Phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles

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About a dozen countries and about 20 cities around the world have proposed banning the future sale of passenger vehicles powered by fossil fuels such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas and diesel. These include India, China (the largest auto market globally), Japan (the third largest auto market globally) that has comprehensive plans for a "hydrogen economy" by 2040[1], South Korea, Taiwan, also the EU auto market nations of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and Portugal, as well as Costa Rica in Central America. The intent to ban vehicles powered by fossil fuels is attractive to governments as it offers simpler target compliance[2] as it is focused on a specific industry, compared with a more encompassing carbon tax or phase-out of fossil fuels.[3] The automotive industry is working to introduce electrified vehicles to adapt to bans [4] with varying success. A partial ban enacted in 2012 by California, requiring that 15% of new vehicles offered for sale between 2018 and 2025 must be Zero Emission Vehicles ZEVs) in order for the automaker to sell any vehicles in the state, has yielded 8% compliance.[5]

Motivation[edit]

Reasons for banning further sale of fossil fueled vehicles include to meet national climate targets under international agreements such as the Kyoto Accord and the Paris Agreement to reduce carbon emissions that cause climate change, energy independence, or health risk due to local emissions.

Scope[edit]

The banning of fossil fuels vehicles has a defined scope and is generally applied in the form of a legislated decision to restrict further sales or registration of new vehicles powered with specific fuels from a future date. At the date of implementation current vehicles would still be registrable. As at 2017, most bans are over 10 years into the future and are not yet legislated.

References in mainstream media to these bans also use terms or phrases like "banning gas cars",[6] "banning ICE cars" (internal combustion engine), or "banning petrol cars"[7].

Jurisdictions with planned fossil-fuel vehicle bans[edit]

Countries[edit]

Country Ban announced Ban commences Scope Selectivity
 China 2017 no date set[8] Gasoline or diesel New vehicle sales
 Costa Rica 2019 2050[9][10] Gasoline or diesel New vehicle sales
 Denmark 2019 2030[11] Gasoline or diesel New vehicle sales
 France 2017 2040[12] Gasoline or diesel New vehicle sales
 Iceland 2018 2030[13] Gasoline or diesel New vehicle sales
 Ireland 2018 2030[14] Gasoline or diesel New vehicle sales
 Israel 2018 2030[15] Gasoline or diesel Imported vehicles
 Netherlands 2017 2030[16] Gasoline or diesel New vehicle sales
 Norway 2017 2025[17] Gasoline or diesel New vehicle sales
 Sri Lanka 2017 2040[18] Gasoline or diesel All vehicles
 Sweden 2018 2030[19] Gasoline or diesel New vehicle sales
 United Kingdom 2017 2040 – England, Wales, Northern Ireland[20]
2032 – Scotland[21]
Gasoline or diesel New vehicle sales

Cities and territories[edit]

Some cities listed have signed the Fossil Fuel Free Streets Declaration, committing to ban emitting vehicles by 2030,[22] but this does not necessarily have force of law in those jurisdictions.

City or Territory Country Ban announced Ban commences Scope Selectivity
Amsterdam  Netherlands 2019 2030[23] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles
Athens  Greece 2016 2025[24] Diesel All vehicles
Auckland  New Zealand 2017 2030[4] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Balearic Islands  Spain 2018 2025−35[25] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles
Barcelona  Spain 2017 2030[4] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Bristol  United Kingdom 2019 2021[26] Diesel All private vehicles (city center from 7 am to 3 pm)
British Columbia  Canada 2018 2025[27] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles by 2040, 10% ZEVs by 2025
Brussels  Belgium 2018 2030[28] Diesel All vehicles
Cape Town  South Africa 2017 2030[4] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Copenhagen  Denmark 2017 2030[4] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Hainan  China 2018 2030[29] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles
Heidelberg  Germany 2017 2030[4] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
London  United Kingdom 2017 2030[4] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Los Angeles  United States 2017 2030[4] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Madrid  Spain 2016 2025[24] Diesel All vehicles
Mexico City  Mexico 2016 2025[24] Diesel All vehicles
Milan  Italy 2017 2030[4] Diesel All diesel vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Oxford  United Kingdom 2017 2020−35[4] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles (initially during daytime hours on six streets)[30][31]
Paris  France 2016 2025[24] Diesel All vehicles
Quito  Ecuador 2017 2030[4] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Rome  Italy 2018 2024[32] Diesel All vehicles
Seattle  United States 2017 2030[4] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Vancouver  Canada 2017 2030[4] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025

