List of chemical elements

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This is a list of the 118 chemical elements which have been identified as of 2021. A chemical element, often simply called an element, is a species of atoms which all have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e., the same atomic number, or Z).[1]

A popular visualization of all 118 elements is the periodic table of the elements, a convenient tabular arrangement of the elements by their chemical properties that uses abbreviated chemical symbols in place of full element names, but the simpler list format presented here may also be useful. Like the periodic table, the list below organizes the elements by the number of protons in their atoms; it can also be organized by other properties, such as atomic weight, density, and electronegativity. For more detailed information about the origins of element names, see List of chemical element name etymologies.

List[edit]

Element Origin of name[2][3] Group Period Block Standard
atomic
weight
[a]
Density[b][c] Melting point[d] Boiling point[e] Specific
heat
capacity
[f]
Electro­negativity[g] Abundance
in Earth's
crust
[h]
Origin[i] Phase at r.t.[j]
Atomic number
Z
Symbol Name (Da) (g/cm3) (K) (K) (J/· K) (mg/kg)
 
1 H Hydrogen Greek elements hydro- and -gen, 'water-forming' 1 1 s-block 1.008 0.00008988 14.01 20.28 14.304 2.20 1400 primordial gas
2 He Helium Greek hḗlios, 'sun' 18 1 s-block 4.0026 0.0001785 [k] 4.22 5.193 0.008 primordial gas
3 Li Lithium Greek líthos, 'stone' 1 2 s-block 6.94 0.534 453.69 1560 3.582 0.98 20 primordial solid
4 Be Beryllium Beryl, a mineral (ultimately from the name of Belur in southern India)[4] 2 2 s-block 9.0122 1.85 1560 2742 1.825 1.57 2.8 primordial solid
5 B Boron Borax, a mineral (from Arabic bawraq) 13 2 p-block 10.81 2.34 2349 4200 1.026 2.04 10 primordial solid
6 C Carbon Latin carbo, 'coal' 14 2 p-block 12.011 2.267 >4000 4300 0.709 2.55 200 primordial solid
7 N Nitrogen Greek nítron and -gen, 'niter-forming' 15 2 p-block 14.007 0.0012506 63.15 77.36 1.04 3.04 19 primordial gas
8 O Oxygen Greek oxy- and -gen, 'acid-forming' 16 2 p-block 15.999 0.001429 54.36 90.20 0.918 3.44 461000 primordial gas
9 F Fluorine Latin fluere, 'to flow' 17 2 p-block 18.998 0.001696 53.53 85.03 0.824 3.98 585 primordial gas
10 Ne Neon Greek néon, 'new' 18 2 p-block 20.180 0.0008999 24.56 27.07 1.03 0.005 primordial gas
11 Na Sodium English (from medieval Latin) soda
 ·  Symbol Na is derived from New Latin natrium, coined from German Natron, 'natron'
1 3 s-block 22.990 0.971 370.87 1156 1.228 0.93 23600 primordial solid
12 Mg Magnesium Magnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece 2 3 s-block 24.305 1.738 923 1363 1.023 1.31 23300 primordial solid
13 Al Aluminium Alumina, from Latin alumen (gen. aluminis), 'bitter salt, alum' 13 3 p-block 26.982 2.698 933.47 2792 0.897 1.61 82300 primordial solid
14 Si Silicon Latin silex, 'flint' (originally silicium) 14 3 p-block 28.085 2.3296 1687 3538 0.705 1.9 282000 primordial solid
15 P Phosphorus Greek phōsphóros, 'light-bearing' 15 3 p-block 30.974 1.82 317.30 550 0.769 2.19 1050 primordial solid
