List of Russian rulers

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Monarchy of Russia
Lesser CoA of the empire of Russia.svg
Nicholas II, 1914.jpg
Nicholas II
Details
Style His Imperial Majesty
First monarch Rurik (as Prince)
Last monarch Nicholas II (as Emperor)
Formation 862
Abolition 15 March 1917 (formally 1 September 1917)
Residence Winter Palace
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Disputed:
Maria Vladimirovna

This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia. It includes titles Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev, Grand Prince of Vladimir, Grand Prince of Moscow, Tsar of All Rus', and Emperor of All Russia. The list started with a semi-legendary Prince of Novgorod Rurik sometime in the mid 9th century (862) and ended with the Emperor of All Russia Nicholas II who abdicated in 1917, and was executed with his family in 1918.

The vast territory known today as Russia covers an area that has been known historically by various names, including Rus', Kievan Rus',[1][2] the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Tsardom of Muscovy and the Russian Empire, and the sovereigns of these many nations and throughout their histories have used likewise as wide a range of titles in their positions as chief magistrates of a country. Some of the earliest titles include Kniaz and Velikiy Kniaz, which mean "Prince" and "Great Prince" respectively but are often rendered as "Duke" and "Grand Duke" in Western literature; then the title of Tsar, meaning "Caesar", which was disputed to be the equal of either a king or emperor; finally culminating in the title of Emperor. The full title of the Russian Emperors, according to Article 59 of the 1906 Russian Constitution, was given as:

Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, of Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan, Tsar of Poland, Tsar of Siberia, Tsar of Chersonesos Taurica, Tsar of Georgia, Lord of Pskov, and Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, and Finland, Prince of Estland, Livland, Courland and Semigalia, Samogitia, Belostok, Karelia, Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgaria and other territories; Lord and Grand Duke of Nizhny Novgorod, Sovereign of Chernigov, Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozero, Udoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislavl, and all northern territories; Sovereign of Iveria, Kartalinia, and the Kabardinian lands and Armenian territories – hereditary Lord and Ruler of the Circassians and Mountain Princes and others; Lord of Turkestan, Heir of Norway, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Oldenburg, and so forth, and so forth, and so forth.

The Patriarchs of Moscow, who were the head of Russian Orthodox Church, also have acted as the leaders of Russia from time to time, usually in periods of political upheaval as during the Polish occupation and interregnum of 1610–1613.

Princes of Rus', 862-1547[edit]

The land that is today known as Russia was populated by various East Slavic peoples from before the ninth century. The first states to exert hegemony over the region were those of the Rus' people, a branch of Nordic Varangians who moved into the region occupied by modern Russia sometime in the ninth century, and set up a series of states starting with the Rus' Khaganate sometime around 830 or so. Little is known of the Rus' Khaganate beyond its existence, including the extent of its territory or any reliable list of its Khagans (rulers). Traditionally, Russian statehood is traced to Rurik, a Rus' leader of Holmgard (later Novgorod, modern Veliky Novgorod), a different Rus' state. Rurik's successor Oleg moved his capital to Kiev, founding the state of Kievan Rus'. Over the next several centuries, the most important titles were those of the Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Novgorod whose holder (often the same person) could claim hegemony. By the early 11th century, however, the Rus' state had fragmented into a series of petty principalities which warred constantly with each other. In 1097, the Council of Liubech formalized the federal nature of the Russian lands. By the 12th century, the Grand Duchy of Vladimir became the dominant principality, adding its name to those of Novgorod and Kiev, culminating with the rule of Alexander Nevsky. After Alexander Nevsky, the region once again broke up into petty states, though the Grand Duchy of Moscow, founded by Alexander Nevsky's youngest son Daniel, began to consolidate control over the entire Russian territory in the 15th century. Following the Mongol conquests of the 13th century, all of the Russian principalities paid tribute to the Golden Horde, effectively operating as vassals of the Mongol state. The Russians began to exert independence from the Mongols, culminating with Ivan the Great of Moscow ceasing tribute to the Horde, effectively declaring his independence. The last Grand Duke (sometimes Grand Prince) of Moscow Ivan the Terrible assumed the title Tsar of All Russias in 1547.

