Lithuanian literature

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First Lithuanian book (1547) The Simple Words of Catechism by Martynas Mažvydas

Lithuanian literature (Lithuanian: lietuvių literatūra) concerns the art of written works created by Lithuanians throughout their history.

History[edit]

Latin language[edit]

The title page of Radivilias (1592, Vilnius). The poem celebrating commander Mikalojus Radvila Rudasis (1512-1584) and recounts the famous victory of Lithuanian armed forces over Moscow troops (1564).[1]

A wealth of Lithuanian literature was written in Latin,[2] the main scholarly language in the Middle Ages. The edicts of the Lithuanian King Mindaugas is the prime example of the literature of this kind. The Letters of Gediminas are another crucial heritage of the Lithuanian Latin writings.

One of the first Lithuanian authors who wrote in Latin was Nicolaus Hussovianus (around 1480 - after 1533). His poem Carmen de statura, feritate ac venatione bisontis (A Song about the Appearance, Savagery and Hunting of the Bison), published in 1523, describes the Lithuanian landscape, way of life and customs, touches on existing political problems, and reflects the clash of paganism and Christianity. A person under the pseudonym Michalo Lituanus [lt] (around 1490 - 1560) wrote a treatise De moribus tartarorum, lituanorum et moscorum (On the Customs of Tatars, Lithuanians and Muscovites) in the middle of the 16th century, but it was not published until 1615.

Petrus Roysius Maurus Alcagnicensis (around 1505 - 1571), was a lawyer and poet of Spanish birth who became an extraordinary figure in the cultural life of Lithuania in the 16th century. Augustinus Rotundus (around 1520 -1582) was a publicist, lawyer, and mayor of Vilnius, who wrote history of Lithuania in Latin around the year 1560 (no known manuscript has survived). loannes Radvanus, a humanist poet of the second half of the 16th century, wrote an epic poem imitating the Aeneid of Vergil. His Radivilias, intended as the Lithuanian national epic, was published in Vilnius in 1588.[3]

Boierus Laurentius (around 1561 - 1619) was a poet of Swedish descent, who graduated from the University of Vilnius. His main work is Carolomachia - a poem dedicated to the victory of Lithuanians over Sweden army in the Battle of Kircholm in 1605. The poem was written and published in 1606 - just after one year of the event. The poem celebrated Grand Hetman (polemarchos as referred in the poem) of Lithuania Jan Karol Chodkiewicz and the Lithuanian army. Many interesting battle details were attested in his poem, also one of the first mentionings of the Lithuanian battle cry - muški! (Latin: caede!, English: defeat!)

Matthias Sarbievius (1595 – 1640) was a poet of Polish birth, graduated from the University of Vilnius and spent most of his productive years in Lithuania - Vilnius and Kražiai. His European fame came from his first collection of poetry, Lyricorum libri tres (Three Books of Lyrics, 1625). In his book Dii gentium (Gods of The Nations,1627) along with Roman deities he described Lithuanian mythology.

17th-century Lithuanian scholars also wrote in Latin, which was the common scholarly language in Catholic Europe: Kazimieras Kojelavičius-Vijūkas and Žygimantas Liauksminas are known for their Latin writings in theology, rhetorics and music. Albertas Kojalavičius-Vijūkas wrote the first printed Lithuanian history, Historia Lithuania.

Maciej Stryjkowski and Augustinus Rotundus were strong proponents of using Latin as official language of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, because they thought, that Lithuanian language is just a vernacular language which modified itself from original Latin. Their belief was based on grammatical similarities of Lithuanian and Latin.

Latin books were published in Vilnius, Cracow and Riga. Only in 16th century 158 Latin books were published in Vilnius.

