Mary Edwards Walker
|Mary Edwards Walker|
Walker with her Medal of Honor
November 26, 1832|
Oswego, New York, U.S.
|Died||February 21, 1919
Oswego, New York, U.S.
|Cause of death||Natural causes|
|Resting place||Rural cemetery
Oswego, New York, U.S.
|Education||Falley Seminary (1850-1852)
Syracuse Medical College (1853-1855)
Hygeeia Therapeutic College (1862)
|Employer||United States Army|
|Known for||Receiving the Medal of Honor during the American Civil War, was the first female U.S. Army surgeon, feminist, prohibitionist, abolitionist, first and only female Medal of Honor recipient|
|Awards||Medal of Honor|
Mary Edwards Walker (November 26, 1832 – February 21, 1919) was an American feminist, abolitionist, prohibitionist, alleged spy, prisoner of war and surgeon. As of 2015, she is the only woman ever to receive the Medal of Honor.
In 1855 she earned her medical degree at Syracuse Medical College in New York, married and started a medical practice. The practice didn't do well and she volunteered with the Union Army at the outbreak of the American Civil War and served as a surgeon at a temporary hospital inside the capitol. Women and sectarian physicians were not even considered for the Union Army Examining Board because they were unfit, let alone someone who met both of those qualifications. She was captured by Confederate forces after crossing enemy lines to treat wounded civilians and arrested as a spy. She was sent as a prisoner of war to Richmond, Virginia until released in a prisoner exchange.
After the war, she was approved for the highest United States Armed Forces decoration for bravery, the Medal of Honor, for her efforts during the Civil War. She is the only woman to receive the medal and one of only eight civilians to receive it. Her name was deleted from the Army Medal of Honor Roll in 1917 and restored in 1977. After the war, she was a writer and lecturer supporting the women's suffrage movement until her death in 1919.
Early life and education
She was born in the Town of Oswego, New York, on November 26, 1832, the daughter of Alvah (father) and Vesta (mother) Walker. She was the youngest of seven children. She had five sisters and one brother. Walker worked on her family farm as a child. She did not wear women's clothing during farm labor, because she considered them too restricting. Her mother reinforced her view on corsets and tight lacings as being unhealthy.
Her elementary education consisted of going to the local school where her mother taught. As a young woman, she taught at the school to earn enough money to pay her way through Geneva Medical College (now State University of New York Upstate Medical University), where she graduated as a medical doctor in 1855 as the only woman in her class.
She married a fellow medical school student, Albert Miller, and they set up a joint practice in Rome, New York. The practice did not flourish, as female physicians were generally not trusted or respected at that time. They later divorced.
Walker briefly attended Bowen Collegiate Institute (later named Lenox College) in Hopkinton, Iowa in 1860, until she was suspended after refusing to quit the school debating society, which had previously been all male.
American Civil War
At the beginning of the American Civil War, she volunteered for the Union Army as a civilian. At first, she was only allowed to practice as a nurse, as the U.S. Army had no female surgeons. During this period, she served at the First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas), July 21, 1861 and at the Patent Office Hospital in Washington, D.C. She worked as an unpaid field surgeon near the Union front lines, including the Battle of Fredericksburg and in Chattanooga after the Battle of Chickamauga. As a suffragette, she was happy to see women serving as soldiers and alerted the press to the case of Frances Hook in Ward 2 of the Chattanooga hospital.
In September 1862, Walker wrote to the War Department requesting employment on Secret Service to spy on the enemy, but the offer was declined. Finally, she was employed as a "Contract Acting Assistant Surgeon (civilian)" by the Army of the Cumberland in September 1863, becoming the first-ever female surgeon employed by the U.S. Army Surgeon. Walker was later appointed assistant surgeon of the 52nd Ohio Infantry. During her service, she frequently crossed battle lines, treating civilians.
On April 10, 1864, she was captured by Confederate troops and arrested as a spy, just after she finished helping a Confederate doctor perform an amputation. She was sent to Castle Thunder in Richmond, Virginia and remained there until August 12, 1864, when she was released as part of a prisoner exchange. While she was imprisoned, she refused to wear the clothes provided because they were more “becoming of her sex.” Walker was exchanged for a Confederate surgeon from Tennessee on August 12, 1864.