Princes of Novgorod[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Rurik I
  • Рюрик
830 - 879 862 879 Founder of Rurik Dynasty Rurikids
Oleg of Novgorod
  • Олег
855 - 912 879 882 Relative of Rurik and regent of Rurik's son, Prince Igor of Kiev Rurikids

Grand Princes of Kiev[edit]

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Askold and Dir
  • Haskuldr and Dýri
9th century 842[3][4] or 862 882 Askold and Dir were Rusyn chieftains and members of Rurik's army
Askold was a descendent of the Kyi Dynasty
Kyi Dynasty (Askold)
Oleg of Novgorod
  • Олег
855 - 912 882 Autumn 912 He was successor of Askold and Dir as a regent of Rurik's son Rurikids
Igor I
  • Игорь
878 - 945 879 (in Novgorod as a heir of Rurik), 913 (as a successor of Rurik after Oleg's regency) Autumn 945 Son of Rurik Rurikids
Olga of Kiev
  • Ольга
890 - 969 945 962 Wife of Igor I and regent of Sviatoslav I Rurikids
Sviatoslav I
  • Свѧтославъ
942 - 972 Autumn 945 March 972 Son of Igor I and Olga of Kiev Rurikids
Yaropolk I
  • Ярополк I Святославич
950 - 980 March 972 11 June 980 Son of Sviatoslav I and Predslava Rurikids
Vladimir I
  • Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь
958 - 1015 11 June 980 15 July 1015 Son of Sviatoslav I and Malusha
Younger brother of Yaropolk I
Rurikids
Sviatopolk I
  • Свѧтоплъкъ
980 - 1019 15 July 1015 Autumn 1016 Son of Yaropolk I
During his reign, Kievan Rus' was conquested by Poland
Rurikids
Yaroslav I
  • Ꙗрославъ Володимировичъ Мѫдрꙑи
978 - 1054 Autumn 1016 Summer 1018 Son of Vladimir I and Rogneda of Polotsk Rurikids
Sviatopolk I
  • Свѧтоплъкъ
980 - 1019 14 August 1018 27 July 1019 Restored Rurikids
Yaroslav I
  • Ꙗрославъ Володимировичъ Мѫдрꙑи
978 - 1054 27 July 1019 20 February 1054 Restored Rurikids
Iziaslav I
  • Ізяслав I Ярославич
1024 - 1078 20 February 1054 15 September 1068 First son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd Olofsdotter Rurikids
Vseslav of Polotsk
  • Всеслав Брячиславич
1039 - 1101 15 September 1068 29 April 1069 Great-grandson of Vladimir I
Usurped the Kievan Throne
Rurikids
Iziaslav I
  • Ізяслав I Ярославич
1024 - 1078 2 May 1069 22 March 1073 Restored Rurikids
Sviatoslav II
  • Святослав Ярославович
1027 - 1076 22 March 1073 27 December 1076 Third son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd Olofsdotter Rurikids
Vsevolod I
  • Всеволод I Ярославич
1030 - 1093 1 January 1077 15 July 1077 Fourth son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd Olofsdotter Rurikids
Iziaslav I
  • Ізяслав I Ярославич
1024 - 1078 15 July 1077 3 October 1078 Restored Rurikids
Vsevolod I
  • Всеволод I Ярославич
1030 - 1093 3 October 1078 13 April 1093 Restored Rurikids
Sviatopolk II
  • Святополк Ізяславич
1050 - 1113 24 April 1093 16 April 1113 Son of Iziaslav I Rurikids
