumulis.epa.gov/. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 28 November 2016. 
  232. ^ Greenberg, Morton (2001). "South Camden Citizens in Action v. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection" (PDF). sandiego.edu. United States Court of Appeals. 
  233. ^ Katz, Matt (20 March 2009). "Camden trash plant is criticized - Many at a permit-renewal hearing urged tougher pollution controls. But officials defended the site.". www.newsbank.com. The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  234. ^ "Superfund: National Priorities List (NPL)". epa.gov. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  235. ^ a b "EPA to Cleanup Superfund Site in Camden County - Martin Aaron". epa.gov. United States Environmental Protection Agency. 24 October 2005. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  236. ^ "EPA Superfund Program: MARTIN AARON, INC., CAMDEN, NJ". epa.gov. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  237. ^ "TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 42 U.S.C. § 2000D ET SEQ.". justice.gov. United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 4 December 2016. 
  238. ^ Berry; et al. (2003). Not in My Backyard: Executive Order 12,898 and Title VI as Tools for Achieving Environmental Justice. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. p. 86. 
  239. ^ "Section 1983 Civil Rights Action Guide". kcll.org. Public Law Library of King County. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  240. ^ Brintnall, Kent (2002). "Section 1983 Outline" (PDF). uscourts.gov. United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  241. ^ Camden Fire Department, City of Camden. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  242. ^ Bureau of Emergency Services Citywide Tour Command, City of Camden. Accessed July 3, 2011.
  243. ^ Simon, Darran. "Camden mayor voices concern to N.J. over fires", The Philadelphia Inquirer, June 13, 2011. Accessed July 13, 2011. "Redd said she wanted to 'dispel any misinformation' about the need for manpower from other towns to help Camden firefighters on Thursday and Saturday. Camden's Fire Department is down by 29 positions after layoffs by the cash-strapped city in January. Camden relies on assistance from suburban companies, most of them staffed by volunteers, when the city's ten companies are all deployed."
  244. ^ Katz, Matt; and Simin, Darran. "Camden's worst-case budget scenario calls for 350-plus layoffs", The Philadelphia Inquirer, October 8, 2010. Accessed July 3, 2011. "Camden will lay off more than 150 police officers, 77 firefighters, and about 150 other employees unless the mayor can wrest concessions in union contracts in the coming days, according to union officials and employees. The cuts, described as the worst-case scenario, would amount to more than a third of the city's unionized workforce."
  245. ^ "Aquarium Accredited". Portal to gallery of photographs (6) related to the Adventure Aquarium. Courier-Post. March 31, 1999. Accessed December 25, 2009.
  246. ^ Strauss, Robert. "Camden Still Finds Itself Treading Water", The New York Times, April 30, 2006. Accessed July 3, 2011. "Three years ago, with great fanfare, Gov. Jim McGreevey announced the transfer of development rights for those 33 acres (13 ha) to Steiner and Associates, a Cincinnati firm, along with a $3 million grant and a $15 million loan to get started on a proposed $53 million renovation of the state aquarium, the linchpin, according to Steiner's plans, of a retail/entertainment/commercial/residential development that would transform Camden. Three years later, Adventure Aquarium, as it is now called, is there, but the rest of the site is still made up of those parking lots."
  247. ^ Staff. "Tweeter Center is being renamed, The Camden concert venue will be Susquehanna Bank Center in a $10 million deal with the Lititz, Pa., firm.", The Philadelphia Inquirer, February 5, 2008. Accessed July 3, 2011. "Tweeter Center is being renamed, The Camden concert venue will be Susquehanna Bank Center in a $10 million deal with the Lititz, Pa., firm."
  248. ^ "Camden Riversharks Home Opener". Portal to gallery of photographs (30) related to the Camden Riversharks. Courier-Post. Undated. Accessed December 25, 2009.
  249. ^ "Visit the Battleship New Jersey". Portal to gallery of photographs (36) related to the Battleship New Jersey. Courier-Post. Undated. Accessed December 25, 2009.
  250. ^ "Camden's Historic Walt Whitman House". Portal to gallery of photographs (20) related to the Walt Whitman House. Courier-Post. Undated. Accessed December 25, 2009.