16 S Sulfur Latin sulphur, 'brimstone' 16 3 p-block 32.06 2.067 388.36 717.87 0.71 2.58 350 primordial solid
17 Cl Chlorine Greek chlōrós, 'greenish yellow' 17 3 p-block 35.45 0.003214 171.6 239.11 0.479 3.16 145 primordial gas
18 Ar Argon Greek argós, 'idle' (because of its inertness) 18 3 p-block 39.95 0.0017837 83.80 87.30 0.52 3.5 primordial gas
19 K Potassium New Latin potassa, 'potash', itself from pot and ash
 ·  Symbol K is derived from Latin kalium
1 4 s-block 39.098 0.862 336.53 1032 0.757 0.82 20900 primordial solid
20 Ca Calcium Latin calx, 'lime' 2 4 s-block 40.078 1.54 1115 1757 0.647 1.00 41500 primordial solid
21 Sc Scandium Latin Scandia, 'Scandinavia' 3 4 d-block 44.956 2.989 1814 3109 0.568 1.36 22 primordial solid
22 Ti Titanium Titans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology 4 4 d-block 47.867 4.54 1941 3560 0.523 1.54 5650 primordial solid
23 V Vanadium Vanadis, an Old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja 5 4 d-block 50.942 6.11 2183 3680 0.489 1.63 120 primordial solid
24 Cr Chromium Greek chróma, 'colour' 6 4 d-block 51.996 7.15 2180 2944 0.449 1.66 102 primordial solid
25 Mn Manganese Corrupted from magnesia negra; see § magnesium 7 4 d-block 54.938 7.44 1519 2334 0.479 1.55 950 primordial solid
26 Fe Iron English word
 ·  Symbol Fe is derived from Latin ferrum
8 4 d-block 55.845 7.874 1811 3134 0.449 1.83 56300 primordial solid
27 Co Cobalt German Kobold, 'goblin' 9 4 d-block 58.933 8.86 1768 3200 0.421 1.88 25 primordial solid
28 Ni Nickel Nickel, a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology 10 4 d-block 58.693 8.912 1728 3186 0.444 1.91 84 primordial solid
29 Cu Copper English word, from Latin cuprum, from Ancient Greek Kýpros 'Cyprus' 11 4 d-block 63.546 8.96 1357.77 2835 0.385 1.90 60 primordial solid
30 Zn Zinc Most likely from German Zinke, 'prong' or 'tooth', though some suggest Persian sang, 'stone' 12 4 d-block 65.38 7.134 692.88 1180 0.388 1.65 70 primordial solid
31 Ga Gallium Latin Gallia, 'France' 13 4 p-block 69.723 5.907 302.9146 2673 0.371 1.81 19 primordial solid
32 Ge Germanium Latin Germania, 'Germany' 14 4 p-block 72.630 5.323 1211.40 3106 0.32 2.01 1.5 primordial solid
33 As Arsenic French arsenic, from Greek arsenikón 'yellow arsenic' (influenced by arsenikós, 'masculine' or 'virile'), from a West Asian wanderword ultimately from Old Iranian *zarniya-ka, 'golden' 15 4 p-block 74.922 5.776 1090[l] 887 0.329 2.18 1.8 primordial solid
34 Se Selenium Greek selḗnē, 'moon' 16 4 p-block 78.971 4.809 453 958 0.321 2.55 0.05 primordial solid
35 Br Bromine Greek brômos, 'stench' 17 4 p-block 79.904 3.122 265.8 332.0 0.474 2.96 2.4 primordial liquid
36 Kr Krypton Greek kryptós, 'hidden' 18 4 p-block 83.798 0.003733 115.79 119.93 0.248 3.00 1×10−4 primordial gas
37 Rb Rubidium Latin rubidus, 'deep red' 1 5 s-block 85.468 1.532 312.46 961 0.363 0.82 90 primordial solid
38 Sr Strontium Strontian, a village in Scotland, where it was found 2 5 s-block 87.62 2.64 1050 1655 0.301 0.95 370 primordial solid
39 Y Yttrium Ytterby, Sweden, where it was found; see also terbium, erbium, ytterbium 3 5 d-block 88.906 4.469 1799 3609 0.298 1.22 33 primordial solid
40 Zr Zirconium Zircon, a mineral, from Persian zargun, 'gold-hued' 4 5 d-block 91.224 6.506 2128 4682 0.278 1.33 165 primordial solid