Vladimir II
  • Володимѣръ Мономахъ
1053 - 1125 20 April 1113 19 May 1125 Son of Vsevolod I and Anastasia of Byzantium Rurikids
Mstislav I
  • Мстислав Володимирович Великий
1076 - 1132 20 May 1125 15 April 1132 Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex Rurikids
Yaropolk II
  • Ярополк II Владимирович
1082 - 1139 17 April 1132 18 February 1139 Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I
Rurikids
Viacheslav I
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083 - 2 February 1154 22 February 1139 4 March 1139 Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I and Yaropolk II
Rurikids
Vsevolod II
  • Всеволод II Ольгович
1084 - 1146 5 March 1139 30 July 1146 Grandson of Sviatoslav II Rurikids
Igor II
  • Игорь II Ольгович
1096 - 19 September 1146 1 August 1146 13 August 1146 Grandson of Sviatoslav II Rurikids
Iziaslav II
  • Ізяслав Мстиславич
1097 - 1154 13 August 1146 23 August 1149 Son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden Rurikids
Yuri I
  • Юрий Владимирович
1099 - 1157 28 August 1149 Summer 1150 Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I, Yaropolk II and Viacheslav I
Rurikids
Viacheslav I
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083 - 2 February 1154 Summer 1150 Summer 1150 Restored Rurikids
Iziaslav II
  • Ізяслав Мстиславич
1097 - 1154 Summer 1150 Summer 1150 Restored Rurikids
Yuri I
  • Юрий Владимирович
1099 - 1157 August 1150 Winter 1151 Restored Rurikids
Iziaslav II
  • Ізяслав Мстиславич
1097 - 1154 Winter 1151 13 November 1154 Restored Rurikids
Viacheslav I
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1099 - 1157 Spring 1151 6 February 1154 Restored Rurikids
Rostislav I
  • Ростислав Мстиславич
1110 - 1167 1154 January 1155 Son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden
Younger brother of Iziaslav II
Rurikids
Iziaslav III
  • Изяслав III Давидович
12th century January 1155 1155 Grandson of Sviatoslav II Rurikids
Yuri I
  • Юрий Владимирович
1099 - 1157 20 March 1155 15 May 1157 Restored Rurikids
Iziaslav III
  • Изяслав III Давидович
12th century 19 May 1157 December 1158 Restored Rurikids
Mstislav II
  • Мстислав Изяславич
1125 - 1170 22 December 1158 Spring 1159 Son of Iziaslav III Rurikids
Rostislav I
  • Ростислав Мстиславич
1110 - 1167 12 April 1159 8 February 1161 Restored Rurikids
Iziaslav III
  • Изяслав III Давидович
12th century 12 February 1161 6 March 1161 Restored Rurikids
Rostislav I
  • Ростислав Мстиславич
1110 - 1167 March 1161 14 March 1167 Restored Rurikids
Vladimir III
  • Владимир III Мстиславич
1132 - 1173 Spring 1167 Spring 1167 Son of Mstislav I
Younger brother of Iziaslav II and Rostislav I
Rurikids
Mstislav II
  • Мстислав Изяславич
1125 - 1170 19 May 1167 12 March 1169 Restored Rurikids