Lithuanian language[edit]

Lithuanian scholars Abraomas Kulvietis (around 1510 - 1545), Stanislovas Rapolionis (1485 - 1545) were the very first authors to wrote in the Lithuanian language. Lithuanian literary works in the Lithuanian language were first published in the 16th century. In 1547, Martynas Mažvydas (around 1520- 1563) compiled and published the first printed Lithuanian book, The Simple Words of Catechism, which marks the beginning of printed Lithuanian literature. He was followed by Mikalojus Daukša (1527 - 1613) in Lithuania Propria with his Kathechismas, arba Mokslas kiekwienam krikszczionii priwalvs (Catechism, or Education Obligatory to Every Christian). In the 16th and 17th centuries, Lithuanian literature was primarily religious. During the 18th century, the number of secular publications increased, including dictionaries.

Konstantinas Sirvydas

The Sermon Book of Wolfenbüttel (Volfenbiūtelio postilė) - the manuscript of the Sermon Book of Wolfenbüttel (1573) is the oldest known Lithuanian handwritten book. The author or authors are unknown. The book was found in the Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel.

Jonas Bretkūnas (1536-1602) - presumably of Old Prussian descent, a Lutheran pastor and was one of the best known developers of the written Lithuanian language. He translated the Bible into Lithuanian, and was the author of twelve Lithuanian books. Most notable works - Chronicon des Landes Preussen (1578–1579), Postilla, tatai esti trumpas ir prastas išguldimas evangeliu (1591), Kancionalas nekurių giesmių (1589), manuscript of Lithuanian Bible - Biblia (1590). The Lithuanian language of J.Bretkūnas is rich and was unmatched till writings of K.Donelaitis. It largely influenced the formation of Lithuanian literary language and a writing style.

Konstantinas Sirvydas (1579 - 1631) religious preacher, lexicographer, published the first volume of a collection of his sermons entitled Punktai Sakymų (Sermons), the purity, style and richeness of the Lithuanian language of it is still admired today. His Polish-Latin-Lithuanian dictionary Dictionarium trium linguarum was used up to 19th century and was highly rated by the Lithuanian writers and lexicographers.

Samuelis Boguslavas Chilinskis (1631 – 1666) a calvinist, translator of the Bible into Lithuanian. The translation was passed to print in London in 1660, but due to unfavorable circumstances it was not finished - only half of the Old Testament was published. B. Chilinskis also issued two brochures in which he explained his work to the British society and the necessity to publish the Bible in Lithuanian with a short information about the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - An Account of the Translation of the Bible into the Lithuanian Tongue (1659) and Ratio institutae translationis Bibliorum in linguam Lithuanicam, in quam nunquam adhuc Scriptura sacra est versa, ex quo fidem Christianam, ab conjunctionem Magni Ducatus Lithvaniae cum Regno Poloniae (1659). As a main source B. Chilinskis used then popular Dutch Bible edition Statenbijbel.

Kristijonas Donelaitis (1714 - 1780) wrote the first Lithuanian poem in hexameter Metai (The Seasons, 1818), thus laying the foundations for Lithuanian poetry. His poem is considered the most successful hexameter text in Lithuanian as yet.

Jurgis Pabrėža (1771 - 1849) - a priest, physician, botanist; wrote an encyclopedic work on botany in Samogitian dialect Taislius auguminis (Botany), created Lithuanian terminology of botany. He also wrote about 250 original sermons and a diary Ryžtai (Determinations).

Simonas Daukantas

Simonas Daukantas (1793 - 1864) promoted a return to Lithuania's pre-Commonwealth traditions, which he depicted as a Golden Age of Lithuania and a renewal of the native culture, based on the Lithuanian language and customs. With those ideas in mind, he wrote already in 1822 a history of Lithuania in Lithuanian - Darbai senųjų lietuvių ir žemaičių (The Deeds of Ancient Lithuanians and Samogitians), though still not yet published at that time.

Mikalojus Akelaitis (1829 - 1887) one of the most prominent creators of and publishers of Lithuanian didactic literature, publicist, ethnographer. He contributed to Auszra (The Dawn), Gazieta Lietuwiszka (The Lithuanian newspaper), composed narratives Kvestorius (1860), Jonas Išmisločius (1860). In the letter to historian Michal Balinski in 1857 he wrote: "We need to rise the Lithuanian language, to pull out of disregard the language which has the greatness of Sanskrit, power of Latin, daintiness of Greek and sonority of Italian."