41 Nb Niobium Niobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology; see also tantalum 5 5 d-block 92.906 8.57 2750 5017 0.265 1.6 20 primordial solid
42 Mo Molybdenum Greek molýbdaina, 'piece of lead', from mólybdos, 'lead', due to confusion with lead ore galena (PbS) 6 5 d-block 95.95 10.22 2896 4912 0.251 2.16 1.2 primordial solid
43 Tc Technetium Greek tekhnētós, 'artificial' 7 5 d-block [97][a] 11.5 2430 4538 1.9 ~ 3×10−9 from decay solid
44 Ru Ruthenium New Latin Ruthenia, 'Russia' 8 5 d-block 101.07 12.37 2607 4423 0.238 2.2 0.001 primordial solid
45 Rh Rhodium Greek rhodóeis, 'rose-coloured', from rhódon, 'rose' 9 5 d-block 102.91 12.41 2237 3968 0.243 2.28 0.001 primordial solid
46 Pd Palladium Pallas, an asteroid, considered a planet at the time 10 5 d-block 106.42 12.02 1828.05 3236 0.244 2.20 0.015 primordial solid
47 Ag Silver English word
 ·  Symbol Ag is derived from Latin argentum
11 5 d-block 107.87 10.501 1234.93 2435 0.235 1.93 0.075 primordial solid
48 Cd Cadmium New Latin cadmia, from King Kadmos 12 5 d-block 112.41 8.69 594.22 1040 0.232 1.69 0.159 primordial solid
49 In Indium Latin indicum, 'indigo', the blue colour found in its spectrum 13 5 p-block 114.82 7.31 429.75 2345 0.233 1.78 0.25 primordial solid
50 Sn Tin English word
 ·  Symbol Sn is derived from Latin stannum
14 5 p-block 118.71 7.287 505.08 2875 0.228 1.96 2.3 primordial solid
51 Sb Antimony Latin antimonium, the origin of which is uncertain: folk etymologies suggest it is derived from Greek antí ('against') + mónos ('alone'), or Old French anti-moine, 'Monk's bane', but it could plausibly be from or related to Arabic ʾiṯmid, 'antimony', reformatted as a Latin word
 ·  Symbol Sb is derived from Latin stibium 'stibnite'
15 5 p-block 121.76 6.685 903.78 1860 0.207 2.05 0.2 primordial solid
52 Te Tellurium Latin tellus, 'the ground, earth' 16 5 p-block 127.60 6.232 722.66 1261 0.202 2.1 0.001 primordial solid
53 I Iodine French iode, from Greek ioeidḗs, 'violet' 17 5 p-block 126.90 4.93 386.85 457.4 0.214 2.66 0.45 primordial solid
54 Xe Xenon Greek xénon, neuter form of xénos 'strange' 18 5 p-block 131.29 0.005887 161.4 165.03 0.158 2.60 3×10−5 primordial gas
55 Cs Caesium Latin caesius, 'sky-blue' 1 6 s-block 132.91 1.873 301.59 944 0.242 0.79 3 primordial solid
56 Ba Barium Greek barýs, 'heavy' 2 6 s-block 137.33 3.594 1000 2170 0.204 0.89 425 primordial solid
57 La Lanthanum Greek lanthánein, 'to lie hidden' n/a 6 f-block 138.91 6.145 1193 3737 0.195 1.1 39 primordial solid
58 Ce Cerium Ceres, a dwarf planet, considered a planet at the time n/a 6 f-block 140.12 6.77 1068 3716 0.192 1.12 66.5 primordial solid
59 Pr Praseodymium Greek prásios dídymos, 'green twin' n/a 6 f-block 140.91 6.773 1208 3793 0.193 1.13 9.2 primordial solid
60 Nd Neodymium Greek néos dídymos, 'new twin' n/a 6 f-block 144.24 7.007 1297 3347 0.19 1.14 41.5 primordial solid
61 Pm Promethium Prometheus, a figure in Greek mythology n/a 6 f-block [145] 7.26 1315 3273 1.13 2×10−19 from decay solid
62 Sm Samarium Samarskite, a mineral named after V. Samarsky-Bykhovets, Russian mine official n/a 6 f-block 150.36 7.52 1345 2067 0.197 1.17 7.05 primordial solid