In 1169 Vladimir-Suzdal troops took Kiev. This act underlined the declining importance of that city.[according to whom?]

Grand Princes of Vladimir[edit]

The state of Vladimir-Suzdal (formally the Grand Duchy of Vladimir) became dominant among the various petty principalities to form from the dissolution of the Kievan Rus' state; the title of Grand Prince of Vladimir became one of the three titles (along with Kiev and Novgorod) possessed by the most important rulers among the Russian nobility. While Vladimir enjoyed hegemony for a time, it too would disintegrate into a series of petty states, the most important of which became Grand Duchy of Moscow, which itself would eventually evolve into the Tsardom of Russia.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Andrey I
  • Андрей Боголюбский
1110 - 1174 15 May 1157 29 June 1174 Son of Yuri I Rurikids
Mikhail I
  • Михаил
12th century 1174 September 1174 Son of Yuri I
Elder brother of Andrey I
Rurikids
Yaropolk III
  • Ярополк Ростиславич
12th century 1174 15 June 1775 Grandson of Vladimir II Rurikids
Mikhail I
  • Михаил
12th century 15 June 1775 20 June 1776 Restored Rurikids
Vsevolod III
  • Все́волод III Ю́рьевич Большо́е Гнездо́
1154 - 1212 June 1176 15 April 1212 Son of Yuri I and Helene
Younger brother of Andrey I and Mikhail I
Rurikids
Yuri II
  • Ю́рий II
1189 - 1238 1212 27 April 1216 Son of Vselovod III and Maria Shvarnovna Rurikids
Konstantin of Rostov
  • Константи́н Все́володович
1186 - 1218 Spring 1216 2 February 1218 Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Elder brother of Yuri II
Rurikids
Yuri II
  • Ю́рий II
1189 - 1238 February 1218 4 March 1238 Restored Rurikids
Yaroslav II
  • Яросла́в II Все́володович
1191 - 1246 1238 30 September 1246 Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Younger brother of Yuri II and Konstantin of Rostov
Rurikids
Sviatoslav III
  • Святослав III Всеволодович
1196 - 3 February 1252 1246 1248 Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Younger brother of Yuri II, Konstantin of Rostov and Yaroslav II
Rurikids
Mikhail Khorobrit
  • Михайл Ярославич Хоробрит
1229 - 15 January 1248 1248 15 January 1248 Son of Yaroslav II Rurikids
Sviatoslav III
  • Святослав III Всеволодович
1196 - 3 February 1252 1248 1249 Restored Rurikids
Andrey II
  • Андрей Ярославич
1221 - 1264 December 1249 24 July 1252 Son of Yaroslav II
Elder brother of Mikhail Khorobrit
Rurikids
Alexander I
  • Алекса́ндр Яросла́вич Не́вский
1220 - 1263 1252 14 November 1263 Son of Yaroslav II and Rostislava Mstislavna, daughter of Kievan Rus' Prince Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold
Elder brother of Mikhail Khorobrit and Andrey II
Rurikids
Yaroslav III
  • Ярослав Ярославич
1230 - 1272 1264 1271 Son of Yaroslav II and Fedosia Igorevna
Younger brother of Alexander I, Andrey II and Mikhail Khorobrit
Rurikids
Vasily of Kostroma
  • Василий Ярославич
1241 - 1276 1272 January 1277 Son of Yaroslav II Rurikids
Dmitry of Pereslavl
  • Дмитрий Александрович
1250 - 1294 1277 1281 Son of Alexander I Rurikids
Andrey III
  • Андрей Александрович
1255 - 1304 1281 December 1283 Son of Alexander I
Younger brother of Dmitry of Pereslavl
Rurikids
Dmitry of Pereslavl
  • Дмитрий Александрович
1250 - 1294 December 1283 1293 Restored Rurikids
Andrey III
  • Андрей Александрович
1255 - 1304 1293 1304 Restored Rurikids
Michael of Tver
  • Михаил Ярославич
1271 - 1318 Autumn 1304 22 November 1318 Son of Yaroslav III and Xenia of Tarusa Rurikids
Yuri III
  • Юрий Данилович
1281 - 1325 1318 2 November 1322 Grandson of Alexander I Rurikids
Dmitry I
  • Дми́трий Миха́йлович Тверcко́й
1299 - 1326 1322 15 September 1326 Son of Michael of Tver and Anna of Kashin Rurikids
Alexander of Tver
  • Александр Михайлович Тверской
1281 - 1339 1326 1327 Son of Michale of Tver and Anna of Kashin
Elder brother of Dmitry I
Rurikids
Alexander of Suzdal
  • Александр Суздале
14th century 1328 1331 Grandson of Andrey II Rurikids
Ivan I
  • Ива́н I Дании́лович Калита́
1288 - 1340 1332 31 March 1340 Grandson of Alexander I
Son of Daniel of Moscow
Rurikids

Since 1331 the title of the Grand Princes of Vladimir assigned to the Princes of Moscow.