Bishop Motiejus Valančius (1801 - 1875) sponsored the illegal practice of printing Lithuanian books in Lithuania Minor and smuggling them into Lithuania by knygnešiai. He wrote books himself in a rich Samogitian dialect - Palangos Juzė (Juzė from Palanga), first illustrated book for children in Lithuanian - Vaikų knygelė (The book for children), Žemaičių vyskupystė (Samogitian bishopric). He also urged to resist Russification, to protest against closing of catholic churches and monasteries. M. Valančius was one of the main figures, who laid the ground to Lithuanian National Revival.

Antanas Baranauskas (1835 - 1902) wrote a poem Anykščių šilelis (The Forest/Pinewood of Anykščiai) - the programmatic work, which had the main aim to uncover the beauty of the Lithuanian language and demonstrate its suitability for poetry. The poem Anykščių šilelis considered the most famous syllabic verse in Lithuanian. A. Baranauskas was also a mathematician and dialectologist, created many Lithuanian mathematical terms.

The University of Vilnius promoted the usage of the language and the creation of literary works in the first half of the 19th century. But, Russia, which controlled this area through its empire, in the mid-19th century announced a 40-year ban on the printing in the Lithuanian language in the Latin alphabet. It feared an uprising from Lithuanian nationalists. As a result, publishing was transferred to East Prussia, and Lithuanian books were delivered to Lithuania by book smugglers.

20th-century literature[edit]

When the ban against printing in the Lithuanian language using the Latin alphabet was lifted in 1904, Lithuanian writers began to experiment with and adopt elements of various European literary movements such as Symbolism, impressionism, and expressionism. The first period of Lithuanian independence (1918–40), in the interwar period, gave rise to literature that explored their own society and create characters with deep emotions, as their primary concerns were no longer political.

Maironis (1862 - 1932), one of the most famous classical Lithuanian poets. He was noted for both dramatic and lyric romantic poetry and has been called “the poet-prophet of the Lithuanian national revival.” He laid the ground for the modern Lithuanian poetry. Maironis' poetry was inspired by the nature and ancient history of Lithuania - names and the deeds of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania are met often in his verses. The collection of poems Pavasario balsai (Voices of Spring, 1895) is his most notable work.

Maironis

An outstanding figure of the early 20th century was Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius (1882 - 1954), a novelist and dramatist. His many works include Dainavos šalies senų žmonių padavimai (Old Folks' Tales of Dainava, 1912) and the historical dramas Šarūnas (1911), Skirgaila (1925), and Mindaugo mirtis (The Death of Mindaugas, 1935).

Petras Vaičiūnas (1890 - 1959) was another popular playwright, producing one play each year during the 1920s and 1930s.

Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas (1893 - 1967) [4] wrote lyric poetry, plays, and novels, including the autobiographical novel Altorių šešėly (In the Shadows of the Altars, 3 vol., 1933), in which he described a priest doubting his vocation and eventually choosing a secular life. In 1935 V.Mykolaitis renounced his priesthood and became a professor of literature.

The self-educated Žemaitė (1845–1921) published a number of short stories in the early 20th century; her frank and compassionate stories of Lithuanian village life were commemorated by her image on the 1-litas note.

Vydūnas (1868 - 1953) - philosopher, publicist and writer. He was influenced by and joined together in his works classical European and Vedic philosophy. He was interested in Oriental philosophy as a source to revive Lithuanian national consciousness and authentic traditional culture. Main works - Mūsų uždavinys (Our Task, 1911), Tautos gyvata (The Life of the Nation, 1920), Sieben Hundert Jahre deutsch-litauischer Beziehungen (Seven Hundred Years of German-Lithuanian Relations, 1932). In 1940 was nominated for Nobel Prize.