  251. ^ Laday, Jason. "Philadelphia 76ers CEO: Camden practice facility will be 'biggest and best' in U.S.", South Jersey Times, June 10, 2014. Accessed December 20, 2014. "The Philadelphia 76ers organization will move its practice space and front office operations to the Camden riverfront, following a vote by the New Jersey Economic Development Authority (EDA) Tuesday to approve $82 million in tax breaks to the team over the next 10 years."
  252. ^ Laday, Jason. "Philadelphia 76ers set to move office, practice space to Camden with $82M tax break", South Jersey Times, June 10, 2014. Accessed December 20, 2014.
  253. ^ Home page, RiverLink Ferry System. Accessed September 7, 2011.
  254. ^ "Riverfront Prison to Close". Portal gallery of photographs (17) related to the Riverfront State Prison. Courier-Post Undated (copyright 1999). Accessed December 25, 2009.
  255. ^ United Press International "$31 Million Prison Opens in Jersey", The New York Times, August 13, 1985. Accessed December 25, 2009.
  256. ^ 2010 Budget for the Department of Correction, New Jersey Department of the Treasury. Accessed July 2, 2012.
  257. ^ Staff. "Hated Camden prison goes down", Philadelphia Daily News, December 17, 2009. Accessed July 3, 2011. "In speech after speech, those officials called the demolition of Riverfront State Prison a new beginning for the people of North Camden whose views of the Philadelphia skyline and the Delaware River have been marred by razor wire and watchtowers for 24 years."
  258. ^ Laday, Jason. "NJ approves sale of Riverfront State Prison site in Camden", South Jersey Times, December 27, 2012. Accessed December 21, 2014. "The New Jersey Legislature approved a bill allowing the sale of the former Riverfront State Prison site to the state Economic Development Authority, in advance of a public auction, to eventually develop the land."
  259. ^ District information for Camden City Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed December 7, 2016.
  260. ^ Abbott School Districts, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed June 15, 2016.
  261. ^ About SDA, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed November 8, 2016
  262. ^ SDA Capital Program, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed November 8, 2016.
  263. ^ School Data for the Camden City Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed December 9, 2016.
  264. ^ Brimm Medical Arts High School, Camden City Public Schools. Accessed August 26, 2014.
  265. ^ Camden High School, Camden City Public Schools. Accessed August 26, 2014.
  266. ^ Creative Arts Morgan Village Academy, Camden City Public Schools. Accessed August 26, 2014.
  267. ^ MetEast High School, Camden City Public Schools. Accessed August 26, 2014.
  268. ^ Woodrow Wilson High School, Camden City Public Schools. Accessed August 26, 2014.
  269. ^ "N.J. governor announces takeover of Camden schools". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2016-10-26. 
  270. ^ "Camden closing 1 school, transferring 4 to charters". NJ.com. Retrieved 2016-11-09. 
  271. ^ "Education Law Center | NEW CAMDEN CHARTERS: 1st YEAR ENROLLMENTS RAISE RED FLAGS". www.edlawcenter.org. Retrieved 2016-11-02. 
  272. ^ mgryczon. "Office of the Governor | Newsroom". www.state.nj.us. Retrieved 2016-11-02. 
  273. ^ Catholic Schools Directory, Roman Catholic Diocese of Camden. Accessed October 20, 2016.
  274. ^ Our Schools, Catholic Partnership Schools.
  275. ^ About Us, Camden County College. Accessed October 22, 2013. "The College's presence in the City of Camden began in 1969, when a diploma-completion program was begun in borrowed space to help students prepare to pass their GED test so they could begin college-level courses on the Blackwood Campus that fall. In 1991, a five-story Camden City Campus building – now called College Hall – provided the college's first permanent home in the city. The eight-story academic, retail and parking facility known as the Camden Technology Center was added in 2004 as one of the first projects completed under the Camden Municipal Rehabilitation and Economic Recovery Act."
  276. ^ Campus History, Rowan University at Camden. Accessed October 22, 2013. "In the fall of 1969, Glassboro State College opened the Camden Urban Center at 534 Cooper Street."
  277. ^ Minters, Brooke. "New medical dean named at Rowan University in Camden", The Philadelphia Inquirer, June 10, 2010. Accessed July 3, 2011. "Paul Katz, who recently helped start a medical school in Scranton, was tapped Wednesday to be founding dean of another medical start-up: the Cooper Medical School of Rowan University in Camden."