After serving in the war, Walker became disabled. Walker was awarded a disability pension for partial muscular atrophy while she was imprisoned during the war. She was given $8.50 a month beginning June 13, 1865, but in 1899 it was raised to $20 per month.
She became a writer and lecturer, supporting such issues as health care, temperance, women's rights and dress reform for women. She was frequently arrested for wearing masculine styled clothing and insisted on her right to wear clothing that she thought appropriate. She wrote two books that discussed women's rights and dress.
Mary Edwards Walker was a supporter of the women’s suffrage movement. She was a member of the central woman’s suffrage Bureau in Washington. During her time as a member, she solicited funds to endow a chair in the medical school at Howard University to be filled by a woman professor. Walker attempted to register to vote in 1871, but was turned away. The initial stance of the movement, taking Dr. Walker's lead, was to claim that women already had the right to vote, and Congress need only enact enabling legislation. After a number of fruitless years taking this stance, the movement took the new tack of working for a constitutional amendment. This was diametrically opposed to Mary Walker's position, and she fell out of favor with the movement. She continued to attend conventions of the suffrage movement and distribute her own brand of literature, but was virtually ignored by the rest of the movement. Her penchant for wearing male-style clothing, including a top hat, only exacerbated the situation. She received a more positive reception in England than in the United States. In 1907, Walker published a work on "Crowning Constitutional Argument" to state her views. Walker argued that some states, as well as the Constitution, had already granted women the right to vote. She testified on women's suffrage in 1912 and 1914 before the U.S. House of Representatives.
Walker died on February 21, 1919, from natural causes at the age of 86 and is buried in Rural Cemetery Oswego, New York. She had a plain funeral, but an American flag was draped over her casket and she was buried in her black suit instead of a dress. Her death in 1919 came one year before the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed women the right to vote.
Honors and awards
Medal of Honor citation
After the war, Walker was recommended for the Medal of Honor by Generals William Tecumseh Sherman and George Henry Thomas. On November 11, 1865, President Andrew Johnson signed a bill to present her the medal.
In 1917, the U.S. Congress created a pension act for Medal of Honor recipients and in doing so created separate Army and Navy Medal of Honor Rolls. Only the Army decided to review eligibility for inclusion on the Army Medal of Honor Roll. The 1917 Medal of Honor Board deleted 911 names from the Army Medal of Honor Roll, including those of Dr. Mary Edwards Walker and William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody. None of the 911 recipients were ordered to return their medals, although on the question of whether the recipients could continue to wear their medals, the Judge Advocate General advised the Medal of Honor Board that there was no obligation on the Army to police the matter. Walker continued to wear her medal until her death.
Walker felt like she was awarded the Medal of Honor because she went into enemy territory to care for the suffering inhabitants when no man had the courage to respond in fear of being imprisoned. She had no fear of being imprisoned; resulting in her doing what her calling was, which was a doctor.
Attribution and citation
Rank and organization: Contract Acting Assistant Surgeon (civilian), U. S. Army. Places and dates: Battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861; Patent Office Hospital, Washington, D.C., October 1861; Chattanooga, Tenn., following Battle of Chickamauga, September 1863; Prisoner of War, April 10, 1864 – August 12, 1864, Richmond, Va.; Battle of Atlanta, September 1864. Entered service at: Louisville, Ky. Born: 26 November 1832, Oswego County, N.Y.
Whereas it appears from official reports that Dr. Mary E. Walker, a graduate of medicine, "has rendered valuable service to the Government, and her efforts have been earnest and untiring in a variety of ways," and that she was assigned to duty and served as an assistant surgeon in charge of female prisoners at Louisville, Ky., upon the recommendation of Major-Generals Sherman and Thomas, and faithfully served as contract surgeon in the service of the United States, and has devoted herself with much patriotic zeal to the sick and wounded soldiers, both in the field and hospitals, to the detriment of her own health, and has also endured hardships as a prisoner of war four months in a Southern prison while acting as contract surgeon; and Whereas by reason of her not being a commissioned officer in the military service, a brevet or honorary rank cannot, under existing laws, be conferred upon her; and Whereas in the opinion of the President an honorable recognition of her services and sufferings should be made. It is ordered, That a testimonial thereof shall be hereby made and given to the said Dr. Mary E. Walker, and that the usual medal of honor for meritorious services be given her.
