List of female scientists before the 20th century

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This is a historical list, intended to deal with the time period where it is believed that women working in science were rare. For this reason, this list ends with the 20th century.

Antiquity[edit]

Marble herm in the Vatican Museums inscribed with Aspasia's name at the base. Discovered in 1777, this marble herm is a Roman copy of a 5th-century BC original and may represent Aspasia's funerary stele.
Hypatia by Julia Cameron

Middle Ages[edit]

Herrad of Landsbert

16th century[edit]

Sophie Brahe portrait

17th century[edit]

Margaret Cavendish

18th century[edit]

19th century[edit]

Anthropology[edit]

Archeology[edit]

Astronomy[edit]

Annie Jump Cannon, 1922 Portrait

Biology or natural history[edit]

Mary Anning

Chemistry[edit]

Ida Freund


Engineers[edit]

Geology[edit]

Inventors[edit]


Mathematics[edit]

Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (Ada Lovelace)

Microbiology[edit]

Medicine[edit]

Kadambini Ganguly


Nuclear physics[edit]

  • Lise Meitner (1878–1968), Austrian, Swedish, nuclear physicist

Physics[edit]

Psychology[edit]

Science education[edit]

Sociology[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Yount 2007
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Ogilvie, Marilyn; Harvey, Joy (2003-12-16). The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science: Pioneering Lives From Ancient Times to the Mid-20th Century. Routledge. ISBN 9781135963439.
  3. ^ Nathan J. Barnes: Reading 1 Corinthians with Philosophically Educated Women
  4. ^ a b Ogilvie 1986
  5. ^ Brown, James Campbell (1920). A History of Chemistry from the Earliest Times. P. Blakiston's Son & Company. pp. 19–24.
  6. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History 28.81–84. Irby-Massie, 'Women in Ancient Science', in Woman's power, man's game: essays on classical antiquity in honor of Joy K. King, Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1993. p.366
  7. ^ Nathan J. Barnes: Reading 1 Corinthians with Philosophically Educated Women
  8. ^ Nathan J. Barnes: Reading 1 Corinthians with Philosophically Educated Women
  9. ^ Nathan J. Barnes: Reading 1 Corinthians with Philosophically Educated Women
  10. ^ Nathan J. Barnes: Reading 1 Corinthians with Philosophically Educated Women
  11. ^ Nathan J. Barnes: Reading 1 Corinthians with Philosophically Educated Women
  12. ^ Nathan J. Barnes: Reading 1 Corinthians with Philosophically Educated Women
  13. ^ Gabriele Kass-Simon; Patricia Farnes; Deborah Nash, eds. (1999). Women of science : righting the record (First Midland Book ed.). Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana Univ. Press. p. 301. ISBN 9780253208132.
  14. ^ Nathan J. Barnes: Reading 1 Corinthians with Philosophically Educated Women
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak L. Whaley: Women and the Practice of Medical Care in Early Modern Europe, 1400–1800
  16. ^ a b c d e Howard 2006
  17. ^ Zahm, J.A. (1913). Woman in Science.
  18. ^ Ogilvie, Marilyn; Harvey, Joy (2000). The Biographical Dictionary of Women in Science. New York: Routledge. p. 346. ISBN 0415920388.
  19. ^ a b c Walsh 1911
  20. ^ «Diccionari Biogràfic de Dones: Francesca, muller de Berenguer Satorra»
  21. ^ Zahm, J.A. (1913). Woman in Science.
  22. ^ Zahm, J.A. (1913). Woman in Science.
  23. ^ Howard, Sethanne (2007). "SCIENCE HAS NO GENDER: The History of Women in Science". Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. 93 (1): 1–15. ISSN 0043-0439.
  24. ^ Zahm, J.A. (1913). Woman in Science.
  25. ^ Picard, Liza. Elizabeth's London (2003), Weidenfeld & Nicolson
  26. ^ Hoe, Susanna (2016). "Valletta". Malta: Women, History, Books and Places (PDF). Oxford: Women's History Press (a division of Holo Books). pp. 368–369. ISBN 9780957215351. OCLC 931704918. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2016.
  27. ^ "Sarah Whiting". CWP.
  28. ^ a b c d e f Rayner-Canham & Rayner-Canham 2001
  29. ^ Rayner-Canham, Marelene; Rayner-Canham, Geoff (23 Feb 2009). "Fight for Rights" (PDF). Chemistry World. 6 (3): 56–59.

References[edit]

External links[edit]