Aarhus

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This article is about the city in Denmark. For the convention on public participation, see Aarhus Convention. For the meteorite, see Aarhus (meteorite).
Aarhus
Aerial view of Aarhus City Centre & South Harbour
Aerial view of Aarhus City Centre & South Harbour
Aarhus is located in Denmark
Aarhus
Aarhus
Location in Denmark
Coordinates: 56°09′N 10°13′E / 56.150°N 10.217°E / 56.150; 10.217
Country Denmark
Region Central Denmark (Midtjylland)
Municipality Aarhus
Area[1]
 • Urban 91 km2 (35 sq mi)
 • Metro 9,997 km2 (3,860 sq mi)
 • Municipal 468 km2 (181 sq mi)
Elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2014)[1][3]
 • Urban 259,754
 • Urban density 2,854/km2 (7,390/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,245,046 (17 municipalities in East Jutland metropolitan area)
 • Metro density 124/km2 (320/sq mi)
 • Municipal 323,893[2]
 • Municipal density 681/km2 (1,760/sq mi)
Time zone Central Europe Time (UTC+1)
Postal code 8000, 8200, 8210
Area code(s) (+45) 8
Website Official website

Aarhus or Århus (Danish pronunciation: [ˈɒːhuːˀs] ( )) is the second-largest city in Denmark. The principal port of Denmark, Aarhus is on the east side of the peninsula of Jutland in the geographical centre of Denmark. Aarhus is the seat of the council of Aarhus municipality with 323,893[2] inhabitants and 259,754 (1 January 2014)[3] in the inner coherent urban area. Aarhus municipality claims a population of 1.2 million people in the greater Aarhus area. The city claims the unofficial title "Capital of Jutland".

Aarhus is the biggest single city in the East Jutland metropolitan area (Danish: Byregion Østjylland), which is a co-operation in eastern Jutland with 17 municipalities. With more than 1.2 million people living in the East Jutland metropolitan area it represents approximately 23% of the population of Denmark. Aarhus has the second-largest urban area in Denmark after Copenhagen.

Name[edit]

Aarhus Cathedral; rebuilt to its current size in 1500, with the longest nave in Denmark

The city was mentioned for the first time by Adam of Bremen who stated that "Reginbrand, bishop of the church of Aarhus (Harusa)" participated in a church meeting in the city of Ingelheim in Germany.

During the Middle Ages the city was called Arus, and in Icelandic chronicles, it was known as Áróss. It is a compound of the two words ār, genitive of ā ("river", Modern Danish å) and ōss ("mouth", Modern Danish munding; in Modern Icelandic this word is still used for "river delta").[citation needed] The name originates from the city's location around the mouth of the stream Aarhus Å (English: Aarhus River[4][5] Å being the Danish word for a small river.

Through regular sound development, Medieval Danish Arus became Aars or Oes, a form which persisted in the dialects of the surrounding parishes until the 20th century. In 1406, Aarhus became prevalent in the written sources, and gradually became the norm in the 17th century.[citation needed] Today, the city is also called "The City of Smiles" among people in Denmark.

Aarhus/Århus spelling[edit]

With the Danish spelling reform of 1948 Aa was changed to Å. Some Danish cities resisted the new spelling of their names, notably Aalborg and Aabenraa. Contrarily, Århus city council explicitly embraced the new spelling, thought to enhance an image of progressiveness.

In 2010, a majority of the city council voted for a name change from Århus back to Aarhus, and the renaming came into effect on January 1, 2011. Mayor at that time Nicolai Wammen argued that the Aa spelling would strengthen the city's international profile, help private enterprise and make it easier to access Aarhus on the Internet. The Aarhus spelling has, however, always had some use in non-Scandinavian languages. There is considerable opposition to the Aa spelling and according to a May 2011 poll 59.8% of the city's inhabitants preferred the Å spelling.[6]

