List of Formula One fatalities

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Jules Bianchi is the most recent driver to be fatally injured during a Grand Prix. He died in July 2015, nine months after sustaining severe head injuries during the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix.
Three-time world champion Ayrton Senna suffered a fatal crash at Imola in 1994.

In Formula One, safety standards have improved since the first World Championship Grand Prix at Silverstone in 1950, where there was no medical back-up or safety measures in case of an accident.[1] In the 1960s helmets and overalls became mandatory and the FIA assumed responsibility for safety at the circuits.[1] Further steps were taken to improve the safety of the Formula One car in the 1970s: the cockpit opening was enlarged allowing the driver quicker escape in the event of an accident and outside mirrors became mandatory.[2] In the 1980s the carbon fibre monocoque replaced aluminium, increasing protection upon impact.[3] Following the deaths of Roland Ratzenberger and Ayrton Senna at Imola in 1994, a number of measures were introduced in an attempt to slow the cars down, including a wooden undertray. In 1998 grooved tyres replaced racing slick tyres to reduce cornering speed.[4] Safety measures continued to be introduced into the 21st century, with a number of circuits changing their configuration to improve driver safety.[5]

This list includes drivers who have died during a FIA World Championship race weekend, and those who have died while driving a Formula One car outside of the World Championship. Track marshals and other race attendees who have died as a result of these accidents are not included in the list. Fifty-one drivers have died driving a Formula One car, with Cameron Earl being the first in 1952. Thirty-two of the drivers died during Grand Prix race weekends which formed part of the World Championship, seven during test sessions and twelve during non-championship Formula One events. The Indianapolis Motor Speedway has seen the most fatalities; seven drivers have died there during the time that the Indianapolis 500 formed part of the world championship. Fifteen drivers died in the 1950s; fourteen in the 1960s; twelve in the 1970s; four in the 1980s and two in the 1990s. Following the deaths of Ratzenberger and Senna in 1994, there were no driver fatalities during world championship events for more than 20 years until Jules Bianchi's death in 2015, from injuries sustained during the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix.[6][note 1]

Only two Formula One Champions have died while racing or practising in Formula One, Jochen Rindt in 1970, and Ayrton Senna in 1994. Rindt is the only driver to win the championship posthumously.[10]

Fatalities[edit]

