Modal share

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United Kingdom transport modal share from 1952 to 2014, Department for Transport

A modal share (also called mode split, mode-share, or modal split) is the percentage of travelers using a particular type of transportation or number of trips using said type.[1] In freight transportation, this may be measured in mass.

Modal share is an important component in developing sustainable transport within a city or region. In recent years, many cities have set modal share targets for balanced and sustainable transport modes, particularly 30% of non-motorized (cycling and walking) and 30% of public transport. These goals reflect a desire for a modal shift, or a change between modes, and usually encompasses an increase in the proportion of trips made using sustainable modes.[2]

Comparability of data[edit]

Modal share data is usually obtained by travel surveys, which are often conducted by local governments, using different methodologies. Sampling and interviewing techniques, definitions, the extent of geographical areas and other methodological differences can influence comparability. Most typical surveys refer to the main mode of transport used during trips to work.[3] Surveys covering entire metropolitan areas are preferred over city proper surveys which typically cover only the denser inner city.

Modal split of journeys to work[edit]

The following tables present the modal split of journeys to work. Note that it is better to use a measure of all trips on a typical weekday, but journey to work data is more readily available. It would also be beneficial to disaggregate private motor vehicles figures to car driver, car passengers and motorbikes (especially relevant for Asian cities).

Metropolitan areas with over 1,000,000 inhabitants[edit]

Metro area walking cycling public transport private motor vehicle year Survey Area
Australia Adelaide 3% 1% 11% 85% 2016[4] GCCSA
United States Atlanta 1% 0% 3% 86% 2016[5] UA
Greece Athens 8% 2% 37% 53% 2006 [6]
New Zealand Auckland 5% 1% 12% 81% 2018[7] MUA
United States Austin 2% 1% 3% 83% 2019[8]
United States Baltimore 3% 0% 7% 84% 2016[9] UA
Spain Barcelona 34.35% 2.28% 37.33% 26.04% 2018[10]
China Beijing 21% 32% 26% 21% 2005/2011[11]
Serbia Belgrade 23% 1% 49% 27% 2015
Germany Berlin 30% 18% 27% 26% 2018
Australia Brisbane 4% 1% 14% 81% 2016[12] GCCSA
Belgium Brussels 25% 2.5% 28% 43% 2010[13]
Colombia Bogota 15% 2% 64% 19% 2008[11]
United States Boston 5% 1% 14% 73% 2016[14] UA
Romania Bucharest 31% 2% 27% 36% 2015[15] Other(Taxi): 4%
Hungary Budapest 32% 1% 47% 20% 2011
Canada Calgary 4.7% 1.5% 14.4% 79.4% 2016