63 Eu Europium Europe n/a 6 f-block 151.96 5.243 1099 1802 0.182 1.2 2 primordial solid
64 Gd Gadolinium Gadolinite, a mineral named after Johan Gadolin, Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist n/a 6 f-block 157.25 7.895 1585 3546 0.236 1.2 6.2 primordial solid
65 Tb Terbium Ytterby, Sweden, where it was found; see also yttrium, erbium, ytterbium n/a 6 f-block 158.93 8.229 1629 3503 0.182 1.2 1.2 primordial solid
66 Dy Dysprosium Greek dysprósitos, 'hard to get' n/a 6 f-block 162.50 8.55 1680 2840 0.17 1.22 5.2 primordial solid
67 Ho Holmium New Latin Holmia, 'Stockholm' n/a 6 f-block 164.93 8.795 1734 2993 0.165 1.23 1.3 primordial solid
68 Er Erbium Ytterby, Sweden, where it was found; see also yttrium, terbium, ytterbium n/a 6 f-block 167.26 9.066 1802 3141 0.168 1.24 3.5 primordial solid
69 Tm Thulium Thule, the ancient name for an unclear northern location n/a 6 f-block 168.93 9.321 1818 2223 0.16 1.25 0.52 primordial solid
70 Yb Ytterbium Ytterby, Sweden, where it was found; see also yttrium, terbium, erbium n/a 6 f-block 173.05 6.965 1097 1469 0.155 1.1 3.2 primordial solid
71 Lu Lutetium Latin Lutetia, 'Paris' 3 6 d-block 174.97 9.84 1925 3675 0.154 1.27 0.8 primordial solid
72 Hf Hafnium New Latin Hafnia, 'Copenhagen' (from Danish havn, harbour) 4 6 d-block 178.49 13.31 2506 4876 0.144 1.3 3 primordial solid
73 Ta Tantalum King Tantalus, father of Niobe from Greek mythology; see also niobium 5 6 d-block 180.95 16.654 3290 5731 0.14 1.5 2 primordial solid
74 W Tungsten Swedish tung sten, 'heavy stone'
 ·  Symbol W is from Wolfram, originally from Middle High German wolf-rahm 'wolf's foam' describing the mineral wolframite[5]
6 6 d-block 183.84 19.25 3695 5828 0.132 2.36 1.3 primordial solid
75 Re Rhenium Latin Rhenus, 'the Rhine' 7 6 d-block 186.21 21.02 3459 5869 0.137 1.9 7×10−4 primordial solid
76 Os Osmium Greek osmḗ, 'smell' 8 6 d-block 190.23 22.61 3306 5285 0.13 2.2 0.002 primordial solid
77 Ir Iridium Iris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow 9 6 d-block 192.22 22.56 2719 4701 0.131 2.20 0.001 primordial solid
78 Pt Platinum Spanish platina, 'little silver', from plata 'silver' 10 6 d-block 195.08 21.46 2041.4 4098 0.133 2.28 0.005 primordial solid
79 Au Gold English word
 ·  Symbol Au is derived from Latin aurum
11 6 d-block 196.97 19.282 1337.33 3129 0.129 2.54 0.004 primordial solid
80 Hg Mercury Mercury, Roman god of commerce, communication, and luck, known for his speed and mobility
 ·  Symbol Hg is derived from its Latin name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydrárgyros, 'water-silver'
12 6 d-block 200.59 13.5336 234.43 629.88 0.14 2.00 0.085 primordial liquid
81 Tl Thallium Greek thallós, 'green shoot or twig' 13 6 p-block 204.38 11.85 577 1746 0.129 1.62 0.85 primordial solid
82 Pb Lead English word
 ·  Symbol Pb is derived from Latin plumbum
14 6 p-block 207.2 11.342 600.61 2022 0.129 1.87 (2+)
2.33 (4+)
14 primordial solid
83 Bi Bismuth German Wismut, from weiß Masse 'white mass', unless from Arabic 15 6 p-block 208.98 9.807 544.7 1837 0.122 2.02 0.009 primordial solid
84 Po Polonium Latin Polonia, 'Poland', home country of Marie Curie 16 6 p-block [209][a] 9.32 527 1235 2.0 2×10−10 from decay solid