The Keturi vėjai movement began with the publication of Prophet of the Four Winds by poet Kazys Binkis (1893–1942). This was a rebellion against traditional poetry. The theoretical basis of Keturi vėjai initially was futurism which arrived through Russia from the West; later influences were cubism, dadaism, surrealism, unanimism, and German expressionism. The most influential futurist in Lithuania was the Russian poet Vladimir Mayakovsky, who was later persecuted under Stalin's regime.[5]

Oskaras Milašius

Oskaras Milašius (Oscar Vladislas de Lubicz Milosz) (1877–1939) was born and spent his childhood in Čerėja (near Mogilev, Belarus). He graduated from Lycée Janson de Sailly in Paris. In 1920, when France recognized the independence of Lithuania, he was appointed Chargé d’Affairs for Lithuania. His publications included a 1928 collection of 26 Lithuanian songs, Lithuanian Tales and Stories (1930), Lithuanian Tales (1933), and The Origin of the Lithuanian Nation (1937). His mysticism and visions were influenced by Emanuel Swedenborg. O. Milašius identified as a Lithuanian poet writing in French.

Balys Sruoga (1896-1947) wrote dramas, based on Lithuanian history or mythology - Milžino paunksmė (Under the Shade of a Giant, 1932), Radvila Perkūnas (Radvila the Thunder, 1935), Baisioji naktis (1935) and Aitvaras teisėjas (1935). During World War II, after the Nazis occupied Lithuania, in March 1943, together with forty-seven other Lithuanian intellectuals, he was sent to Stutthof concentration camp after the Nazis started a campaign against possible anti-Nazi agitation. Based on this experience, B. Sruoga later wrote his best-known work Dievų miškas (The Forest of the Gods, 1957). In the book, Sruoga revealed life in a concentration camp through the eyes of a man whose only way to save his life and maintain his dignity was to view everything through a veil of irony and sarcasm. He exposed both torturers and victims as imperfect human beings, far removed from the false ideals of their political leaders. For example, he wrote "A man is not a machine. He gets tired.", referring to the guards (kapo) beating prisoners.

Ieva Simonaitytė (1897 - 1978) represented the culture of Lithuania Minor and Klaipėda Region, territories of German East Prussia with large, but dwindling, Lithuanian population. She received critical acclaim for her novel Aukštujų Šimonių likimas (The Fate of Šimoniai from Aukštujai, 1935).

Antanas Maceina (1908 - 1987) - philosopher, existentialist, educator, and poet. His main research objects were philosophy of culture, ethics and religion. In a series of books A. Maceina discusses the existential questions of being and deals with the old theodicy puzzle concerning the genesis and justification of evil: Didysis inkvizitorius (The Grand Inquisitor, 1950), Jobo drama (The Drama of Job, 1950) and Niekšybės paslaptis (The Secret of Meanness, 1964).[6]

Vytautė Žilinskaitė (b. 1930) received two prizes for her children's books, a 1964 Journalists’ Union prize and a 1972 state prize for works classified as humorous or satiric. In 1961 she published Don’t Stop, Little Hour, a collection of poetry.[7]

Marcelijus Martinaitis (1936-2013) a poet and essayist. Main theme of his poetry - the clash of the old, archaic, rural worldview with the modern world. His main work - Kukučio baladės (The Ballads of Kukutis, 1977). The poem about a prankster, trickster Kukutis, who exposes the absurdity of the "modern new life" brought by the brutal Soviet occupation from the East was one of the catalysts for the peaceful revolution in the Lithuania. The poem was sung or recited during the mass political rallies of the late 1980s and early '90s.[8]

Sigitas Geda (1943-2008) was a productive poet and playwright. His poems connected ancient Lithuanian polytheistic religion and mythology with Greek and Sumerian myths, intertwining the old and new worlds with the ode to life and vitality. Most important works - Strazdas (1967), 26 rudens ir vasaros giesmės (26 autumn and summer songs, 1972), Žalio gintaro vėriniai (Green Amber Necklaces, 1988), libretto Strazdas - žalias paukštis (Strazdas - green bird, 1984).