  278. ^ Campus History, Rutgers University–Camden. Accessed October 13, 2015.
  279. ^ College of Arts and Sciences, Rutgers University–Camden. Accessed October 13, 2015.
  280. ^ RSBC Fast Facts, Rutgers School of Business Camden. Accessed October 13, 2015.
  281. ^ About Rutgers Law, Rutgers School of Law-Camden. Accessed October 22, 2013.
  282. ^ Our History, Coriell Institute for Medical Research. Accessed October 13, 2015.
  283. ^ Camden, New Jersey Carnegie Library, DVRBS.com. Accessed October 13, 2015.
  284. ^ Cooper Branch Library at Johnson Park, Johnson Park Restoration. Accessed October 13, 2015.
  285. ^ Katz, Matt. "Camden preparing to close its libraries, destroy books", The Philadelphia Inquirer, August 6, 2010. Accessed October 13, 2015. "Camden is preparing to permanently shut its library system by the end of the year, potentially leaving residents of the impoverished city among the few in the United States unable to borrow a library book free. At an emotional but sparsely attended meeting of the library board Thursday, its president, Martin McKernan, said the city's three libraries cannot stay open past Dec. 31 because of severe budget cuts by Mayor Dana L. Redd."
  286. ^ Holt, Bob. "Camden library system given hope by mayor's plan", NJ Newsroom, August 10, 2010. Accessed October 13, 2015. "Officials in New Jersey have apparently found a way to save Camden's public library system in whole or at least part. Mayor Dana Redd said Monday that city officials will look to join the county library system."
  287. ^ via Associated Press. "Main branch of Camden public library set to close", NJ.com, February 10, 2011. Accessed October 13, 2015. "The main branch of the Camden Free Public Library, in a high-ceilinged former bank building, was a victim of the same budget crisis that resulted in layoffs last month of nearly 400 city government employees, including nearly half the police department and one-third of the firefighters."
  288. ^ Camden County Library Branch at Rutgers, Camden County Library System. Accessed October 13, 2015.
  289. ^ "Professional baseball Records for Camden, New Jersey". www.luckyshow.org. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  290. ^ "Camden Riversharks Logos - Atlantic League (ALPB) - Chris Creamer's Sports Logos Page - SportsLogos.Net". www.sportslogos.net. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  291. ^ "NBA.com". www.nba.com. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  292. ^ "Riversharks leaving Camden after 15 years due to lease issues". NJ.com. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  293. ^ a b "Play ball? Campbell's Field outlook hazy". Courier-Post. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  294. ^ a b Unit, NJDOT Web Development. "Governor Breaks Ground for Ballpark; Unveils Battleship New Jersey,". www.nj.gov. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  295. ^ "Digitalballparks.com - An Online Baseball Stadium Museum". www.digitalballparks.com. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  296. ^ "Baseball America | Majors, Minors, Prospects, Draft, High School". BaseballAmerica.com. Retrieved 2016-12-05. 
  297. ^ "Inflatable Fun Zone - All About Kids". All About Kids. Retrieved 2016-12-21. 
  298. ^ "11th Annual Safest/Most Dangerous Cities Survey: Top and Bottom 25 Cities Overall" Archived December 25, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed June 23, 2006.
  299. ^ "12th Annual Safest/Most Dangerous Cities Survey: Top and Bottom 25 Cities Overall". Accessed June 23, 2006.
  300. ^ 13th Annual Safest (and Most Dangerous) Cities: Top and Bottom 25 Cities Overall: Top and Bottom 26 Cities Overall, Morgan Quitno, backed up by the Internet Archive as of January 5, 2008. Accessed April 5, 2016.
  301. ^ "City Crime Rankings, 14th Edition, 2007". "CQ Press".
  302. ^ "City Crime Rankings 2008–2009". "CQ Press".
  303. ^ Hirsch, Deborah (November 24, 2009). "Report ranks Camden most dangerous U.S. city" Courier-Post. Accessed December 22, 2009.
  304. ^ "Report Ranks Camden Most Dangerous U.S. City". Courier-Post. November 24, 2009.
  305. ^ "City of Ruins". Accessed January 28, 2011.