Race or test that was not part of Formula One World Championship Indicates a race or test drive that was not part of the Formula One World Championship.
List of drivers killed as a result of an accident during a Formula One World Championship event, or during a non-championship event while driving a Formula One car.
This table does not include deaths of spectators or marshals.
Driver Date of accident Event Circuit Car Session Ref(s).
 Earl, CameronCameron Earl (UK) June 18, 1952 Test MIRA ERA Test [11]
 Miller, ChetChet Miller (USA) May 15, 1953 Indianapolis 500[note 2] Indianapolis Motor Speedway Kurtis Kraft Practice [13]
 Tornaco, CharlesCharles de Tornaco (BEL) September 18, 1953 Modena Grand PrixRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Modena Autodrome Ferrari Tipo 500 Practice [14]
 Marimón, OnofreOnofre Marimón (ARG) July 31, 1954 German Grand Prix Nürburgring Maserati 250F Practice [13]
 Alborghetti, MarioMario Alborghetti (ITA) April 11, 1955 Pau Grand PrixRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Pau Circuit Maserati 4CLT Race [15]
 Ayulo, MannyManny Ayulo (USA)[note 3] May 16, 1955 Indianapolis 500[note 2] Indianapolis Motor Speedway Kurtis Kraft Practice [13]
 Vukovich, BillBill Vukovich (USA) May 30, 1955 Race
 Castellotti, EugenioEugenio Castellotti (ITA) March 14, 1957 Test Modena Autodrome Ferrari 801 Test [16]
 Andrews, KeithKeith Andrews (USA) May 15, 1957 Indianapolis 500[note 2] Indianapolis Motor Speedway Kurtis Kraft Practice [13]
 O'Connor, PatPat O'Connor (USA) May 30, 1958 Indianapolis 500[note 2] Indianapolis Motor Speedway Kurtis Kraft Race [13]
 Musso, LuigiLuigi Musso (ITA) July 6, 1958 French Grand Prix Reims-Gueux Ferrari 246 F1 Race [13]
 Collins, PeterPeter Collins (UK) August 3, 1958 German Grand Prix Nürburgring Ferrari 246 F1 Race [17]
 Lewis-Evans, StuartStuart Lewis-Evans (UK)[note 4] October 19, 1958 Moroccan Grand Prix Ain-Diab Circuit Vanwall Race [13]
 Unser Jr., JerryJerry Unser Jr. (USA)[note 5] May 2, 1959 Indianapolis 500[note 2] Indianapolis Motor Speedway Kuzma Practice [13]
 Cortner, BobBob Cortner (USA) May 19, 1959 Cornis
 Schell, HarryHarry Schell (USA) May 13, 1960 BRDC International TrophyRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Silverstone Circuit Cooper T51 Practice [13]
 Bristow, ChrisChris Bristow (UK) June 19, 1960 Belgian Grand Prix[note 6] Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps Cooper T51 Race [13]
 Stacey, AlanAlan Stacey (UK) Lotus 18
 Summers, ShaneShane Summers (UK) June 1, 1961 Silver City TrophyRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Brands Hatch Cooper Practice [18]
 Cabianca, GiulioGiulio Cabianca (ITA)[note 7] June 15, 1961 Test Modena Autodrome Cooper T51 Test [19]
 Trips, WolfgangWolfgang von Trips (GER)[note 8] September 10, 1961 Italian Grand Prix Autodromo Nazionale Monza Ferrari 156 F1 Race [21]
 Rodríguez, RicardoRicardo Rodríguez (MEX) November 1, 1962 Mexican Grand Prixdagger Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez Lotus 24 Practice [22]
 Hocking, GaryGary Hocking (Rhodesia and Nyasaland) December 21, 1962 Natal Grand PrixRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Westmead Circuit Lotus 24 Practice [13]
 Godin de Beaufort, CarelCarel Godin de Beaufort (NED)[note 9] August 1, 1964 German Grand Prix Nürburgring Porsche 718 Practice [13]