Tomas Venclova (b. 1937), born in Klaipėda, is a poet, essayist, literary critic, and translator. While a professor at Vilnius University, he became involved in the Lithuanian Helsinki Group,[9] a human rights organization that included protests against Soviet activities in Lithuania. His involvement led to conflicts with the government, but in 1977 he gained permission to emigrate to the US; there he became a professor at Yale University. The Sign of Speech, a volume of poetry, published in Lithuania before his departure, was followed by other volumes of poetry, essays, and translations published in the US. Several compilations of these works were published in Lithuania after it achieved independence in the 1990s.[10] His literary criticism includes a study of Aleksander Wat.

Arvydas Šliogeris (b. 1944) is a philosopher, essayist, translator of philosophical texts, social critic. In his works A.Šliogeris researches the problems of Being and Essence, the fundamentals of Thinginess and Existence. He also the most known Lithuanian researcher of Martin Heidegger. Essential works - Niekis ir esmas (2005), Transcendencijos tyla (1996), Daiktas ir menas (1988).

Petras Dirgėla (1947 - 2015) - prosaist, essayist, creator of historiosophic novel tradition in Lithuanian literature. Most known works - Joldijos jūra (Yoldia Sea, 1987–1988), Anciliaus ežeras (Ancylus Lake, 1991). The climax of Dirgėla's creativity - monumental four-volume (consisting of 14 books) saga Karalystė. Žemės keleivių epas (The Kingdom. An Epic of Earth Travellers, 1997–2004). His books translated into 10 languages.

Saulius Tomas Kondrotas (b. 1953) - a philosophical writer, master of short-stories. The style of S.T. Kondrotas and abstraction of the world resembles to that of Jorge Luis Borges. T.S. Kondrotas defected to West Germany in 1986. In his most famous novel Žalčio žvilgsnis (The Serpent's Gaze, 1981) he explores the problem of evil, destruction which penetrates the family and generations inconceivably. The novel was translated to 15 languages.

Jurgis Kunčinas (1947 - 2002), Ričardas Gavelis (1950 - 2002), and Jurga Ivanauskaitė (1961 - 2007) wrote novels exploring the Lithuanian condition during the late 20th century.

21st-century literature[edit]

Rūta Šepetys

Rūta Šepetys (b. 1967) is a Lithuanian-American writer of historical fiction. As an author, she is a #1 New York Times bestseller, international bestseller, and winner of the Carnegie Medal. Her first novel, Between Shades of Gray (2011), about the Genocide of Lithuanian people after the Soviet occupation in 1941, was critically acclaimed and translated into over 30 different languages.

Kristina Sabaliauskaitė (b. 1974) debuted with her 4-volume saga of Lithuanian nobility life in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - Silva Rerum (2008, 2011, 2014, 2016). It became a bestseller in Lithuania and was translated into Polish and Latvian. Latvian voted readers for inclusion of it in a list of 100 of Latvia's Most Favourite Books of All Times. In Poland it received exceptional reviews.

Laura Sintija Černiauskaitė (b. 1976) a writer and a playwright. Most notable works - a play Liučė čiuožia (Liučė Skates, 2003), the debut novel Kvėpavimas į marmurą (Breathing into Marble, 2006) won the EU Prize for Literature in 2009, and has been translated into English.[11]

Rimantas Kmita (b. 1977) a writer and essayist, translator. Most notable work - Pietinia kronikas (The Chronicles of the Southern District, 2016) - a chronicle of the Šiauliai Southern District, written in Šiauliai dialect and slang, was selected book of the year in 2017 in adult category.

Agnė Žagrakalytė (b. 1979) a poet, essayist and literary critic. Her first collections of poems - Išteku (I am getting married) was published in 2003. Her second book Visa tiesa apie Alisą Meler (All the truth about Alisa Meler) was published in 2008 and named as one of ten most creative books in Lithuania in 2008.

Gabija Grušaitė (b. 1987) debuted with her first novel Neišsipildymas (Unfulfilled, 2010), her second novel Stasys Šaltoka (Mr. Colder, 2017) published in English as Cold East.