United States Chicago 3% 1% 13% 77% 2016[16] UA
Germany Cologne 25% 19% 21% 35% 2017[17]
United States Dallas 1% 0% 2% 90% 2016[18] UA
South Korea Daejeon 26% 2% 28% 44% 2012[19]
India Delhi 21% 12% 48% 19% 2008/2011[11]
United States Detroit 1% 0% 2% 92% 2016[20]
United States Denver 2% 1% 4% 81% 2020[21] UA
Bangladesh Dhaka 19% 39% 29% 13% 2009[22]
Republic of Ireland Dublin 18% 7% 15% 59% 2020[23]
Canada Edmonton 3.7% 1.0% 11.3% 84% 2016
Germany Hamburg 27% 15% 22% 36% 2017[24]
Finland Helsinki 39% 9% 29% 22% 2019[25]
Hong Kong Hong Kong 11% 0.5% 77% 12% 2011[26]
United States Houston 1% 0% 2% 91% 2016[27] UA
United States Indianapolis 1% 0% 1% 91% 2016[28] UA
Indonesia Jakarta 1% 0.2% 20% 78%* 2019[29] UA *67% motorbike
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 6.6% 0.9% 36.8% 48.3% 2019[30] Taxi 1%
United States Las Vegas 1% 0% 4% 90% 2016[31] UA
United Kingdom London 26% 2.5% 44.5% 27% 2020[32]
United States Los Angeles 3% 1% 5% 85% 2016[33] UA
Spain Madrid 34% 0.5% 25% 40% 2018 [34]
Philippines Manila 9% 2% 44% 45% 2019[11]
Australia Melbourne 4% 2% 19% 76% 2016[12] GCCSA
United States Miami 2% 1% 4% 87% 2016[35] UA
Italy Milan 18% 10% 41% 29% 2014[36]
Belarus Minsk 13% 1% 63% 20% 2016 [37]
Canada Montreal 5% 2% 22% 70% 2016[38] CMA
India Mumbai 27% 6% 52% 15% 2008/2011[11]
Germany Munich 24% 18% 24% 34% 2017
United States New York City 28% 3% 31% 32% 2018[39] UA
Japan Osaka 7% 19% 61% 13% 2010[40]
Canada Ottawa 8% 2% 18% 72% 2016[41] CMA
France Paris 15% 5% 59% 20% 2010[42]
Australia Perth 3% 1% 12% 84% 2016[12] GCCSA
United States Philadelphia 4% 1% 10% 80% 2016[43] UA
United States Phoenix 2% 1% 2% 87% 2016[44] UA
United States Portland 3% 3% 7% 78% 2016[45] UA
Czech Republic Prague 22% 0.4% 52% 25% 2017[46]
Brazil Rio de Janeiro 29% 3% 43% 25% 2012[47] UA
Italy Rome 4% 1% 29% 66% 2014[48]
United States San Antonio 2% 0% 3% 90% 2016[49] UA
United States San Diego 3% 1% 3% 85% 2016[50] UA
United States San Francisco 5% 2% 20% 64% 2016[51] UA
United States San Jose 2% 2% 5% 84% 2016[52] UA
Chile Santiago 34.5% 4% 29.6% 25.7% 2012[53] UA
Brazil São Paulo 32% 1% 36% 31% 2017[54] UA
United States Seattle 4% 1% 10% 77% 2016[55] UA
South Korea Seoul N/A 4% 66% 23% 2014[56]
China Shanghai 27% 20% 33% 20% 2009/2011[11]
Singapore Singapore 22% 1% 44% 33% 2011[11]
Bulgaria Sofia N/A N/A 73%[a] 27% 2010[57]
Australia Sydney 5% 1% 27% 67% 2016[12] GCCSA
Taiwan Taipei 13% 4% 43% 40% 2016[58]
Japan Tokyo 23% 14% 51% 12% 2008/2009[11]
Canada Toronto 5% 1% 24% 68% 2016[59] CMA
Canada Vancouver 7% 2% 20% 69% 2016 CMA
Austria Vienna 26% 7% 39% 28% 2014[60]
Poland Warsaw 18% 3% 47% 32% 2015[61]
United States Washington, D.C. 4% 1% 16% 72% 2016[62] UA