 Taylor, JohnJohn Taylor (UK)[note 10] August 7, 1966 German Grand Prix Nürburgring Brabham Race [24]
 Bandini, LorenzoLorenzo Bandini (ITA)[note 11] May 7, 1967 Monaco Grand Prix Circuit de Monaco Ferrari 312 Race [25]
 Anderson, BobBob Anderson (UK) August 14, 1967 Test Silverstone Circuit Brabham Test [26]
 Schlesser, JoJo Schlesser (FRA) July 7, 1968 French Grand Prix Rouen-Les-Essarts Honda RA302 Race [27]
 Mitter, GerhardGerhard Mitter (GER) August 1, 1969 German Grand Prix Nürburgring BMW Practice [13]
 Brain, MartinMartin Brain (UK) May 25, 1970 Nottingham Sports Car Club meetingRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Silverstone Circuit Cooper Race [28][29]
 Courage, PiersPiers Courage (UK) June 21, 1970 Dutch Grand Prix Circuit Park Zandvoort De Tomaso Race [30]
 Rindt, JochenJochen Rindt (AUT) September 5, 1970 Italian Grand Prix Autodromo Nazionale Monza Lotus 72 Qualifying [10]
 Siffert, JoJo Siffert (SUI) October 24, 1971 World Championship Victory RaceRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Brands Hatch BRM P160 Race [31]
 Williamson, RogerRoger Williamson (UK) July 29, 1973 Dutch Grand Prix Circuit Park Zandvoort March Race [13]
 Cevert, FrançoisFrançois Cevert (FRA) October 6, 1973 United States Grand Prix Watkins Glen Tyrrell Qualifying [32]
 Revson, PeterPeter Revson (USA) March 22, 1974 Test Kyalami Shadow DN3 Test [33]
 Koinigg, HelmuthHelmuth Koinigg (AUT) October 6, 1974 United States Grand Prix Watkins Glen Surtees Race [34]
 Donohue, MarkMark Donohue (USA)[note 12] August 17, 1975 Austrian Grand Prix Österreichring March Practice [13]
 Pryce, TomTom Pryce (UK)[note 13] March 5, 1977 South African Grand Prix Kyalami Shadow DN8 Race [36]
 McGuire, BrianBrian McGuire (AUS)[note 14] August 29, 1977 1977 Shellsport Championship Round 11Race was not part of Formula One World Championship Brands Hatch McGuire BM1 Practice [37]
 Peterson, RonnieRonnie Peterson (SWE)[note 15] September 10, 1978 Italian Grand Prix Autodromo Nazionale Monza Lotus 78 Race [39]
 Depailler, PatrickPatrick Depailler (FRA) August 1, 1980 Test Hockenheimring Alfa Romeo 179 Test [40]
 Villeneuve, GillesGilles Villeneuve (CAN) May 8, 1982 Belgian Grand Prix Circuit Zolder Ferrari 126C Qualifying [41]
 Paletti, RiccardoRiccardo Paletti (ITA) June 13, 1982 Canadian Grand Prix Circuit Gilles Villeneuve Osella Race [13]
 Angelis, ElioElio de Angelis (ITA)[note 16] May 14, 1986 Test Circuit Paul Ricard Brabham BT55 Test [43]
 Ratzenberger, RolandRoland Ratzenberger (AUT) April 30, 1994 San Marino Grand Prix Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari Simtek S941 Qualifying [44]
 Senna, AyrtonAyrton Senna (BRA) May 1, 1994 Williams FW16 Race
 Dawson-Damer, JohnJohn Dawson-Damer (UK)[note 17] June 24, 2000 2000 Goodwood Festival of SpeedRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Goodwood Hillclimb Lotus 63 Run [7]
 Glatz, FritzFritz Glatz (AUT) July 14, 2002 2002 EuroBOSS Series seasonRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Autodrom Most Footwork FA17 Race [8][46]
 Welch, DenisDenis Welch (UK) July 27, 2014 Silverstone Classic Jack Brabham Memorial TrophyRace was not part of Formula One World Championship Silverstone Circuit Lotus 18 Race [9]
 Bianchi, JulesJules Bianchi (FRA)[note 18] October 5, 2014 Japanese Grand Prix Suzuka Circuit Marussia MR03 Race [6]