Kristina Sabaliauskaitė

National songs and folklore[edit]

The Institute of Lithuanian Literature and Folklore (Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas) is publishing collections of Lithuanian national songs - Dainynas. Zenonas Slaviūnas has published 3 volume of Lithuanian Sutartinės (polyphonic songs) texts.[12] Traditional vocal music is held in high esteem on a world scale: Lithuanian song fests and sutartinės multipart songs are on the UNESCO's representative list of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.[13] It is counted up to 400 000 Lithuanian song texts collected by researchers and folklorists and stored in Lithuanian Folklore Archive.

Memoirs of deportees and partisans[edit]

After regaining the Independence in 1990, many previously forbidden and unpublished literature reached the reader. Multiple volumes of memoirs Lithuanian deportees and partisans were collected and published. It is being referred to as tremties literatūra (literature of the deportations), tremtinių atsiminimai (memoirs of the deportees), partizanų literatūra (literature of the Lithuanian partisans). The most known Lithuanian partisan writers - Adolfas Ramanauskas - Vanagas (1918 - 1957), Juozas Lukša - Daumantas (1921 - 1951), Lionginas Baliukevičius - Dzūkas (1925 - 1950), Bronius Krivickas (1919 - 1952), Mamertas Indriliūnas (1920 - 1945). The book Partizanai (The Partisans) by Juozas Lukša - Daumantas was issued multiple times in Lithuania, published in the US as Fighters for freedom : Lithuanian Partisans Versus the U.S.S.R. in 1975, as Forest Brothers: The Account of an Anti-soviet Lithuanian Freedom Fighter, 1944-1948 in 2010, and in Sweden as Skogsbröder in 2005. Most famous representatives of the Lithuanian deportee literature: Dalia Grinkevičiūtė (1927–1987), Valentas Ardžiūnas (1933–2007), Leonardas Matuzevičius (1923 – 2000), Petras Zablockas (1914–2008), Kazys Inčiūra (1906–1974), Antanas Miškinis (1905–1983).

Lithuanian literature in exile[edit]

A body of work exists by Lithuanians who were compelled to leave the country or who emigrated as children with their parents. These authors include Antanas Škėma (1910 - 1961), Alfonsas Nyka-Nyliūnas (1919 - 2015), Marius Katiliškis (1914 - 1980), Kazys Bradūnas (1917 - 2009), Bernardas Brazdžionis (1907 - 2002), Henrikas Radauskas (1910 - 1970) and many others.[14]

Numerous Lithuanian poets were forced into exile or emigrated to flee the Soviet occupation after World War II. They wrote expressing nostalgia of the native land and Lithuanian nature, and homesteads. This movement was named Žemininkai - the land poets, using the name of the anthology Žemė (The Land) which compiled by Kazys Bradūnas and was published in Los Angeles in 1951. Five poets attributed to Žemininkai - Juozas Kėkštas (1915 -1981), Kazys Bradūnas, Alfonsas Nyka-Niliūnas, Henrikas Nagys (1920 - 1996) and Vytautas Mačernis (1921 - 1944) (posthumously).

The most famous novel by Antanas Škėma, Baltoji drobulė (White Shroud, 1958) only recently was translated into English and German and got international acclaim. [15]

Jonas Mekas (1922 – 2019) is a filmmaker, poet and artist and often been called "the godfather of American avant-garde cinema". He is known for collections of poems Semeniškių idilės (1948), Gėlių kalbėjimas (1961), Dienoraščiai 1970–1982 (1985), essays Laiškai iš niekur (Letters from Nowhere, 1997). The poems and prose of J.Mekas was translated into French, German, and English.

Algis Budrys (1931 – 2008) was born in a family of a Lithuanian diplomat which didn't return to Lithuania after it's occupation by the Soviet Union. A.Budrys wrote in English and is known for such science fiction novels as Who?, Rogue Moon. In addition to numerous Hugo Award and Nebula Award nominations, A.Budrys won the Science Fiction Research Association's 2007 Pilgrim Award for lifetime contributions to speculative fiction scholarship.