National Women's Hall of Fame
Walker was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 2000.
The medical facilities at SUNY Oswego are named in her honor (Mary Walker Health Center). On the same grounds a plaque explains her importance in the Oswego community.
There is a United States Army Reserve center named for her in Walker, Michigan.
The Mary Walker Clinic at the National Training Center and Fort Irwin, California is named in honor of Dr. Walker.
The Mary E. Walker House is a 30-bed transitional residence run by the Philadelphia Veterans Multi-Service & Education Center for women veterans who have found themselves in difficult life situations and without a home.
With the Civil War anniversary (2011-2015), a number of historians have had a renewed interest in Walker, especially historian Mercedes Graf, who wrote the introduction to Walker's Hit for the 2003 edition.
Works by Mary Edwards Walker
- Mary Edwards Walker; United States. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary, Edward Thomas Taylor, Jane Addams (1912). Woman suffrage, No.1: hearings before the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Sixty-second Congress, second session, statement of Dr. Mary E. Walker. February 14, 1912. Government Printing Office. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- Walker, Mary Edwards (1871). HIT. The American news company. Retrieved February 11, 2010. Reissued in paperback with a new introduction in 2003.
- Mary Edwards Walker (1878). Unmasked.
- List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: T–Z
- Mary Ann Bickerdyke
- Sarah Taylor (soldier)
- Malinda Blalock
- Albert Cashier
- Sarah Emma Edmonds
- Loreta Janeta Velazquez
- Laura J. Williams
- Mollie Bean
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mary Edwards Walker.|
- Spiegel, Allen; Suskind, Peter (June 1, 1996). "Mary Edwards Walker,M.D. A Feminist Physician a Century Ahead of Her Time". Journal of Community Health 21: 211.
- Graf, 2010, p 11
- Graf, 2010, p 91
- Walker, 2010, pp. 26-27
- Blanton, DeAnne, and Lauren M. Cook. They Fought Like Demons: Women Soldiers in the American Civil War. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 2002, page 96.
- National Archives, RG108, E22, M1635, Mary E. Walker to Edwin M. Stanton, September 22, 1862
- Walker, Dale L. (2005). Mary Edwards Walker: Above and Beyond. American Heroes Series (Macmillan). ISBN 978-0-7653-1065-1. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- Massey, 1994, pp 62-63
- Spiegel, Allen; Suskind, Peter (1 June 1996). "Mary Edwards Walker, M.D: A Feminist Physician a Century Ahead of Her Time". Journal of Community Health 21: 211.
- Massey, 1994, pp 360-361
- Massey, 1994, p 361
- "Mary Edwards Walker". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- United Press International (June 11, 1977). "Highest Medal Restored to War Heroine". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-11-09.
Army Secretary Clifford Alexander today restored the Medal of Honor to Mary Edwards Walker, a Civil War surgeon who had been the only woman to have won the medal.
- "About Whitman-Walker clinic". Who Were Whitman and Walker. Whitman-Walker clinic. Retrieved March 1, 2010.
- "Medal of Honor recipients". Medal of Honor citations. United States Army Center of Military History. June 11, 2007. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- "Liberty Ships built by the United States Maritime Commission in World War II". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Walker, 2010, pp. 21-22
- Graf, 2010, p 82
- "WACH - Dr Mary Walker Center". army.mil.
- Mary E. Walker House Site http://www.pvmsec.org/index.php/services/homeless-veteran-services/the-mary-e-walker-house
- "Dinniman, Mary E. Walker House Recognize Women in the Military," Senator Dinneman's Official Website http://www.senatordinniman.com/dinniman-mary-e-walker-house-recognize-women-in-the-military
- Mary Edwards Walker M.D. (Author) (2003-08-01). "Hit: Essays on Women's Rights (Classics in Women's Studies): Mary Edwards Walker M.D.: 9781591020981: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2014-04-22.