Although the name on many signs and other physical media still reads Århus, official informational websites have effectively altered occurrences of Århus to Aarhus. Furthermore, certain geographically affiliated names have been updated to reflect the name of the city. An example is the Aarhus River for which the Danish name has been altered from Århus Å to Aarhus Å.[4] However, in Danish it is always correct to write geographical names with the letter Å, while local councils since 1984 have been allowed to use the Aa spelling as an alternative option. When a local authority decides so, most newspapers and state institutions will re-adopt the pre-1948 Aa spelling and the Å spelling will in practice become second-place. However, the official authorities are the Danish Placename Commission[7] and the Danish Language Committee, publisher of the Danish Orthographic Dictionary, which will keep Århus as the main name and have Aarhus as a new, second option, in brackets.[8]

History[edit]

Interlacing knotwork designs and stylised dragon ridge plates on a reconstruction of an early church at Moesgaard Museum

The bishopric of Aarhus dates back to at least 948,[9] and archaeological findings date back some 1,300 years to Viking times. The city itself is presumably older than 770 AD, making Aarhus the oldest big city in Scandinavia.[citation needed] The favourable central position of the city within Denmark afforded it trade from Germany, the Baltic countries, the greater peninsula of Jutland and the communities on the many smaller islands in its vicinity, which meant that trade always had a great significance to the town – a significance which is still true today.

The city did not expand outwards until the late 19th century, and Aalborg remained the largest city on the peninsula until the 1920s. The relatively fast, albeit late, growth of the city can be ascribed to the general tendencies of a population moving from rural to urban areas during the industrial revolution.[citation needed]Industrialisation meant that proximity to trade routes became more important, giving the harbour city some advantages over other nearby cities as new industries came into existence.

Viking Age and before[edit]

fortified Viking Town Aros (Aarhus) 950 AD
fortified Viking Town Aros

The oldest archaeological findings in Aarhus are glass pearls, which date to the end of the 7th century. Half buried longhouses, used both as homes and workshops for the Vikings have also been found. In the houses and the adjoining archaeological layers, combs, jewellery and basic multi-purpose tools have been found that indicate the settlement is from approximately year 900.[citation needed]

The finding of six runestones in and around Aarhus indicates the city had some significance around year 1000 as only wealthy nobles traditionally used them. The centre of Aarhus was once a pagan burial site until Aarhus' first church, Holy Trinity Church, a timber structure, was built upon it during the reign of Frode, King of Jutland, around 900.

17th–18th centuries[edit]

The Aarhus city seal from 1421 and 1608.

During the wars of the 17th century, it is probable that the city suffered in a significant way. Fortifications still exist south of the city as a reminder of the German imperial campaigns between 1627 and 1629.[citation needed]

In spite of these and other misfortunes, such as plague and city-wide fires, Aarhus was still quite a significant city in Denmark due to its favourable geographical position which was of significant importance for trading.

19th century[edit]

In the 19th century, the city gained more independence from the dominance of Copenhagen and Hamburg. While it had been the third largest city in Jutland during the early 19th century, its population surpassed Randers in 1840[citation needed] and in 1850, Aalborg, thus becoming the largest city in Jutland and the second largest in Denmark.

The city's material prosperity continued to increase as the harbour expanded and the railway network grew. Culturally, it marketed itself as the "Capital of Jutland" and expanded many of its cultural institutions like the national library, universities, the Aarhus Theatre and hospitals.

Geography[edit]

Aarhus lies roughly at the geographical centre of Denmark, on the peninsula of Jutland. As a consequence of the city's growth, forests reach from the Marselisborg Forests in the south, to within a kilometre (0.6 mi) of the city centre, while some forest areas are now completely surrounded by urban development, such as Riis Skov. Aarhus is built mostly around the harbour, which has been essential for the development of the city through the ages.

Aerial view of Aarhus from the north.

The Aarhus Habour has seen large expansions in recent years and is currently a very active construction site for a broad array of projects. The harbour was and still is predominantly industrial, although recreational and cultural uses have gradually increased there recently. The new city district of Aarhus Docklands is being constructed next to the old marina of Aarhus Lystbådehavn in the north harbour, and is planned to comprise several residential and business buildings on newly constructed wharfs. The old wharf holding Aarhus former ship building yard (nicknamed Dokken), now houses an array of businesses and cultural projects and organizations in the vacated buildings. In the south, the large recreational marina of Marselisborg Yacht Harbour complete with restaurants, hotels, cafés, etc. was also constructed some years ago. The industrial activities are by no means diminishing n Aarhus Harbour though, and has also expanded recently with large new wharfs, cranes and a new railway line, etc. primarily serving the shipping company of Maersk.