Grand Princes of Moscow[edit]

Alexander Nevsky, Grand Prince of Vladimir, placed his youngest son Daniel in charge of the territory around Moscow, and establishing the state of Muscovy, originally a vassal state to Vladimir-Suzdal. Daniel's son Ivan I assumed the title of Vladimir himself, establishing Muscovy as the premier principality among the various Russian states. Later rulers of Muscovy would consolidate power, culminating with Ivan III who threw off the Mongol yoke and conquered most of the other Russian states. His son Vasili III completed the task of uniting all of Russia by eliminating the last few independent states in the 1520s. Vasili's son Ivan the Terrible formalized the situation by assuming the title Tsar of All Russias in 1547.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Daniel of Moscow
  • Даниил Александрович
1261 - 4 March 1303 1283 4 March 1303 Son of Alexander I and Maria Rurikids
Yury of Moscow
  • Юрий Данилович
1281 - 21 November 1325 4 March 1303 21 November 1325 Son of Daniel
Elder brother of Ivan I
Rurikids
Ivan I
  • Ива́н I Дании́лович Калита́
1288 - 1340 1332 31 March 1340 He was a successor of Alexander of Suzdal as Grand Prince of Vladimir and a successor of Yury of Moscow as Grand Prince of Moscow Rurikids
Simeon of Moscow
  • Семён Иванович Гордый
7 November 1316 - 27 April 1353 31 March 1340 27 April 1353 Son of Ivan I and Helena Rurikids
Ivan II
  • Иван II Иванович Красный
30 March 1326 - 13 November 1359 27 April 1353 13 November 1359 Son of Ivan I and Helena
Younger brother of Simeon of Moscow
Rurikids
Dmitry I
  • Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й
12 October 1350 - 19 May 1389 13 November 1359 19 May 1389 Son of Ivan II and Alexandra Vasilyevna Velyaminova Rurikids
Vasily I
  • Василий I Дмитриевич
30 December 1371 - 27 February 1425 19 May 1389 27 February 1425 Son of Dmitry I and Eudoxia Dmitriyevna Rurikids
Vasily II
  • Василий II Васильевич Тёмный
10 March 1415 - 27 March 1462 27 February 1425 30 March 1434 Son of Vasily I and Sophia of Lithuania Rurikids
Yury of Zvenigorod
  • Ю́рий Дми́триевич
26 November 1374 - 5 June 1434 31 March 1434 5 June 1434 Son of Dmitry I and Eudoxia Dmitriyevna
Younger brother of Vasily I
Rurikids
Vasily Kosoy
  • Василий Юрьевич Косой
1421 - 1435 5 June 1434 1435 Son of Yury of Zvenigorod Rurikids
Vasily II
  • Василий II Васильевич Тёмный
10 March 1415 - 27 March 1462 1435 1446 Restored Rurikids
Dmitry Shemyaka
  • Дмитрий Юрьевич Шемяка
15th century 1446 26 March 1447 Son of Yury of Zvenigorod Rurikids
Vasily II
  • Василий II Васильевич Тёмный
10 March 1415 - 27 March 1462 27 February 1447 27 March 1462 Restored Rurikids
Ivan III
  • Иван III Васильевич
22 January 1440 - 6 November 1505 5 April 1462 6 November 1505 Son of Vasily II and Maria of Borovsk Rurikids
Vasily III
  • Василий III Иванович
25 March 1479 - 13 December 1533 6 November 1505 13 December 1533 Son of Ivan III and Sophia Paleologue Rurikids
Ivan IV
  • Ива́н Васи́льевич
25 August 1530 - 28 March 1584 Grand Prince: 13 December 1533
Tsar: 26 January 1547
Grand Prince: 26 January 1547
Tsar: 28 March 1584
Son of Vasily III and Elena Glinskaya Rurikids