Metropolitan areas with over 250,000 inhabitants[edit]

Metro area walking cycling public transport private motor vehicle year
Denmark Aarhus 7% 27% 19% 43% 2004
Spain Alicante 18% 0% 13% 69% 2004
Netherlands Amsterdam 4% 40% 29% 27% 2014
Italy Bari 13% 1% 14% 72% 2001
Switzerland Basel 33% 17% 27% 22% 2015[63]
Switzerland Bern 30% 15% 32% 22% 2015[63]
Spain Bilbao 23% 0% 34% 43% 2004
United Kingdom Birmingham 1% 1% 25% 66% 2001
Italy Bologna 8% 4% 21% 67% 2001
Germany Bonn 28% 15% 17% 41% 2017[64]
Slovakia Bratislava 26.7% 1.6% 32.6% 37.7% 2014[65]
Czech Republic Brno 5% 2% 57% 32% 2012[66]
United States Buffalo 6% 1% 14% 79% 2012
Germany Bremen 25% 25% 15% 36% 2018
United Kingdom Bristol 19% 8% 12% 55% 2011[67]
Australia Canberra 5% 3% 8% 85% 2016[12]
New Zealand Christchurch 4% 6% 5% 84% 2018[7]
Denmark Copenhagen 10% 30% 36% 26% 2012
Spain Córdoba 18% 1% 10% 71% 2004
Germany Dortmund 19% 10% 22% 49% 2019
Germany Dresden 26% 18% 20% 36% 2018
Republic of Ireland Dublin 13.2% 7.6% 21.5% 48.5% 2016[68]
Germany Düsseldorf 34% 13% 18% 35% 2017[69]
United Kingdom Edinburgh 19% 7% 30% 42% 2009-2010[70]
Netherlands Eindhoven 3% 24% 8% 65% 2004
Germany Essen 19% 7% 19% 55% 2019
Italy Florence 8% 4% 21% 69% 2001
Germany Frankfurt 11% 15% 30% 44% 2015
Germany Freiburg im Breisgau 29% 34% 16% 21% 2017
Belgium Gent 13% 33% 15% 40% 2018[71]
Poland Gdańsk 20.8% 5.9% 32.1% 41.2% 2016[72]
Spain Gijón 24% 0% 17% 59% 2004
Sweden Gothenburg 12% 14% 21% 52% 2004
Austria Graz 19% 19% 20% 42% 2018[73]
Canada Halifax 8% 1% 12% 78% 2016[74]
Canada Hamilton 4% 1% 10% 84% 2016[75]
Germany Hanover 26% 19% 19% 36% 2017
Finland Helsinki 37% 10% 30% 22% 2016
Spain Las Palmas 12% 0% 24% 64% 2004
Portugal Lisbon 10% 0% 46% 40% 2001
Spain Málaga 12% 0% 11% 77% 2004
Sweden Malmö 6% 25% 18% 51% 2011
Spain Murcia 18% 1% 7% 74% 2004
Italy Naples 13% 0% 26% 60% 2001
Germany Nuremberg 24% 14% 23% 39% 2019
Norway Oslo 29% 6% 30% 34% 2013
Italy Palermo 12% 1% 9% 78% 2001
Canada Quebec City 2% 6% 11% 80% 2016[76]
Netherlands Rotterdam 5% 14% 25% 56% 2004
Sweden Stockholm 15% 7% 43% 33% 2004
Israel Tel Aviv 16% 13% 28% 43% 2015[77]
Netherlands The Hague 5% 22% 30% 43% 2004
Spain Seville 13% 7% 18% 62% 2014
Germany Stuttgart 26% 5% 24% 45% 2010
Estonia Tallinn 14% 2% 34% 49% 2020[78]
Italy Turin 12% 3% 5% 79% 2004
Netherlands Utrecht 25.3% 48.4% 5.4% 18.7% 2018[79]
Spain Valencia 16% 1% 21% 62% 2004
Spain Valladolid 22% 1% 20% 57% 2004
Spain Vigo 19% 0% 13% 68% 2004
Lithuania Vilnius 36% 0% 26% 38% 2011[80]
New Zealand Wellington 21% 4% 23% 49% 2018[7]
Canada Victoria (CMA) 10% 7% 11% 70% 2016
Canada Winnipeg 5% 2% 14% 79% 2016[81]
Spain Zaragoza 45.91% 2.90% 23.71% 26.88% 2017[82]
Switzerland Zürich 33% 12% 32% 21% 2015[63]
Mean ± SD 13±8% 8±9% 24±13% 55±17%

Notes: European data is based on the Urban Audit[83]

Modal share targets[edit]

The Charter of Brussels, signed by 36 cities including Brussels, Ghent, Milan, Munich, Seville, Edinburgh, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Gdansk, and Timișoara, commits the signatories to achieve at least 15% of bicycling modal share by 2020, and calls upon European institutions to do likewise.[84] The cycling modal share is strongly associated with the size of local cycling infrastructure[85]

The Canadian city of Hamilton adopted a similar modal share target plan in 2005.[86]

Modal share in the developing world[edit]

The modal share differs considerably depending on each city in the developing world.[87][88][89]

According to UNECE, the global on-road vehicle fleet is to double by 2050 (from 1,2 billion to 2,5 billion,[90] see introduction), with most future car purchases taking place in developing countries. Some experts even mention that the number of vehicles in developing countries will increase by 4 or 5-fold by 2050 (compared to current car use levels), and that the majority of these will be second-hand.[12][91]

Legislation impacting the modal share[edit]

Through legislation (i.e. taxing and conditions on new car purchases), ... car ownership can be discouraged. This could help in achieving a modal shift.[92]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Result achieved using the percentage of commuters using PT (63%) plus Taxi (3%) and additionally marshrutkas (7%).

External links[edit]

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