With some of the highest points in Denmark close to the city of Aarhus (see Søhøjlandet), the general landscape here is typically hilly, interspersed with forests and meadows; the city itself is very hilly north of the centre (by Danish standards, that is; see Highest hill, Denmark).

The city lies at the junction of railway lines from all parts of the country. To the south west (about 21 km (13 mi), by rail) lies a picturesque region that contains the Gudenå. Several larger lakes extend West from the Skanderborg railway junction and rise to heights exceeding 152 metres (499 ft) at Himmelbjerget. The railway traverses this district of moorland and woodland to Silkeborg.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Aarhus is divided into several districts and suburbs with its own postal code (Postdistrikter).

Districts (boroughs) inside the second city beltway:

Demographics[edit]

"The Old Town" open air museum in Aarhus

More than 300,000 people live within the city limits of Aarhus, while an additional 500,000 live in the surrounding local area of the East Jutland region. Aarhus is also a major part of the larger East Jutland metropolitan area with 1,200,000 inhabitants, which makes East Jutland the second most-populated area in Denmark, after the Copenhagen area.[10]

The population of Aarhus is both younger and better-educated than the national average.[10] This is often attributed to the high concentration of educational institutions and facilities in the area.

Nearly 12% of the population are immigrants, which is high for Denmark, but modest when compared to some other European cities. The largest immigrant groups (January 1, 2008) are Palestinians (4,644), Turks (4,089), Somalis (3,476), Iraqis (3,140), Vietnamese (2,382), and Iranians (2,199).[citation needed] These groups live mainly in the western parts of Aarhus, where the Gellerup area is well known for its high concentration of immigrants (88%, 2006). The vast majority of the immigrants in Gellerup are Arabs, Turks and Somalis. Other large immigrant groups in Aarhus include Germans (1,573), Poles (1,555), Norwegians (1,050), Afghans (958), and Britons (763).

Economy[edit]

Emma Mærsk, at the time the world's largest container ship, in Aarhus Harbour, 5 September 2006. Aarhus' central location within Denmark facilitates transport throughout the country and beyond

The harbour is one of the largest industrial harbours in Northern Europe. It has the largest container terminal in Denmark and accommodates the largest container vessels in the world. The facilities are very modern and handle approximately 12 million tonnes of cargo (2006) and are therefore among the 100 biggest containerports in the world. Much agricultural produce is exported, while coal and iron are among the chief imports.[citation needed] The harbour itself is maintained by Århus Stevedore Kompagni A/S originally based in Aarhus but currently operating several harbours around the world.

The region is a major producer of agricultural products with many large farms in the outlying districts. Cattle, pork and grain are the main products.[citation needed]

The Ceres Brewery, now part of Royal Unibrew, was originally founded in Aarhus. Royal Unibrew announced the closure of Ceres in 2008 and now the old factory grounds in the city centre are being redeveloped with a large educational campus, amongst other minor projects.

Politics and administration[edit]

Map of Aarhus municipality and the urban area

The city council consists of 31 members elected for 4-year terms. Anybody eligible to vote and residing in Aarhus municipality can run for a seat on the city council. After elections have determined the members of the city council, the council elects a mayor, 2 deputy mayors and 5 councilmen.[11] The current Mayor of Aarhus is Jacob Bundsgaard of the Social Democrats, who took over after Nicolai Wammen in August 2011. Wammen wanted to focus on the upcoming election for Parliament.

The city is divided into 6 minor administrative bodies which together constitute the magistrate led by the mayor and the 5 elected councilmen as political and administrative directors. The 6 magistrate departments of the city are the "Mayor's Magistrate", "Social and Employment Magistrate", "Technology and Environment Magistrate", "Health and Social Magistrate", "Culture and Service Magistrate" and "Children and Youth Magistrate" and handle all the day-to-day operations of the city.

Aarhus is the seat of Aarhus Municipality. Until the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform, which replaced the Danish counties with five regions, it was also the seat of Aarhus County, which has now been disbanded in favour of the new Region Midtjylland, its seat located in Viborg.