85 At Astatine Greek ástatos, 'unstable' 17 6 p-block [210] 7 575 610 2.2 3×10−20 from decay unknown phase
86 Rn Radon Radium emanation, originally the name of the isotope Radon-222 18 6 p-block [222] 0.00973 202 211.3 0.094 2.2 4×10−13 from decay gas
87 Fr Francium France, home country of discoverer Marguerite Perey 1 7 s-block [223] 1.87 281 890 >0.79[6] ~ 1×10−18 from decay unknown phase
88 Ra Radium French radium, from Latin radius, 'ray' 2 7 s-block [226] 5.5 973 2010 0.094 0.9 9×10−7 from decay solid
89 Ac Actinium Greek aktís, 'ray' n/a 7 f-block [227] 10.07 1323 3471 0.12 1.1 5.5×10−10 from decay solid
90 Th Thorium Thor, the Scandinavian god of thunder n/a 7 f-block 232.04 11.72 2115 5061 0.113 1.3 9.6 primordial solid
91 Pa Protactinium Proto- (from Greek prôtos, 'first, before') + actinium, since actinium is produced through the radioactive decay of protactinium n/a 7 f-block 231.04 15.37 1841 4300 1.5 1.4×10−6 from decay solid
92 U Uranium Uranus, the seventh planet in the Solar System n/a 7 f-block 238.03 18.95 1405.3 4404 0.116 1.38 2.7 primordial solid
93 Np Neptunium Neptune, the eighth planet in the Solar System n/a 7 f-block [237] 20.45 917 4273 1.36 ≤ 3×10−12 from decay solid
94 Pu Plutonium Pluto, a dwarf planet, considered a planet in the Solar System at the time n/a 7 f-block [244] 19.84 912.5 3501 1.28 ≤ 3×10−11 from decay solid
95 Am Americium The Americas, where the element was first synthesised, by analogy with its homologue § europium n/a 7 f-block [243] 13.69 1449 2880 1.13 synthetic solid
96 Cm Curium Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, French physicists and chemists n/a 7 f-block [247] 13.51 1613 3383 1.28 synthetic solid
97 Bk Berkelium Berkeley, California, where the element was first synthesised n/a 7 f-block [247] 14.79 1259 2900 1.3 synthetic solid
98 Cf Californium California, where the element was first synthesised in the LBNL laboratory n/a 7 f-block [251] 15.1 1173 (1743)[b] 1.3 synthetic solid
99 Es Einsteinium Albert Einstein, German physicist n/a 7 f-block [252] 8.84 1133 (1269) 1.3 synthetic solid
100 Fm Fermium Enrico Fermi, Italian physicist n/a 7 f-block [257] (9.7)[b] (1125)[b] 1.3 synthetic unknown phase
101 Md Mendelevium Dmitri Mendeleev, Russian chemist who proposed the periodic table n/a 7 f-block [258] (10.3) (1100) 1.3 synthetic unknown phase
102 No Nobelium Alfred Nobel, Swedish chemist and engineer n/a 7 f-block [259] (9.9) (1100) 1.3 synthetic unknown phase
103 Lr Lawrencium Ernest Lawrence, American physicist 3 7 d-block [266] (15.6) (1900) 1.3 synthetic unknown phase
104 Rf Rutherfordium Ernest Rutherford, chemist and physicist from New Zealand 4 7 d-block [267] (23.2) (2400) (5800) synthetic unknown phase
105 Db Dubnium Dubna, Russia, where the element was discovered in the JINR laboratory 5 7 d-block [268] (29.3) synthetic unknown phase
106 Sg Seaborgium Glenn T. Seaborg, American chemist 6 7 d-block [269] (35.0) synthetic unknown phase
107 Bh Bohrium Niels Bohr, Danish physicist 7 7 d-block [270] (37.1) synthetic unknown phase
108 Hs Hassium New Latin Hassia, 'Hesse', a state in Germany 8 7 d-block [269] (40.7) synthetic unknown phase