Tsardom of Russia, 1547-1721[edit]

From the rule of Ivan III, the Grand Duchy of Moscow effectively became the dominant Russian state, overthrowing the Golden Horde, consolidating all remaining Russian principalities under itself, and conquering lands far from its roots in the city of Moscow. While Ivan III became effective ruler over the entirety of Russia, the situation was not formally recognized until his grandson Ivan the IV assumed the title Tsar in 1547, that the state of Russia (apart from its constituent principalities) came into formal being.

Dates are listed in the Old Style, which continued to be used in Russia.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Ivan IV
  • Ива́н Васи́льевич
25 August 1530 - 28 March 1584 Grand Prince: 13 December 1533
Tsar: 26 January 1547
Grand Prince: 26 January 1547
Tsar: 28 March 1584
Son of Vasily III and Elena Glinskaya Rurikids
Simeon Bekbulatovich
  • Симеон Бекбулатович
16th / 17th centuries 1575 1576 Muslim-born Khan of Qasim Khanate
Usurped the Russian Throne as Simeon II
Qasim
Feodor I
  • Фёдор I Иванович
31 May 1557 - 17 January 1598 28 March 1584 17 January 1598 Son of Ivan IV and Anastasia Romanovna Rurikids

Time of Troubles[edit]

Following the death of the Feodor I, the son of Ivan the Terrible and the last of the Rurik dynasty, Russia fell into a succession crisis known as the Time of Troubles. As Feodor left no male heirs, the Russian Zemsky Sobor (feudal parliament) elected his brother-in-law Boris Godunov to be Tsar. Devastated by famine, rule under Boris descended into anarchy. A series of impostors, known as the False Dmitriys, each claimed to be Feodor's long deceased younger brother. These impostors claimed (and at times actually held) the title of Tsar. A distant Rurikid cousin, Vasili Shuyskiy, also seized power for a time. During the period of Anarchy, foreign powers involved themselves in Russian politics under the leadership of the Vasa monarchs of Sweden and Poland-Lithuania, including Sigismund III Vasa and his son Władysław IV Vasa. As a child, Władysław was even chosen as Tsar by the Seven Boyars, though he was prevented by his father from formally taking the throne. The Time of Troubles is considered to have ended with the election of Michael Romanov to the throne, who established the Romanov dynasty that would rule Russia until the Russian Revolution of 1917.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Irina Godunova
  • Ирина Фёдоровна
ca. 1557 - 29 October 1603 7 January 1598 15 January 1598 Wife of Feodor I
Daughter of Feodor Ivanovich Godunov and Stepanida Ivanovna
Rurikids
Boris Godunov
  • Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в
ca. 1551 - 13 April 1605 21 February 1598 13 April 1605 Elder brother of Irina Godunova
Chosen by Zemsky Sobor
Godunov
Feodor II
  • Фёдор II Борисович
1589 - 1 June 1605 13 April 1605 1 June 1605 Son of Boris Godunov and Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya Godunov
False Dmitry I
  • Дмитрий
ca. 1581 - 17 May 1606 1 June 1605 17 May 1606 Usurped the Russian Throne
Collaborator of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Unknown
Vasily IV
  • Василий IV Иванович Шуйский
22 September 1552 - 12 September 1612 19 May 1606 17 July 1610
(deposed)
Ninth generation descendant of Andrei II in the male line Rurikids
False Dmitry II
  • Лжедмитрий II
ca. 1582 - 11 December 1610 10 July 1607 11 December 1610 Usurped the Russian Throne
Collaborator of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Unknown
Vladislav I
  • Władysław IV Waza
9 June 1595 - 20 May 1648 6 September 1610 November 1612
(deposed)
14 June 1634
(resigned his claim)
King of Poland
Son of Sigismund III Vasa and Anne of Austria
Vasa
False Dmitry III
  • Лжедмитрий III
16th / 17th centuries 28 March 1611 18 May 1612 He probably was a deacon called Sidorka but he escaped from the monastery Unknown