References[edit]

  1. ^ IFRI Center for Energy. "Japan's Hydrogen Strategy and its Economic and Geopolitical Implications" (PDF).
  2. ^ Weaver, R. Kent. "Target Compliance: The Final Frontier of Policy Implementation" (PDF). Brookings Institution.
  3. ^ "International Trade Governance and Sustainable Transport: The Expansion of Electric Vehicles" (PDF). International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development. December 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Burch, Isabella (September 2018). "Survey of Global Activity to Phase Out Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles" (PDF).
  5. ^ "What Will It Not as Much as You Might Think". Union of Concerned Scientists.
  6. ^ "These countries are banning gas-powered vehicles by 2040".
  7. ^ Slezak, Michael (30 July 2017). "As the UK plans to phase out petrol cars, is Australia being left behind?". the Guardian.
  8. ^ "China to ban petrol and diesel cars, state media reports".
  9. ^ Schwanen, Tim (19 September 2019). "The five major challenges facing electric vehicles". Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  10. ^ https://presidencia.go.cr/comunicados/2019/02/sintesis-plan-nacional-de-descarbonizacion-2018-2050/
  11. ^ "Denmark embraces electric car revolution with petrol and diesel ban plan". Reuters. 2 October 2018 – via www.reuters.com.
  12. ^ "France plans ban on petrol cars by 2040". BBC News. 6 July 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
  13. ^ Arnar Thor Ingolfsson (2018-10-09). "Stefna að bensín- og dísilbílabanni 2030" [Policy for petrol and diesel car ban 2030] (in Icelandic). Morgunblaðið – via mbl.is.
  14. ^ "Ireland 2040: €22bn to turn State into low-carbon economy".
  15. ^ "Israel aims to eliminate use of coal, gasoline and diesel by 2030".
  16. ^ "Denmark embraces electric car revolution with petrol and diesel ban plan". 7 January 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
  17. ^ "Nine countries say they'll ban internal combustion engines". 7 August 2018 – via qz.com.
  18. ^ "Sri Lanka to scrap state-owned fossil fuel vehicles by 2025". The Straits Times. AFP. 10 November 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2019. Private owners have until 2040 to replace their cars, tuk-tuks and motorcycles, when the country plans to no longer allow any fossil fuel-burning vehicles on its roads, he said.
  19. ^ Kristensson, Johan. "Ny regering – nu väntar förbud mot bensinbilar". Ny Teknik (in Swedish). Retrieved 2019-05-26.
  20. ^ Asthana, Anushka; Taylor, Matthew (25 July 2017). "Britain to ban sale of all diesel and petrol cars and vans from 2040". the Guardian.
  21. ^ Pitas, Costas (5 September 2017). "Scotland aims to phase out new petrol, diesel cars by 2032". Reuters UK.
  22. ^ "C40 : Fossil-Fuel-Free Streets Declaration". www.c40.org. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
  23. ^ "City of Amsterdam to ban polluting cars from 2030". Reuters. 2019-05-02. Retrieved 2019-05-02.
  24. ^ a b c d Harvey, Fiona (2016-12-02). "Four of world's biggest cities to ban diesel cars from their centres". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
  25. ^ Mallorca Goes Deep Green
  26. ^ Laville, Sandra (2019-11-05). "Bristol council votes to ban diesel cars in first for a UK city". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-11-13.
  27. ^ B.C. plans to ban new gas, diesel car sales by 2040
  28. ^ gjs. "Brussel gaat dieselwagens verbannen vanaf 2030, regering wil ook maatregelen tegen benzinewagens". Het Nieuwsblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 2019-01-25.
  29. ^ 2030, Pulau Ini Larang Penjualan Mobil Berbahan Bakar Fosil
  30. ^ Smith, Lydia (October 11, 2017). "Oxford to ban all petrol and diesel vehicles and become 'world's first zero-emissions zone'". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  31. ^ "Oxford Zero Emission Zone (ZEZ) frequently asked questions". Oxford City Council. 2019. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  32. ^ "Rome latest city to announce car ban, will ban diesel cars from historical center starting 2024". 28 February 2018.