  306. ^ "Camden, N.J., to lose nearly half its cops". Accessed January 28, 2011.
  307. ^ Fewer Camden Murders in 2005, WPVI-TV, January 2, 2006.
  308. ^ Lu, Adrienne. "Camden homicides down 40% this year The drop led N.J.'s 10% decline. The attorney general credited better law enforcement.", The Philadelphia Inquirer, December 30, 2009. Accessed July 3, 2011. "Camden led the way in New Jersey with a decline from 55 to 33 homicides as of Dec. 21, a 40 percent reduction. Statewide, New Jersey had 332 homicides in 2009 as of Dec. 21, compared with 369 as of Dec. 21, 2008, a drop of 10 percent."
  309. ^ Goldstein, Joseph. "Police Force Nearly Halved, Camden Feels Impact", The New York Times, March 6, 2011. Accessed July 3, 2011. "Since the city laid off nearly half its police force in January, the mayor and police chief have tried to stay positive, with the police chief even suggesting that his leaner force will be a model for others facing similar circumstances.... It is too early to tell if the police layoffs have allowed more crime to occur; in the first two months of 2011, there were fewer homicides than during the same period last year. But the number of assaults involving a firearm has more than tripled to 79 from 22 over that period.... In each of the last two years, Camden recorded fewer than 40 murders, significantly less than the 54 murders of 2008, when the city was ranked the most dangerous in America, according to a widely quoted survey."
  310. ^ Flint drops title of most violent in nation, according to expanded FBI stats The Flint Journal via MLive.com, October 29, 2012
  311. ^ Associated Press, Daily Mail Reporter, James Nye Pictured: Astonishing arsenal of guns collected by cops in buyback program in America's deadliest city, the Daily Mail, Published December 18, 2012.
  312. ^ "Courier-Post South Jersey News Section". Courier-Post. Retrieved January 7, 2016. 
  313. ^ "Camden County to form regional police department". NJ.com. Retrieved January 7, 2016. 
  314. ^ Staff. "Holdouts lament police transition", Courier-Post, April 28, 2013. Accessed November 17, 2014.
  315. ^ About Us, Adventure Aquarium. Accessed October 13, 2015.
  316. ^ History, Battleship New Jersey Museum and Memorial. Accessed November 20, 2016. "On Sept. 12, 1999, the ship was towed by the tug Sea Victory from Bremerton to Philadelphia where it arrived on Nov. 11. On 20 January 2000, Secretary of the Navy Richard Danzig announced that the battleship would be donated to Home Port Alliance of Camden, N.J., for use as a museum."
  317. ^ Laday, Jason. "Sale of Campbell's Field in Camden to settle longstanding lawsuit", South Jersey Times, April 4, 2015. Accessed October 13, 2015. "According to Rutgers-Camden spokesman Michael Sepanic, while Rutgers University is the titleholder of the 6,700-seat waterfront ballpark, the school will not receive any of the sale's proceeds. The spokesman added that the Rutgers-Camden Scarlet Raptors athletic program will continue its agreement with the Camden Riversharks - a professional minor-league baseball team, and the park's primary tenant since its opening in 2001 – to use the field after the sale."
  318. ^ Staff. "CAMDEN'S SPOT OF PEACE IN A TROUBLED WORLD HARLEIGH IS MORE THAN JUST A CEMETERY. IT'S ALSO A PARK.", The Philadelphia Inquirer, June 28, 1992. Accessed October 22, 2013. " For decades after it opened in 1885, Harleigh Cemetery was a favorite destination of many Camden residents, a park and outdoor art museum, much like Fairmount Park in Philadelphia."
  319. ^ Associated Press "Real Life Camden Mayor Portrayed In American Hustle Film Was Complex Character, NJ.com. Accessed February 24, 2016.
  320. ^ Everts, Bart."Admiral Wilson Boulevard", Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. Accessed February 24, 2016.
  321. ^ Dr. Mary Ellen Avery, National Library of Medicine. Accessed October 22, 2013. "Mary Ellen Avery was born in 1927, in Camden, New Jersey."