109 Mt Meitnerium Lise Meitner, Austrian physicist 9 7 d-block [278] (37.4) synthetic unknown phase
110 Ds Darmstadtium Darmstadt, Germany, where the element was first synthesised in the GSI laboratories 10 7 d-block [281] (34.8) synthetic unknown phase
111 Rg Roentgenium Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, German physicist 11 7 d-block [282] (28.7) synthetic unknown phase
112 Cn Copernicium Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer 12 7 d-block [285] (14.0) (283) (340)[b] synthetic unknown phase
113 Nh Nihonium Japanese Nihon, 'Japan', where the element was first synthesised in the Riken laboratories 13 7 p-block [286] (16) (700) (1400) synthetic unknown phase
114 Fl Flerovium Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, part of JINR, where the element was synthesised; itself named after Georgy Flyorov, Russian physicist 14 7 p-block [289] (9.928) (200)[b] (380) synthetic unknown phase
115 Mc Moscovium Moscow, Russia, where the element was first synthesised in the JINR laboratories 15 7 p-block [290] (13.5) (700) (1400) synthetic unknown phase
116 Lv Livermorium Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California 16 7 p-block [293] (12.9) (700) (1100) synthetic unknown phase
117 Ts Tennessine Tennessee, United States, where Oak Ridge National Laboratory is located 17 7 p-block [294] (7.2) (700) (883) synthetic unknown phase
118 Og Oganesson Yuri Oganessian, Russian physicist 18 7 p-block [294] (7) (325) (450) synthetic unknown phase
  1. ^ a b c Standard atomic weight
    • '1.008', regular notation: conventional, abridged value (Table 2, Table 3)
    • '[97]', [ ] notation: massnumber of most stable isotope
  2. ^ a b c d e f Values in ( ) brackets are predictions
  3. ^ Density (sources)
  4. ^ Melting point in kelvin (K) (sources)
  5. ^ Boiling point in kelvin (K) (sources)
  6. ^ Heat capacity (sources)
  7. ^ Electronegativity by Pauling (source)
  8. ^ Abundance of elements in Earth's crust
  9. ^ Primordial (=Earth's origin), from decay, or synthetic
  10. ^ Phase at Standard state (25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa)
  11. ^ Helium melting point: helium does not solidify at a pressure of 1 bar (0.99 atm). Helium can only solidify at pressures above 25 atmosphere, which corresponds to a melting point of absolute zero (0 K).
  12. ^ Arsenic: element sublimes at one atmosphere of pressure.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "chemical element". doi:10.1351/goldbook.C01022
  2. ^ "Periodic Table – Royal Society of Chemistry". www.rsc.org.
  3. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com.
  4. ^ "beryl". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  5. ^ van der Krogt, Peter. "Wolframium Wolfram Tungsten". Elementymology & Elements Multidict. Archived from the original on 2010-01-23. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
  6. ^ Originally assessed as 0.7 by Pauling but never revised after other elements' electronegativities were updated for precision. Predicted to be higher than that of caesium.

External links[edit]

  • Atoms made thinkable, an interactive visualisation of the elements allowing physical and chemical properties to be compared