House of Romanov[edit]

The Time of Troubles came to a close with the election of Michael Romanov as Tsar in 1613. Michael officially reigned as Tsar, though his father, the Patriarch Philaret (died 1633) initially held the real power. However, Michael's descendents would rule Russia, first as Tsars and later as Emperors, until the Russian Revolution of 1917. Peter the Great (reigned 1682-1725), a grandson of Michael Romanov, reorganized the Russian state along more Western lines, establishing the Russian Empire in 1721.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Michael I
  • Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов
12 July 1596 - 12 July 1645 26 July 1613 12 July 1645 Founder of Romanov Dynasty
First cousin once removed of Feodor I
Romanov
Alexis I
  • Алексе́й Миха́йлович
9 May 1629 - 29 January 1676 12 July 1645 29 January 1676 Son of Michael I and Eudoxia Streshneva Romanov
Feodor III
  • Фёдор III Алексеевич
9 June 1661 - 7 May 1682 29 January 1676 7 May 1682 Son of Alexis I and Maria Ilyinichna Miloslavskaya Romanov
Sophia Alekseyevna
  • Со́фья Алексе́евна
17 September 1657 - 3 July 1704 17 May 1682 27 August 1689 Daughter of Alexis I and Maria Miloslavskaya
Elder sister of Feodor III
She ruled as a regent of Ivan V and Peter I
Romanov
Ivan V
  • Иван V Алексеевич
6 September 1666 - 8 February 1696 2 June 1682 8 February 1696 Son of Alexis I and Maria Miloslavskaya
Younger brother of Sophia Alekseyevna and Feodor III
He ruled jointly with Peter I
Romanov
Peter I
  • Пётр Вели́кий
9 June 1672 - 8 February 1725 Tsar: 2 June 1682
Emperor: 2 November 1721
Tsar: 2 November 1721
Emperor: 8 February 1725
Son of Alexis I and Natalya Naryshkina
Younger brother of Sophia Alekseyevna, Feodor III and Ivan V
He ruled jointly with Ivan V
Regarded as one of the greatest Russian monarchs
Romanov

Empire of Russia, 1721-1917[edit]

(Also Grand Princes of Finland from 1809 until 1917; and Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1917)

The Empire of Russia was declared by Peter the Great in 1721. Officially, Russia would be ruled by the Romanov dynasty until the Russian Revolution of 1917. However, direct male descendants of Michael Romanov came to an end in 1730 with the death of Peter II of Russia, grandson of Peter the Great. The throne passed to Anna, a niece of Peter the Great, and after the brief rule of her infant son Ivan VI, the throne was seized by Elizabeth, a daughter of Peter the Great. Elizabeth would be the last of the direct Romanovs to rule Russia. Elizabeth declared her nephew, Peter, to be her heir. Peter (who would rule as Peter III) spoke little Russian, having been a German prince of the House of Holstein-Gottorp before arriving in Russia to assume the Imperial title. He and his German wife Sophia changed their name to Romanov upon inheriting the throne. Peter was ill-liked, and he was assassinated within six months of assuming the throne, in a coup orchestrated by his wife, who became Empress in her own right and ruled as Catherine the Great (both Peter and Catherine were descended from the House of Rurik). Following the confused successions of the descendants of Peter the Great, Catherine's son Paul I established clear succession laws which governed the rules of primogeniture over the Imperial throne until the fall of the Empire in 1917.