  322. ^ Staff. "hail, cabaret, Convention an Up-Close Celebration of Vocal Talent", Philadelphia Daily News, June 6, 2002. Accessed October 22, 2013. "Camden native Christine Andreas first earned her performing stripes as a Broadway musical star – appearing in hit revivals of My Fair Lady, Oklahoma and On Your Toes, and new ventures like Rags, Words and Music and The Scarlet Pimpernel."
  323. ^ Staff. "Obituary", Chicago Tribune, October 28, 1953. Accessed October 22, 2013. "A native of Camden, NJ, Bailey began his art career with the Philadelphia Times in 1892."
  324. ^ Morrison, John F. "George E. 'Butch' Ballard, drummer with big bands", Philadelphia Daily News, October 10, 2011. Accessed October 22, 2013. "George was born in Camden and grew up in Frankford. He attended Northeast High."
  325. ^ Lloyd, Jack. "A Solo Engagement For A Labelle Backup Singer; Carla Benson, A Camden Native, Is At The Claridge", The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 27, 1987. Accessed June 29, 2016. "For more than four years, Benson, 33 and a native of Camden, was one of the Sweeties, the female trio that backs LaBelle."
  326. ^ Lurie, Maxine N.; and Mappen, Marc. "Button, Stephen Decatur", Encyclopedia of New Jersey, p. 110. Rutgers University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8135-3325-2. Accessed September 7, 2011.
  327. ^ Stephen Decatur Button, DVRBS.com. Accessed September 7, 2011.
  328. ^ Nelson-Gabriel, Melissa; and Gans, Charles J. via Associated Press. "Camden-born jazz great Buddy DeFranco dies at 91", Courier-Post, December 28, 2014. Accessed December 29, 2014. "Born in 1923 in Camden, DeFranco was raised in South Philadelphia and began playing the clarinet at age 9."
  329. ^ Arnold, Patrick via Associated Press. "Her Simple Night Club Act Is Enough For Lola Falana", Toledo Blade, March 21, 1980. Accessed July 2, 2012. "A NATIVE OF Camden, Miss Falana began attending dance school when she was three, and before she reached her teens she had landed a slot in the late Dinah Washington's night club act."
  330. ^ "New Name, New Everything". Courier-Post. January 23, 1987. 
  331. ^ Staff. "'GROOVE' HOLMES, 60, A GIANT TO JAZZ, FRIENDS", The Philadelphia Inquirer, July 2, 1991. Accessed July 3, 2011. "Born and raised Richard Jackson in Camden, Groove took his stepfather's last name for show business."
  332. ^ Leon Huff- Gamble-Huff Music. Accessed December 8, 2012.
  333. ^ Lloyd, Jack. "Labell's Unsung Supporters Being In The Background Doesn't Bother The Sweeties", The Philadelphia Inquirer, February 24, 1987. Accessed June 29, 2016. "That's fine with Benson, Benton and Ingram, Camden natives who grew up together."
  334. ^ "15 reasons why Philly's music scene will go from 10 to 11 in 2013 | The Key". Thekey.xpn.org. December 28, 2012. Retrieved January 22, 2013. 
  335. ^ DeLuca, Dan. "Today's Walk Of Fame Honorees Includ
  336. ^ "Oak Ridge Boys Just A Couple Of Philly-area Country Boys", The Philadelphia Inquirer, April 28, 1994. Accessed November 13, 2013. "Bonsall grew up in the Harrowgate section of Philadelphia, near the Tioga Street el stop; Sterban was born across the river in Camden and grew up in Collingswood."
  337. ^ Smith, Roberta. "Loud, Proud and Painted; 'Mickalene Thomas: Origin of the Universe,' at Brooklyn Museum", The New York Times, September 27, 2012. Accessed October 15, 2012. "But Ms. Thomas, who was born in Camden, N.J., and lives in Brooklyn, has been exhibiting for only six years."
  338. ^ Staff. "HERE, THERE & EVERYWHERE AN INSIDER'S GUIDE TO WHAT'S HOT IN TOWN", Philadelphia Daily News, May 10, 1985. Accessed February 2, 2011. "FRIDAY Nick Virgilio, one of the world's most respected haiku poets, makes a hometown appearance Friday at 8 p.m. at Camden's Walt Whitman Center, 2nd & Cooper streets."
  339. ^ "Walt Whitman". Portal to gallery of photographs (29) related to Walt Whitman. Courier-Post. September 24, 2008. Accessed December 28, 2009.