Culture[edit]

The Old Town Open Air Museum; one of two museums in the area, and four in Denmark, with open air displays of period architecture. See The Old Town, Aarhus

Aarhus is a centre for education on the peninsula of Jutland. It draws students from a large area, especially from the western and southern parts of the peninsula. The relatively large influx of young people and students creates a natural base for cultural activities. There are many cafes and restaurants as well as discothèques, cinemas, museums, amusement parks, and various other entertainment venues. Each year, the town hosts several festivals and concerts, including NorthSide Festival, Aarhus International Jazz Festival and Aarhus Festuge the biggest festival in Scandinavia.

One major tourist attraction in Aarhus is The Old Town (Danish: Den Gamle By), which is not actually an old part of the city itself, but a collection of historic Danish buildings gathered from all around the country. The city also hosts the Tivoli Friheden amusement park as well as the deer park situated in the large nearby public forests of Marselisborg.

The iconic late Viking Age Mask Stone found in Aarhus, housed at the Moesgård Museum.

Architecturally impressive sights include the 13th century cathedral in the centre of the city; Århus Domkirke is the tallest cathedral in Denmark, as well as the second longest in Northern Europe, being only 45 cm (18 in) shorter than its counterpart in Trondheim. The Aarhus City Hall is a uniquely designed building drawn by renowned architect Arne Jacobsen, located in the city centre. The city hall is included in the national educational canon for culture as an example of important architectural work.

There are many museums scattered around the city with ARoS being the newest and largest featuring daily exhibits of contemporary art. Other museums include Aarhus Kunstbygning which also features contemporary art, Frihedsmuseet which focuses on the occupation and resistance movement during World War II and Kvindemuseet which showcases feminist history and culture.

Being a comparatively large Danish city, Aarhus has received a fair share of immigrants from various other cultures and is as such also home to some of the few so called ghettos in Denmark, like Gellerup fx.The international cultures present in the community are an obvious and visible part of the city's daily life and contribute to many cultural flavours uncommon for the North, such as the Arabic themed Bazar Vest, a market with shopkeepers predominantly of foreign descent.[12]

The city has an active and visible gay and lesbian community which the city officially attempts to promote and nurture.[13] The Aarhus Festuge festival usually includes several exhibits, concerts or events specifically designed for these communities. There are several clubs, discos and cafes aimed at gays and lesbians: Danish D-lite (sports), G bar (disco) or Gaia Vandreklub (hiking club) are a few examples.

It is common for tourist brochures and local politicians to refer to the town with the tongue-in-cheek slogan "The world's smallest big city" reflecting the fact that the city has everything a city needs despite not being a metropolis like London. Another popular, and perhaps better known, phrase to describe the city is "City of Smiles" – a slogan first coined by the city council in the 1930s as an advertising slogan, and which subsequently is used widely in popular culture today.

Main sights[edit]

Åboulevarden
Skt. Clemens Torv with Aarhus Cathedral in background

Sports[edit]

In the southern-Aarhus Marselisborg Park, the sports centre named Atletion is located comprises athletics, the football NRGi Park and the indoor sports NRGi Arena. Several sport clubs have their home ground in Atletion, including AGF Århus, the Danish superliga football team, and Aarhus GF handball team, the 1960 European Cup runner-up. Although basketball is a minor sport in Denmark, Aarhus is considered the main Danish hub of the sport[citation needed], with the local team Bakken Bears being the most successful team in Denmark for the past decade. There are also two American football clubs: Aarhus Frogs and Århus Tigers. Aarhus also have a Division 1 ranked ice hockey team called IK Århus.

Aarhus has served as the host of many sport events including the 2002 European Women's Handball Championship, the 2005 European Table Tennis Championships, the Denmark Open in badminton, the UCI Women's Road Cycling World Cup, the 2006 World Orienteering Championships, the 2006 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships and the GF World Cup (women's handball).

Education[edit]

The town is home to Aarhus University, Aarhus Technical College, The Danish School of Journalism, the Royal Academy of Music in Aarhus, VIA University College, Aarhus School of Architecture, KaosPilots and several other higher education centres. It is possible to receive higher education in many areas, from engineering and dentistry to language and theology.

