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List of female scientists before the 20th century

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a historical list, intended to deal with the time period where it is believed that women working in science were rare. For this reason, this list ends with the 20th century.


Hypatia by Julia Cameron

Middle Ages[edit]

Herrad of Landsbert

16th century[edit]

Sophie Brahe portrait

17th century[edit]

Margaret Cavendish

18th century[edit]

Geneviève Charlotte d'Arconville
Portrait of Émilie du Châtelet by Maurice Quentin de La Tour

19th century[edit]




Annie Jump Cannon, 1922 Portrait

Biology or natural history[edit]

Mary Anning


Ida Freund





Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (Ada Lovelace)



Kadambini Ganguly

Nuclear physics[edit]

  • Lise Meitner (1878–1968), Austrian, Swedish, nuclear physicist



Science education[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Yount 2007
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Ogilvie, Marilyn; Harvey, Joy (2003-12-16). The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science: Pioneering Lives From Ancient Times to the Mid-20th Century. Routledge. ISBN 9781135963439.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Nathan J. Barnes: Reading 1 Corinthians with Philosophically Educated Women
  4. ^ a b Ogilvie 1986
  5. ^ Brown, James Campbell (1920). A History of Chemistry from the Earliest Times. P. Blakiston's Son & Company. pp. 19–24.
  6. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History 28.81–84. Irby-Massie, 'Women in Ancient Science', in Woman's power, man's game: essays on classical antiquity in honor of Joy K. King, Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1993. p.366
  7. ^ Gabriele Kass-Simon; Patricia Farnes; Deborah Nash, eds. (1999). Women of science : righting the record (First Midland Book ed.). Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana Univ. Press. p. 301. ISBN 9780253208132.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400–1800
  9. ^ a b c d e Howard 2006
  10. ^ a b c d Zahm, J.A. (1913). Woman in Science.
  11. ^ Ogilvie, Marilyn; Harvey, Joy (2000). The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science. New York: Routledge. p. 346. ISBN 0415920388.
  12. ^ a b c Walsh 2008, p. 142
  13. ^ «Diccionari Biogràfic de Dones: Francesca, muller de Berenguer Satorra Archived 2016-08-08 at the Wayback Machine»
  14. ^ Howard, Sethanne (2007). "SCIENCE HAS NO GENDER: The History of Women in Science". Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. 93 (1): 1–15. ISSN 0043-0439. JSTOR 24536249.
  15. ^ Picard, Liza. Elizabeth's London (2003), Weidenfeld & Nicolson
  16. ^ Hoe, Susanna (2016). "Valletta". Malta: Women, History, Books and Places (PDF). Oxford: Women's History Press (a division of Holo Books). pp. 368–369. ISBN 9780957215351. OCLC 931704918. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2016.
  17. ^ "Sarah Whiting". CWP.
  18. ^ a b c d e f Rayner-Canham & Rayner-Canham 2001
  19. ^ Rayner-Canham, Marelene; Rayner-Canham, Geoff (23 Feb 2009). "Fight for Rights" (PDF). Chemistry World. 6 (3): 56–59.
  20. ^ Huddleston, Amara (17 July 2019). "Happy 200th birthday to Eunice Foote, hidden climate science pioneer". climate.gov. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  21. ^ Schwartz, John (21 April 2020). "Overlooked No More: Eunice Foote, Climate Scientist Lost to History". The New York Times.


External links[edit]