  340. ^ Benson, Josh. "A Spoiler Is Lurking South Of Trenton", The New York Times, November 28, 2004. Accessed October 22, 2013. "Just ask Representative Rob Andrews, the hyper-talented son of Camden who ran for governor in 1997 as the anointed champion of the South Jersey Democratic machine."
  341. ^ Staff. "DAVID BAIRD JR., EX-SENATOR, DIES; Jersey G. O. P. Leader Was President of Lumber and Insurance Companies", The New York Times, March 1, 1955. Accessed October 22, 2013. "Mr. Baird was born in Camden."
  342. ^ BAIRD, David, (1839-1927), Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed April 5, 2016.
  343. ^ Assemblyman Arthur Barclay, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed August 18, 2016.
  344. ^ William John Browning, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 16, 2007.
  345. ^ Naedele, Walter F. "Mary DiSabato; headed N.J. State Parole Board", The Philadelphia Inquirer, October 23, 2016. Accessed October 27, 2016. "Born in Camden, Mrs. DiSabato graduated from Camden High School in 1946 and served as a Sixth District Assemblywoman, covering parts of Camden and Burlington Counties from 1974 to 1980, son Stephen Croce said."
  346. ^ Six, Jim. "Garcia confirmed for reappointment to parole board", NJ.com, January 10, 2008. Accessed July 25, 2016. "The full Senate this week confirmed Governor Jon Corzine's nomination of Carmen M. Garcia for reappointment to a six-year term on the state parole board. Garcia, who grew up in Camden and Pennsauken, is one of two appointed parole board members exclusively assigned to decide parole matters related to juvenile offenders housed in juvenile institutional and residential facilities under the jurisdiction of the New Jersey Juvenile Justice Commission (JJC), as well as juvenile offenders housed in State prisons."
  347. ^ Hagenmayer, S. Joseph. "John J. Horn, 81, Labor Activist, Former N.j. Government Official", The Philadelphia Inquirer, January 11, 1999. Accessed October 6, 2016. "Mr. Horn had lived in Seaside Park, Ocean County, for the last 20 years. Raised in Camden, he graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School, where he was an end on the football team."
  348. ^ Robert Stuart MacAlister reference file, Los Angeles Public Library. Accessed September 7, 2011.
  349. ^ Avril, Tom. "Whitman Picks A Five-year Aide As Chief Counsel", The Philadelphia Inquirer, March 5, 1999. Accessed August 5, 2015. "Gov. Whitman yesterday named as her chief counsel Richard S. Mroz, an administration member since 1994 who recently has coordinated state involvement in economic-development projects such as redeveloping the waterfront in his native Camden."
  350. ^ Francis Ford Patterson Jr., Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 26, 2007.
  351. ^ John Farson Starr, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 24, 2007.
  352. ^ "Camden boxer Alexander earns draw in debut", Courier-Post, July 23, 2008. Accessed October 22, 2013. "Max Alexander didn't get the victory he so badly sought, but things could have turned out worse for the Camden boxer who was making his debut last weekend as a cruiserweight with a 200-pound weight limit."
  353. ^ Staff. "Eagles sign Camden's Baker", The Times (Trenton), March 12, 2009. Accessed October 22, 2013. "The Eagles yesterday made another move in free agency to bolster their depth in the secondary, signing Camden native Rashad Baker to a one-year contract."
  354. ^ Staff. "MARTIN Y. BERGEN, LAWYER, ATHLETE; Former Football and Baseball Player at Princeton, Famous as Backfield Coach, Dies FAMILY NOTED IN JERSEY Bergen County Named for His Ancestors; Was Attorney for Caruso's Daughter", The New York Times, July 9, 1941. Accessed October 22, 2013. "Born in Camden, N. J., he was a descendant of one of New Jersey's oldest families, one for which Bergen County was named."
  355. ^ Staff. "Art Best, former Hartley and Notre Dame football star, dies at 61", The Columbus Dispatch, October 17, 2014. Accessed October 13, 2015. "Arthur R. Best was born in Camden, N.J."
  356. ^ Art Best, The Pro Football Archives. Accessed October 13, 2015.