- Bloch, Raphael S. Healers and Achievers: Physicians Who Excelled in Other Fields and the Times in Which They Lived. [Bloomington, IN]: Xlibris Corp, 2012. ISBN 1-469-19247-0 OCLC 819323018
- Conner, Jane Hollenbeck. Sinners, Saints, and Soldiers in Civil War Stafford. Stafford, Va.: Parker Pub., 2009. ISBN 0-970-83701-1 OCLC 430058519
- Eggleston, Larry G. Women in the Civil War: Extraordinary Stories of Soldiers, Spies, Nurses, Doctors, Crusaders, and Others. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company, Inc., Publishers, 2003. ISBN 0-7864-1493-6
- Fitzgerald, Stephanie. Mary Walker: Civil War Surgeon and Feminist. Minneapolis, Minn.: Compass Point Books, 2009. ISBN 0-756-54083-6 OCLC 244293210
- Frank, Lisa Tendrich. Women in the American Civil War. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2008. ISBN 1-851-09600-0 OCLC 152580687
- Goldsmith, Bonnie Zucker. Dr. Mary Edwards Walker: Civil War Surgeon & Medal of Honor Recipient. Edina, Minn: ABDO Pub, 2010. ISBN 1--604-53966-6 OCLC 430736535
- Graf, Mercedes, and Mary Edwards Walker. A Woman of Honor: Dr. Mary E. Walker and the Civil War. Gettysburg, PA: Thomas Publications, 2001. ISBN 1-577-47071-0 OCLC 48851708
- Hall, Richard C. Women on the Civil War Battlefront. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2006. ISBN 978-0-7006-1437-0
- Hall, Marjory. Quite Contrary: Dr. Mary Edwards Walker. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1970. OCLC 69716
- Harper, Judith E. Women During the Civil War: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge, 2004. ISBN 0-415-93723-X OCLC 51942662
- Joinson, Carla. Civil War Doctor: The Story of Mary Edwards Walker. Greensboro, N.C.: Morgan Reynolds Pub., 2006. ISBN 1-599-35028-9 OCLC 71241973
- LeClair, Mary K., Justin D. White, and Susan Keeter. Three 19th-Century Women Doctors: Elizabeth Blackwell, Mary Walker, Sarah Loguen Fraser. Syracuse, N.Y.: Hofmann, 2007. ISBN 0-970-05193-X OCLC 156809843
- Massey, Mary Elizabeth. Women in the Civil War. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994. ISBN 0-803-28213-3
- Mendoza, Patrick M. Extraordinary People in Extraordinary Times: Heroes, Sheroes and Villains. Englewood, Colo: Libraries Unlimited, 1999. ISBN 1-563-08611-5 OCLC 632890705
- Mikaelian, Allen, and Mike Wallace. Medal of Honor: Profiles of America's Military Heroes from the Civil War to the Present. New York: Hyperion, 2002. ISBN 0-786-86662-4 OCLC 49698595
- Nash, J. V. Famous Eccentric Americans. Girard, Kan: Haldeman-Julius Publications, 1930. OCLC 10836948
- Schroeder-Lein, Glenna R. The Encyclopedia of Civil War Medicine. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, Inc, 2008. ISBN 0-765-61171-6 OCLC 122291324
- Snyder, Charles McCool. Dr. Mary Walker: The Little Lady in Pants. New York: Arno Press, 1974. ISBN 0-40-506122-6 OCLC 914744
- Tsui, Bonnie. She Went to the Field: Women Soldiers of the Civil War. Guilford, Connecticut: TwoDot, 2006. ISBN 0-7627-4384-0
- United States, Mary Edwards Walker, Edward T. Taylor, and Jane Addams. Woman Suffrage, No. 1: Hearings Before the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Sixty-Second Congress, Second Session, Statement of Dr. Mary E. Walker. February 14, 1912. Washington: Govt. Print. Off, 1912. OCLC 2766859
- Walker, Dale L. Mary Edwards Walker: Above and Beyond. New York: Forge, 2005. ISBN 0-765-31065-1 OCLC 57349050
- Walker, Mary Edwards. Hit: Essays on Women's Rights. Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books, 2003. ISBN 1-591-02098-0 OCLC 52165894
- "Mary Edward Walker". Retrieved October 4, 2010.
- "Mary Edwards Walker". Hall of Valor. Military Times. Retrieved February 11, 2010.
- "National Library of Medicine, Dr Mary Edwards Walker Biography". Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- "Mary Edwards Walker". Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- "Town of Oswego Historical Society". Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- "St. Lawrence County, New York Branch of the American Association of University Women". Retrieved February 26, 2010.
- Mary Edwards Walker at Find a Grave