By nationality[edit]

Fatalities by nationality
Nationality Total
 United Kingdom 14
 United States 10
 Italy 7
 Austria 4
 France 4
 Germany 2
 Argentina 1
 Australia 1
 Belgium 1
 Brazil 1
 Canada 1
 Mexico 1
 Netherlands 1
 Rhodesia and Nyasaland 1
 Sweden 1
  Switzerland 1

By circuit[edit]

Fatalities by circuit
Circuit Total First Most recent
United States Indianapolis Motor Speedway 7 1953 1959
Germany Nürburgring 5 1954 1969
United Kingdom Silverstone Circuit 4 1960 2014
Italy Modena Autodrome 3 1953 1961
United Kingdom Brands Hatch 1961 1977
Italy Autodromo Nazionale Monza 1961 1978
Belgium Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps 2 1960 1960
Netherlands Circuit Park Zandvoort 1970 1973
United States Watkins Glen 1973 1974
South Africa Kyalami 1974 1977
Italy Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari 1994 1994
United Kingdom MIRA 1 1952
France Pau Circuit 1955
France Reims-Gueux 1958
Morocco Ain-Diab Circuit 1958
Mexico Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez 1962
South Africa Westmead Circuit 1962
Monaco Circuit de Monaco 1967
France Rouen-Les-Essarts 1968
Austria Österreichring 1975
Germany Hockenheimring 1980
Belgium Circuit Zolder 1982
Canada Circuit Gilles Villeneuve 1982
France Circuit Paul Ricard 1986
United Kingdom Goodwood Hillclimb 2000
Czech Republic Autodrom Most 2002
Japan Suzuka Circuit 2014