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Peter I
  • Пётр Вели́кий
9 June 1672 - 8 February 1725 Tsar: 2 June 1682
Emperor: 2 November 1721
Tsar: 2 November 1721
Emperor: 8 February 1725
Son of Alexis I and Natalya Naryshkina
Younger brother of Sophia Alekseyevna, Feodor III and Ivan V
He ruled jointly with Ivan V
Regarded as one of the greatest Russian monarchs
Romanov
Catherine I
  • Екатери́на I Алексе́евна
15 April 1684 - 17 May 1727 8 February 1727 17 May 1727 Wife of Peter I Romanov
Peter II
  • Пётр II Алексеевич
23 October 1715 - 30 January 1730 18 May 1727 30 January 1730 Grandson of Peter I Romanov
Anna
  • Анна Иоанновна
7 February 1693 - 28 October 1740 13 February 1730 28 October 1740 Daughter of Ivan V Romanov
Ivan VI
  • Иван VI
23 August 1740 - 16 July 1764 28 October 1740 6 December 1741 Great-grandson of Ivan V
Murdered
Romanov
Elizabeth
  • Елизаве́та
29 December 1709 - 5 January 1762 6 December 1741 5 January 1762 Daughter of Peter I and Catherine I Romanov
Peter III
  • Пётр III Фëдорович
21 February 1728 - 17 July 1762 9 January 1762 9 July 1762 Grandson of Peter I
Murdered
Romanov
Catherine II
  • Екатерина Алексеевна
2 May 1729 - 17 November 1796 9 July 1762 17 November 1796 Wife of Peter III Ascania
Paul I
  • Па́вел I Петро́вич
1 October 1754 - 23 March 1801 17 November 1796 23 March 1801 Son of Peter III and Catherine II
Assassinated
Romanov
Alexander I
  • Александр Павлович
23 December 1777 - 1 December 1825 23 March 1801 1 December 1825 Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
First Romanov King of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland
Romanov
Constantine Pavlovich
  • Константи́н Па́влович
27 April 1779 - 27 June 1831 1 December 1825 26 December 1825 Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Younger brother of Alexander I
Uncrowned (he resigned from the throne)
Romanov
Nicholas I
  • Николай I Павлович
6 July 1796 - 2 March 1855 1 December 1825 2 March 1855 Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Younger brother of Alexander I and Constantine Pavlovich
Romanov
Alexander II
  • Алекса́ндр II Никола́евич
29 April 1818 - 13 March 1881 2 March 1855 13 March 1881 Son of Nicholas I and Alexandra Feodrovna
Assassinated
Romanov
Alexander III
  • Алекса́ндр III
10 March 1845 - 1 November 1894 13 March 1881 1 November 1894 Son of Alexander II and Maria Alexandrovna Romanov
Nicholas II
  • Николай II
6 May 1868 - 17 July 1918 1 November 1894 15 March 1917 Son of Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna
He resigned from the throne after many protests
Executed by Bolsheviks
Romanov
Michael Alexandrovich
  • Михаи́л Александрович
22 November 1878 - 12 June 1918 15 March 1917 16 March 1917 (formally, 1 September 1917, the formal abolishment of monarchy) Son of Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna
Younger brother of Nicholas II
Uncrowned
He resigned from the throne shortly after obtaining it
Murdered by Bolsheviks
Romanov

See List of leaders of Russia for the continuation of leadership.

Pretenders to the Russian throne since 1917[edit]

See Line of succession to the Russian throne

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Russian history: Kievan Rus". Russiapedia. RT. Retrieved November 26, 2013. 
  2. ^ Glenn E. Curtis (1996). "Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods". Russia: A Country Study. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved November 26, 2013. 
  3. ^ Suszko, Henryk (2003). Latopis hustyński. Opracowanie, przekład i komentarze. Slavica Wratislaviensia CXXIV. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. ISBN 83-229-2412-7; Tolochko, Oleksiy (2010). The Hustyn' Chronicle. (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Texts) ISBN 978-1-932650-03-7
  4. ^ according to the Tale of Bygone Years, the date is not clearly identified

External links[edit]