Eduardas Cinzas (1924 – 1996) left Lithuania in 1944 and settled in Belgium. In his romans the life of small Belgian cities depicted in realistic and sarcastic manner. Most notable works - Brolio Mykolo gatvė (The Street of Brother Mykolas, 1972), Šv. Petro šunynas (The Doggery of Saint Peter, 1984)

Antanas Šileika (b.1953) born in Canada to Lithuanian parents. He became involved through journalism with Lithuania’s restitution of independence during the fall of The Soviet Union 1988-1991, and for this activity he received the Knight’s Cross medal from the Lithuanian government in 2004.[16] Most notable works - Woman in Bronze (2004), The Barefoot Bingo Caller (2017), Provisionally Yours (2019).

Publishing and literary events[edit]

There are 45 publishing houses in Lithuania that cover 83 percent of the entire book publishing market.[17] Vilnius Book Fair is the biggest Book Fair in the Baltic States. Also, it is one of the most significant cultural events in Lithuania. The International Vilnius Book Fair is exclusively focused on the reader; its main accent is on books and cultural events, as well as on the possibility for authors to interact with their readers. [18] Translation of Lithuanian authors into other languages is supported by the Translation Grant Programme being run by the Lithuanian Culture Institute.[19]

Poezijos pavasaris (Poetry Spring) is an international poetry festival, taking place annually, since 1965. It features Lithuanian poets as well as other international poets focusing on a variety of literary forms including poetry, translations and essays.[20] Each year laureate of the festival awarded with an oak wreath. Since 1985 the international poetry festival Druskininkai Poetic Fall takes place in early October.

Literary criticism[edit]

First fragments of literary criticism are found in writings and bookmarks of Danielius Kleinas, Michael Mörlin, Pilypas Ruigys and others. Simonas Vaišnoras (Varniškis) was the first who wrote more comprehensively about Lithuanian literature in the preface of his Žemčiūga teologiška (The Pearl of Theology, 1600)[21]

The Institute of Lithuanian Literature and Folklore in Vileišis Palace

References[edit]