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Four drivers have died since 1994: John Dawson-Damer in 2000, Fritz Glatz in 2002, Denis Welch in 2014, and Jules Bianchi in 2015. The first three drivers died while driving historic Formula One cars outside of World Championship Grands Prix, while Bianchi died as a result of injuries sustained in the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix.[7][8][9]
  2. ^ a b c d e From 1950 to 1960, the Indianapolis 500 was part of the World Drivers' Championship.[12]
  3. ^ Ayulo died on May 17, 1955, the day after his accident.[13]
  4. ^ Lewis-Evans died of burns on October 25, 1958, six days after his accident.[13]
  5. ^ Unser Jr. died of burns on May 17, 1959, fifteen days after his accident.[13]
  6. ^ Bristow and Stacey died in separate accidents.[13]
  7. ^ Unable to slow down his car because of technical failure, Cabianca drove through an open gate onto an adjoining public road where he hit several vehicles. Cabianca was killed along with three other people.[19]
  8. ^ Von Trips and fifteen spectators died as a result of the crash. This is the deadliest F1 Grand Prix accident that includes fatalities of non-drivers.[20]
  9. ^ Godin de Beaufort died on August 2, 1964, the day after his accident.[23]
  10. ^ Taylor died of fifty per cent burns on September 8, 1966, thirty-two days after his accident.[24]
  11. ^ Bandini died on May 10, 1967, three days after his accident.[25]
  12. ^ Donohue died on August 19, 1975, two days after his accident. Manfred Schaller, a track marshal who had been hit by debris, succumbed the same day.[35]
  13. ^ Frederick Jansen van Vuuren, a teenage volunteer safety marshal, was killed in the crash along with Pryce, who had collided with him at high speed.[36]
  14. ^ Both McGuire and track marshall John Thorpe died in the accident.[37]
  15. ^ Peterson died in hospital on September 11, 1978, the day after his accident, as a result of fat embolism.[38]
  16. ^ De Angelis died on May 15, 1986, the day after his accident.[42]
  17. ^ Dawson-Damer crashed into a gantry at the finish line, killing Andrew Carpenter, a marshall, and seriously wounding another. The 59-year-old driver may have suffered a fatal heart attack before losing control of his racer.[45]
  18. ^ Bianchi remained comatose in hospital until he succumbed to his injuries on July 17, 2015, more than nine months after his accident.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The fifties and sixties". Formula 1. Archived from the original on August 28, 2012. 
  2. ^ "The seventies". Formula 1. Archived from the original on August 28, 2012. 
  3. ^ "The eighties". Formula 1. Archived from the original on August 28, 2012. 
  4. ^ "The nineties". Formula 1. Archived from the original on August 28, 2012. 
  5. ^ "The 21st century". Formula 1. Archived from the original on August 27, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c DiZinno, Tony (July 17, 2015). "Jules Bianchi dies at age 25, his family confirms". NBC Sports. Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Savill, Richard (June 26, 2000). "Brother of earl dies in Goodwood hill climb". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Most: Qualifying report". Motorsport.com. July 17, 2002. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. 
  9. ^ a b "Historic racer Denis Welch dies in Silverstone Classic accident". Autosport.com. July 28, 2014. Archived from the original on July 29, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b Benson, Andrew (March 13, 2012). "Formula 1's Greatest Drivers. Number 20: Jochen Rindt". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. 
  11. ^ "Killed While Testing Racing Car". The Times. London. June 19, 1952. p. 4. 
  12. ^ "United States Grand Prix history". Formula 1. June 16, 2004. Archived from the original on September 12, 2012. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Williamson, Martin. "Deaths in Formula One". ESPN. Archived from the original on April 7, 2015. 
  14. ^ "Charles de Tornaco". ESPN. Archived from the original on December 25, 2015. 
  15. ^ "XVI Grand Prix de Pau". Motor Sport. Teesdale Publishing. XXXI (5): 264–265. May 1955. 
  16. ^ Diepraam, Mattijs; Muelas, Felix. "The dashing Milanese that stayed young forever". Autosport. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Silverstone '58 – Hawthorn & Collins' all-English affair". Formula 1. July 6, 2010. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Racing Driver Dies After Crash". The Times. London. June 2, 1961. p. 23. 
  19. ^ a b "Four die in Italian race car crash". The Times. London. June 16, 1961. p. 13. 
  20. ^ "50 years ago today: F1's worst tragedy at Monza". f1fanatic. Archived from the original on October 27, 2015. 
  21. ^ Williams, Richard (September 5, 2011). "When motor racing really was a matter of life and death". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on October 30, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Ricardo Rodríguez". ESPN. Archived from the original on December 26, 2015. 
  23. ^ Diepraam, Mattijs. "The last knight of Grand Prix racing". Autosport. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. 
  24. ^ a b "John Taylor". ESPN. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. 
  25. ^ a b "Lorenzo Bandini". ESPN. Archived from the original on May 2, 2016. 
  26. ^ "Bob Anderson". ESPN. Archived from the original on December 25, 2015. 
  27. ^ "Schlesser dies in experimental honda at Rouen". ESPN. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Racing car death". The Times. London. May 26, 1970. p. 2. 
  29. ^ "Martin Brain". Motorsport Memorial. Retrieved December 14, 2011. 
  30. ^ Edworthy, Sarah (July 19, 2003). "Piers Courage lived life to the full and was tipped for GP greatness". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on September 10, 2012. 
  31. ^ "Jo Siffert". ESPN. Archived from the original on December 24, 2015. 
  32. ^ "François Cevert". ESPN. Archived from the original on July 15, 2015. 
  33. ^ "Peter Revson". ESPN. Archived from the original on May 12, 2016. 
  34. ^ Katz, Michael (October 7, 1974). "Driver Is Killed as Fittipaldi Wins Title at Watkins Glen". The New York Times. p. 45. Retrieved August 18, 2012. 
  35. ^ "Donohue dies after surgery". Eugene Register-Guard. Associated Press. August 20, 1975. 
  36. ^ a b "Plaque to commemorate F1 winner". BBC News. June 11, 2009. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. 
  37. ^ a b "News in Brief: Brands Hatch crash kills 2". The Times. London. August 30, 1977. p. 1. 
  38. ^ "Ronnie Peterson". ESPN. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. 
  39. ^ "Formula 1's Greatest Drivers – 19 Ronnie Peterson". Autosport. Archived from the original on December 9, 2012. 
  40. ^ "Patrick Depailler". ESPN. Archived from the original on July 15, 2015. 
  41. ^ Benson, Andrew (July 4, 2012). "Formula 1's greatest drivers. Number 12: Gilles Villeneuve". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. 
  42. ^ "Racer dies of crash injuries". Boca Raton News. May 16, 1986. 
  43. ^ "Elio de Angelis". ESPN. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. 
  44. ^ Benson, Andrew (April 21, 2004). "A death that shocked the world". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on November 24, 2010. 
  45. ^ Harding, Thomas (June 27, 2000). "Driver 'died of heart attack before crash'". The Telegraph. London. 
  46. ^ "Fritz Glatz". GrandPrix.com. July 19, 2002. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. 

External links[edit]