As of January 1, 2012 Aarhus University was the largest university in Denmark if measured by the amount of students enlisted.[14] The university has approximately 41,500 Bachelor and Master students enlisted and further about 1,500 Ph.D. students.[14] Aarhus University is ranked among the top 100 universities in the world by several of the most influential and respected rankings.

Aarhus City Court

Transport[edit]

Aarhus City Bikes.

Aarhus Airport is located 40 km (25 mi) north-east of Aarhus in Tirstrup, the bigger Billund Airport is situated 95 km (59 mi) south-west of Aarhus. There have been plans for constructing a new, bigger airport for a long time, but so far, the plans have not been realised.

Aarhus is served by commuter rail that connects the city itself with neighbouring towns. The main station in Aarhus is Aarhus Central Station, which is located in the city centre. Most city bus lines go through the inner city and pass through either Park Alle or Banegårdspladsen (lit. English: "Central Station Square") or both. County and Inter-city buses terminate at Aarhus Bus Terminal which is located 900 meters north-west of Banegårdspladsen, and in front of the Radisson SAS Scandinavia hotel at Margrethepladsen. The long-distance busses of linie888 connect Aarhus to other cities in Jutland and Zealand.

The Danish ferry company Mols-Linien connects Aarhus with Copenhagen (located on the isle of Zealand). The fastest ferries in the world (100 km/h)[citation needed] operate up to 10 times daily from the port of Aarhus to the port city of Sjællands Odde. The ferries transport both private vehicles and the line888 buses.

Aarhus has a free bike sharing system, Aarhus Bycykler (Aarhus City Bikes). The bicycles are available from 1 April to 30 October at 57 stands throughout the city and can be obtained by placing a DKK 20 coin in the release slot, just like caddies in a supermarket. The coin can be retrieved when the bike is returned. Bicycles can also be hired from many shops.

The Aarhus Letbane is a planned tram-train project which will link two railway lines with a new light rail route through the city.[15]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Aarhus is twinned with seven cities: Originally the cities had most co-operation within the public school, culture and welfare sectors, but now the co-operation is extended to also cover commercial interests.

The cities are:[16]

Apart from the sister cities Aarhus has a close relation with Novi Sad in Serbia.[citation needed]

Notable people[edit]

Politics

Science

Sports

Music and culture

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Vision Østjylland" (in Danish). Miljøministeriet. 20 August 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2014. , a description of the East Jutland metropolitan area
  2. ^ a b "Kommuner på landkortet - Danmarks Statistik". Dst.dk. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "BEF44: Population 1st January, by urban areas" (in Danish). Statistics Denmark. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "The Aarhus River". Visitaarhus.com. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  5. ^ "History of the city". Visitaarhus.com. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  6. ^ "Dobbelt-a i modvind i Aarhus". Jyllands-Posten (in Danish). 5 May 2011. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  7. ^ "Danish Placename Commission". Stednavneudvalget.ku.dk. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  8. ^ "Århus eller Aarhus?" (in Danish). Danish Language Committee. 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 
  10. ^ a b Peter Bro, Ph.D.-studerende, M.Sc., Aalborg Universitet, Henrik Harder, Lektor, Ph.D. HD.O MAA, Aalborg Universitet (2007). "Fremtidens Byudvikling i Østjylland" (PDF) (in Danish). Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  11. ^ "Byråd" (in Danish). Aarhus Municipality. 15 July 2003. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  12. ^ "Brochures on Bazar Vest" (in Danish). Bazar Vest. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  13. ^ "Homo i Århus" (in Danish). Aarhus.dk. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  14. ^ a b "Aarhus Universitet runder 40.000 studerende: Business Aarhus" (in Danish). Businessaarhus.dk. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  15. ^ "Aarhus tram-train project gets the go-ahead". Railway Gazette International. 10 May 2012. 
  16. ^ "Venskabsbyer: Aarhus Kommune". Aarhus.dk. Retrieved 10 July 2014. 
  17. ^ Schenker, Jennifer L. (12 November 2008). "Google's Chrome: The Danish Magic Inside". Businessweek. Retrieved 6 December 2013. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 56°09′26″N 10°12′39″E / 56.1572°N 10.2107°E / 56.1572; 10.2107