Long combination vehicle

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40 foot container turnpike doubles – 148,000 lbs GVWR
Rocky Mountain 40' 20' – 120,000 lbs GVWR
20 foot container double – 100,000 lbs GVWR
20 ft container straight truck w/ 20ft container trailer – 100,000 lbs GVWR
20 foot container straight truck with 28.5' foot pup trailer

Long combination vehicles[1] are combinations of multiple Trailers on tractor trucks as compared to standard 5 axle semi trailer-trucks with one trailer. Combinations of LCVs are:

  • Turnpike double – two 40 ft trailers or longer up to 53 footers
53 foot turnpike double
  • Rocky Mountain doubles – one 40 ft trailer or longer and another shorter trailer usually a 28-foot (pup)
Rocky Mountain Double
  • Triple trailer – three 28.5 ft pups
Triple trailer three 28.5 foot pups
  • B-Train – 33 foot max twin trailer that shares a tridem wheel set between the front and back trailer.
B-train 33 foot trailers
STAA double pup 28.5 foot trailers

LCVs are useful because they usually carry extra freight in terms of square and cubic feet capacity as well as weight capacity; because of the extra axles it spreads out the weight across a longer area. They're also more efficient based on Ton-mileage.

In the United States some states allow certain combinations on certain routes. In the western United States LCVs are allowed on many Interstate highways. The only LCVs allowed nationwide are STAA doubles.[2]

States that allow long combination vehicles

MAP-21 transportation bill[edit]

Future combinations are under study and consideration to be allowed on the National Network. These new standards were scheduled to be released in November 2014.

40 foot container turnpike double axel distances

Federal bridge weight formula[edit]

Distance in feet between any
group of two or more axles 1
Gross weight in pounds 2
2 axles 3 axles 4 axles 5 axles 6 axles 7 axles
Less than 8 3 34,000 34,000
More than 8 4 38,000 42,000
9 39,000 42,500
10 40,0005 43,500
11 40,000 44,000
12 40,000 45,000 50,000
13 40,000 45,000 50,500
14 40,000 46,500 51,500
15 40,000 47,000 52,000
16 40,000 48,000 52,500 58,000
17 40,000 48,500 53,500 58,500
18 40,000 49,500 54,000 59,000
19 40,000 50,500 54,500 60,000
20 40,000 51,000 55,500 60,500 66,000
21 40,000 51,500 56,000 61,000 66,500
22 40,000 52,500 56,500 61,500 67,000
23 40,000 53,000 57,500 62,500 68,000
24 40,000 54,000 58,000 63,000 68,500 74,000
25 40,000 54,500 58,500 63,500 69,000 74,500
26 40,000 55,500 59,500 64,000 69,500 75,000
27 40,000 56,000 60,000 65,000 70,000 75,500
28 40,000 57,000 60,500 65,500 71,000 76,500
29 40,000 57,500 61,500 66,000 71,500 77,000
30 40,000 58,500 62,000 66,500 72,000 77,500
31 40,000 59,000 62,500 67,500 72,500 78,000
32 40,000 60,0005 63,500 68,000 73,000 78,500
33 40,000 60,000 64,000 68,500 74,000 79,000
34 40,000 60,000 64,500 69,000 74,500 80,0005
35 40,000 60,000 65,500 70,000 75,000 80,000
36 40,000 60,000 66,0006 70,500 75,500 80,000
37 40,000 60,000 66,5006 71,000 76,000 80,000
38 40,000 60,000 67,5006 71,500 77,000 80,000
39 40,000 60,000 68,000 72,500 77,500 80,000
40 40,000 60,000 68,500 73,000 78,000 80,000
41 40,000 60,000 69,500 73,500 78,500 80,000
42 40,000 60,000 70,000 74,000 79,000 80,000
43 40,000 60,000 70,500 75,000 80,0005 80,000
44 40,000 60,000 71,500 75,500 80,000 80,000
45 40,000 60,000 72,000 76,000 80,000 80,000
46 40,000 60,000 72,500 76,500 80,000 80,000
47 40,000 60,000 73,500 77,500 80,000 80,000
48 40,000 60,000 74,000 78,000 80,000 80,000
49 40,000 60,000 74,500 78,500 80,000 80,000
50 40,000 60,000 75,500 79,000 80,000 80,000
51 40,000 60,000 76,000 80,0005 80,000 80,000
52 40,000 60,000 76,500 80,000 80,000 80,000
53 40,000 60,000 77,500 80,000 80,000 80,000
54 40,000 60,000 78,000 80,000 80,000 80,000
55 40,000 60,000 78,500 80,000 80,000 80,000
56 40,000 60,000 79,500 80,000 80,000 80,000
57 40,000 60,000 80,0005 80,000 80,000 80,000
  • 1 Calculated values reflect FHWA policy of rounding down when distances fall exactly between 6-inch (15 cm) increments.[3]
  • 2 Calculated values reflect FHWA policy of rounding down when weights fall exactly between 500 pound increments.[4]
  • 3 Tandem axle by definition.[5]
  • 4 Distances between 8 feet (2.4 m) to 8 feet 11 inches (2.72 m) may not be rounded down.[3]
  • 5 __ Maximum legal weight limit based on number of axles. Increased axle lengths beyond these do not increase maximum legal weight.[5]
  • 6 __ Exception to the formula: when the four axles under consideration are two tandem axles spaced at least 36 feet (11 m) apart, a gross weight of 68,000 pounds (31,000 kg) is allowed.[5]
  • __ Upper blank areas represent unrealistic configurations.[4]

Container transport[edit]

Load bearing of container stacking is at the 40 foot couplings.
53' 48' 45' 40' and 20' containers stacked

ISO containers come in 5 standard sizes 20's, 40's, 45's, 48's, and 53 footers. They can be stacked, provided that the anchor points line up – for example a 40 ft container on top of two 20 ft containers placed in line. 2 × 20 ft containers can NOT be stacked on a 40 foot as the centers would not be supported.

Container ships[edit]

Container ships only take 20s, 40s and also 45s above deck. 90% of the containers on container ships are 40 footers.

Forty-five-foot containers stacked above deck

Trains[edit]

Intermodal container trains in America come in 2 varieties foreign and domestic container trains.

Domestic[edit]

Domestic intermodal trains carry 53-footers plus trailer-on-flatcar and they travel throughout North America

Foreign[edit]

Foreign intermodal trains carry 20s, 40s, and 45s to and from container ports to import or export intercontinentally.

Container carriers[edit]

Americas largest container carriers JB Hunt, Schneider National, and Swift don't own a single 40', 45', or 20' foot container making intercontinental shipping through them impossible. All the 40' shipping container companies are foreign like Maersk, MSC, or CMA CGM or they are container leasing companies in America like Textainer or Triton and none of these carriers network out American exports well. Intercontinental container shipping is Full container load shipping and that's in contrast to less than trailer load shipping.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.testquestionsandanswers.com/cdl/combination-vehicles-test.html
  2. ^ https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/reports/tswstudy/Vol3-Chapter3.pdf
  3. ^ a b "Questions and Answers about Vehicle Size and Weight". Federal Highway Administration. Archived from the original on March 15, 2008. Retrieved March 27, 2008. 
  4. ^ a b "Bridge Formula Weights Calculator". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved February 3, 2008. 
  5. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference randmcnally was invoked but never defined (see the help page).