  1. ^ Radvanas, Jonas. "Radivilias, sive De vita, et rebus praeclarissime gestis immortalis memoriae". theeuropeanlibrary.org. ex officina Ioannis Kartzani. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  2. ^ Introduction to Latin language Lithuanian literature Archived 2007-10-06 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Dambrauskaitė, Ramunė (1995). "A Latin Funeral Oration From Vilnius (1594)". books.google.lt. Leuven: Leuven University Press, Humanistica Lovaniensia. p. 253. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  4. ^ LMS IC: Classic Lithuanian Literature Anthology: Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas (about the author)
  5. ^ Alfonsas Nyka-Niliūnas. Keturi vėjai ir keturvėjinikai, Aidai, 1949, No. 24
  6. ^ Baranova, Jūratė (2000). Lithuanian Philosophy: Persons and Ideas. The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy. p. 5. ISBN 1-56518-137-9. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  7. ^ Lietuviškos knygos Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "The Ballads of Kukutis by Marcelijus Martinaitis Bilingual English / Lithuanian edition". Retrieved 24 August 2018. In creating the character of Kukutis, Marcelijus Martinaitis found a voice which could articulate the anger, frustration and passions of the Lithuanian people, a voice which, contrary to all expectations, managed to escape the Soviet censor's pen and which, a decade after publication of The Ballads of Kukutis, was to become the catalyst for revolution in the Baltics. Indeed, during the mass political rallies of the late 1980s and early '90s, poems from The Ballads were chanted, sung and performed everywhere.
  9. ^ International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights Archived 2006-10-02 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Tomas Venclova - Jonas Zdanys
  11. ^ Jegelevičius, Linas. "Grabbing Britons' attention for Lithuanian fiction is now easier than ever". Retrieved 31 December 2018. Cerniauskaite is an accomplished writer, but she is also quite a daring writer. You really get the feeling of her emotional involvement in the novel, a kind of raw, poetic energy that is very engaging. The novel focuses on a woman’s involvement with three men, her father, her partner, and an adopted son, Ilya. Each of these relationships is difficult and in some ways broken and ends badly.
  12. ^ Slaviūnas, Zenonas. "Sutartinės. Daugiabalsės lietuvių liaudies dainos". Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  13. ^ "Sutartinės, Lithuanian multipart songs". Retrieved 30 December 2018. Sutartinės (from the word sutarti – to be in concordance) is a form of polyphonic music performed by female singers in north-east Lithuania. The songs have simple melodies, with two to five pitches, and comprise two distinct parts: a meaningful main text and a refrain that may include nonce words.
  14. ^ The Experience of Exile in Lithuanian Poetry Archived 2006-08-23 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "White Shroud". www.vagabondvoices.co.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  16. ^ "Antanas SIleika". antanassileika.ca. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  17. ^ "Literature and Publishing". lrkm.lrv.lt/. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  18. ^ "THE PHENOMENON OF THE INTERNATIONAL VILNIUS BOOK FAIR". www.lla.lt. Retrieved 21 November 2018. The Second Christmas – this is how Lithuanian publishers call International Vilnius Book Fair, which awaits its fans every February at the Lithuanian Exhibition and Congress Centre LITEXPO. Publishing houses around the globe rush to publish the most interesting and beautiful books by Christmas-time, in time for the gift-buying fever. Vilnius Book Fair that takes place soon after Christmas in Vilnius is an additional opportunity for publishers to organize writers’ meetings with readers and introduce new books.
  19. ^ "Sixteen Lithuanian authors' works will be translated into eight languages around the world". Retrieved 30 December 2018. Shelves in The United Kingdom, Latvia, Poland, Ukraine, Croatia, Hungary, Bulgaria and Russia will soon carry sixteen works by Lithuanian authors. Foreign publishers submit application to the Translation Grant Programme being run by the Lithuanian Culture Institute when they become interested in the opportunity to present their readers a piece of work from Lithuania.
  20. ^ ""Poetry Spring" – International Festival". Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  21. ^ "lietuvių literatūros kritika". vle.lt. Retrieved 31 March 2019.

Literature[edit]

  • (In Lithuanian, Latin) Compilers: Narbutienė, Daiva; Narbutas, Sigitas; Editors: Ulčinaitė, Eugenija; Pociūtė, Dainora; Lukšaitė, Ingė; Kuolys, Darius; Jovaišas, Albinas; Girdzijauskas, Juozapas; Dini, Pietro U. (2002). XV-XVI a. Lietuvos lotyniškų knygų sąrašas / Index librorum latinorum Lituaniae saeculi quinti decimi et sexti decimi. Vilnius : Lietuvių literaturos ir tautosakos institutas. ISBN 978-9986513520
  • A Nyka-Niliunas. Lithuanian Literature. Anthony Thorlby (ed). The Penguin Companion to Literature. Penguin Books. 1969. Volume 2 (European Literature). Pages 481 and 482.
  • "Lithuanian literature" in Chris Murray (ed). The Hutchinson Dictionary of the Arts. Helicon Publishing Limited. 1994. Reprinted 1997. ISBN 1859860478. Page 311.
  • Kvietkauskas, M. (2011). Transitions of Lithuanian Postmodernism: Lithuanian Literature in the Post-Soviet Period (On the Boundary of Two Worlds: Identity, Freedom, and Moral Imagination in the Baltics). Rodopi. ISBN 978-9042034419
  • Kelertas V. (1992). Come into My Time: Lithuania in Prose Fiction, 1970-90. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0252062377
  • (In Lithuanian) Editors: Bradūnas K., Šilbajoris R. (1997). Lietuvių egzodo literatūra 1945-1990 / Literature of the Lithuanian exodus 1945-1990. Vilnius: Lituanistikos institutas (Chicago). ISBN 5-415-004459

External links[edit]