  357. ^ All-American Girls Professional Baseball League Record Book – W. C. Madden. Publisher: McFarland & Company, 2000. Format: Hardcover, 294 pp. Language: English. ISBN 0-7864-0597-X. Accessed March 4, 2012.
  358. ^ Fensom, Michael J. "Jordan Burroughs: Gold medalist speaks about Olympic wrestling, NJSIAA state title in 2006", Inside Jersey, March 8, 2013. Accessed December 21, 2016. "Jordan Burroughs, a Camden native, began his wrestling career as a five year old and by 24 he has won an NJSIAA state title, two NCAA championships, a world championship and a gold medal at the London Olympics."
  359. ^ Fox, Margalit. "Frank Chapot, Olympic Show Jumper and Mainstay of the Sport, Dies at 84", The New York Times, June 25, 2016. Accessed June 26, 2016. "The son of Frank Joseph Chapot and the former Dorothy Davis, Frank Davis Chapot was born on Feb. 24, 1932, in Camden, N.J. He was reared on his parents' horse farm in Walpack, N.J."
  360. ^ Staff. "Oakland signs Donovin Darius The veteran safety from Camden adds experience to the Raiders' secondary.", The Philadelphia Inquirer, July 11, 2007. Accessed September 7, 2011. "Darius, who will turn 32 next month, had been a mainstay in Jacksonville's secondary since he was the club's first-round pick in the 1998 draft out of Syracuse. But the Jaguars released him in June, trying to get younger and faster on defense. He is a graduate of Woodrow Wilson High in Camden."
  361. ^ Donovin Darius, National Football League. Accessed November 12, 2007.
  362. ^ Rachel Dawson, USA Field Hockey. Accessed December 20, 2007.
  363. ^ "Olympic Feature-Field Hockey's Rachel Dawson". Portal to gallery of photographs (15) related to Rachel Dawson. Courier-Post. August 12, 2008. Accessed December 28, 2009.
  364. ^ Newman, Mark. "Series opens on historic date: Red Sox, Rockies in line to add to Oct. 24 legacy", MLB.com, October 24, 2007. Accessed September 7, 2011. "1950: Rawly Eastwick was born in Camden, N.J. He became a key pitcher for Cincinnati's Big Red Machine, pitching five games in the 1975 World Series and winning Games 2 and 3 on his way to a second ring."
  365. ^ "Rawly Eastwick Statistics and History", Baseball-Reference.com. Accessed September 7, 2011.
  366. ^ George Hegamin, database Football. Accessed September 30, 2007.
  367. ^ Halperin, Frank. "A world of sports under one roof", Courier-Post, March 9, 2008. Accessed July 2, 2012. "Among the local legends are Camden's Ray Narleski, an American League All-Star who played for the Cleveland Indians during the 1950s."
  368. ^ Goldstein, Richard. "Harvey Pollack, a Statistician in N.B.A. From Day 1, Dies at 93", The New York Times, June 24, 2015. Accessed June 24, 2015. "Herbert Harvey Pollack was born on March 9, 1922, in Camden, N.J., a son of dressmakers, but grew up in Philadelphia near Shibe Park (later Connie Mack Stadium), home to baseball's Phillies and Athletics."
  369. ^ Dettloff, William. "Camden Buzzsaw tore through competition in the ring as well as the streets; While his contemporaries were fine-tuning their skills in the amateur circuit, Dwight Muhammad Qawi was developing his game on the streets of Camden, N.J., writes William Dettloff.", ESPN, June 13, 2008. Accessed October 15, 2012. "Qawi? 'I learned to fight on the streets in Camden [N.J.],' he told ESPN.com."
  370. ^ Lynch, Ray; and Young, Michael E. "Buddy Rogers, 71, Former Champion Wrestler", Sun-Sentinel, June 28, 1992. Accessed November 17, 2014. "Mr. Rogers was raised in Camden, N.J., where he was known as 'Dutch' Rhode, went to high school and worked for a while as a Camden police officer. He served in the U.S. Navy during World War II and worked in a shipyard in Camden."
  371. ^ "Mike Rozier". Portal to gallery of photographs (26) related to Mike Rozier. Courier-Post. December 5, 2008. Accessed December 25, 2009.
  372. ^ "Billy Thompson Stats and History", basketball-reference.com. Accessed December 20, 2014.
  373. ^ Woods, David. "Hurdler Tosta makes most of a second chance", USA Today, August 18, 2008. Accessed February 2, 2011. "Tosta, 25, is a UCLA graduate who was born in Camden, N.J., and attended high school in Garfield, Va."
  374. ^ "Dajuan Wagner". Portal to gallery of photographs (73) related to Dajuan Wagner. Courier-Post. July 25, 2007. Accessed December 28, 2009.
  375. ^ via Associated Press. "MESSAGES TO LOSER CRITICIZE VERDICT; Telegrams, Phone Calls Deluge Walcott Home in Camden, but Joe Is Elsewhere", The New York Times, December 7, 1947. Accessed November 13, 2013. "Jersey Joe Walcott went into seclusion today as telegrams poured in at his modest Camden home rapping the split decision that deprived him of the heavyweight title."
  376. ^ Private First Class Joseph T. Angelo, Heroes of Camden, New Jersey. Accessed April 5, 2016.
  377. ^ via Associated Press. "Es-Secret Service Head Dead At 73", Ocala Star-Banner, November 7, 1978. Accessed October 22, 2013. "A native of Camden, Baughman started his Secret Service career as a clerk-stenographer in the Philadelphia office in 1927 and qualified as an agent by going out on investigations to gain experience."
  378. ^ Furgurson, Ernest B. "The Man Who Shot the Man Who Shot Lincoln; The hatter Boston Corbett was celebrated as a hero for killing John Wilkes Booth. Fame and fortune did not follow, but madness did.", The American Scholar (magazine), March 1, 2009. Accessed July 7, 2016. "He had worked at his trade of hat finisher in New York, then lived in Camden while employed in Philadelphia."
  379. ^ Weird New Jersey. # 46. p. 60. 
  380. ^ Sullivan, Joseph F. "The Last Drive-In in New Jersey Is Fading to Black", The New York Times, August 31, 1991. Accessed January 17, 2012. "The first drive-in was the brainchild of Richard Hollingshead Jr. of Camden, who experimented by mounting a movie projector on the roof of his car to show home movies on the side of a building."
  381. ^ "McCargo Cooks!". Portal to gallery of photographs (11) related to Aaron McCargo Jr.. Courier-Post. July 16, 2008. Accessed December 28, 2009.
  382. ^ "Aaron McCargo Cooking Lesson". Portal to gallery of photographs (18) related to Aaron McCargo Jr.. Courier-Post. January 26, 2009. Accessed December 28, 2009.
  383. ^ Aaron McCargo Jr. Archived July 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed December 27, 2009.
  384. ^ LaGorce, Tammy. "For Cooks Who Compete, the Challenges of Fame", The New York Times, January 28, 2011. Accessed July 2, 2012. "Aaron McCargo Jr., the bold-flavor-favoring winner of season 4 of Food Network's Next Food Network Star, did. Mr. McCargo has had his own show, Big Daddy's House, since 2008; the network guaranteed him six episodes as a result of his win. 'It's rocking along,' said Mr. McCargo, 38, a native of Camden who still lives in the area but will not disclose where."
  385. ^ Staff. A COMMUNITY OF SCHOLARS: The Institute for Advanced Study Faculty and Members 1930–1980, p. 289. Institute for Advanced Study, 1980. Accessed November 22, 2015. "Meritt, Lucy Shoe 48–49, 50–73 HS, Classical Archaeology Born 1906 Camden, NJ."
  386. ^ Clothier, Gary. "Ask Mr. Know It All", Youngstown Vindicator, February 12, 2012. Accessed July 2, 2012. "Jim Perry was born in 1933 in Camden, N.J. He was a talented athlete in high school. After graduating from the University of Pennsylvania, Perry became a singer, taking over for Eddie Fisher at Grossingers in the Catskill Mountains."
  387. ^ Garfinkel, Simson. PGP: Pretty Good Privacy, p. 85. O'Reilly Media, Inc., 1995. ISBN 9781565920989. Accessed July 29, 2014. "Zimmermann was born in Camden, New Jersey, in 1954, but his parents soon moved to southern Florida."

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Pennsauken Township
Bordering communities
of Philadelphia
Succeeded by
Gloucester City