Phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles

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An expanding list of countries have proposed to ban the future sale of passenger vehicles powered by fossil fuels such as gasoline, LPG and diesel. These include India, China [1] (the largest auto market globally), Japan (the third largest auto market globally) that has comprehensive plans for a "hydrogen economy" by 2040[2], South Korea, Taiwan, also the EU auto market nations of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and Portugal, as well as Costa Rica in Central America. The intent to ban vehicles powered by fossil fuels is attractive to governments as it offers simpler target compliance[3] as it is focused on a specific industry, compared with a more encompassing carbon tax or phase-out of fossil fuels.[4] The automotive industry is working to introduce electrified vehicles to adapt to bans [5] with varying success. A partial ban enacted in 2012 by California, requiring that 15% of new vehicles offered for sale between 2018 and 2025 must be Zero Emission Vehicles ZEVs) in order for the automaker to sell any vehicles in the state, has yielded 8% compliance.[6]

Motivation[edit]

Reasons for banning further sale of fossil fueled vehicles include to meet national climate targets under international agreements such as the Kyoto Accord and the Paris Agreement to reduce carbon emissions that cause climate change, energy independence, or health risk due to local emissions.

Scope[edit]

The banning of fossil fuels vehicles has a defined scope and is generally applied in the form of a legislated decision to restrict further sales or registration of new vehicles powered with specific fuels from a future date. At the date of implementation current vehicles would still be registrable. As at 2017, most bans are over 10 years into the future and are not yet legislated.

References in mainstream media to these bans also use terms or phrases like "banning gas cars",[7] "banning ICE cars" (internal combustion engine), or "banning petrol cars"[8].

List of jurisdictions[edit]

Countries with a full ban enacted into law[edit]

Country Ban announced Ban commences Scope Selectivity
 China 2017 2040[9] Gasoline and diesel New vehicles sales
 Costa Rica 2018 2021[10] Fossil fuel vehicles All vehicles
 Denmark 2019 2030[11] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 France 2017 2040[12] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 India 2017 2030[13] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 Ireland 2018 2030[14] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 Israel 2018 2030[15] Gasoline and diesel Imported vehicles
 Netherlands 2017 2030[16] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 Norway 2017 2025[17] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 Sweden 2019 2030[18] Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales
 United Kingdom 2017 2040 – England, Wales, Northern Ireland[19]
2032 – Scotland
Gasoline and diesel New vehicle sales

Cities and territories[edit]

Some cities listed have signed the Fossil Fuel Free Streets Declaration, committing to ban emitting vehicles by 2030,[20] but this does not necessarily have force of law in those jurisdictions.

City or Territory Country Ban announced Ban commences Scope Selectivity
Athens  Greece 2016 2025[21] Diesel All vehicles
Auckland  New Zealand 2017 2030[5] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Barcelona  Spain 2017 2030[5] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
British Columbia  Canada 2018 2025[22] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles by 2040, 10% ZEVs by 2025
Brussels  Belgium 2018 2030[23] Diesel All vehicles
Cape Town  South Africa 2017 2030[5] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Copenhagen  Denmark 2017 2030[5] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Heidelberg  Germany 2017 2030[5] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
London  United Kingdom 2017 2030[5] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Los Angeles  United States 2017 2030[5] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Madrid  Spain 2016 2025[21] Diesel All vehicles
Mexico City  Mexico 2016 2025[21] Diesel All vehicles
Milan  Italy 2017 2030[5] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Oxford  United Kingdom 2017 2020[5] Gasoline and Diesel All vehicles
Paris  France 2016 2025[21] Diesel All vehicles
Quito  Ecuador 2017 2030[5] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Rome  Italy 2018 2024[24] Diesel All vehicles
Seattle  United States 2017 2030[5] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Vancouver  Canada 2017 2030[5] Gasoline or Diesel All vehicles, electric buses by 2025

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wall Street Journal. "China Sets New Deadline for Electric Car Production".
  2. ^ IFRI Center for Energy. "Japan's Hydrogen Strategy and its Economic and Geopolitical Implications" (PDF).
  3. ^ Weaver, R. Kent. "Target Compliance: The Final Frontier of Policy Implementation" (PDF). Brookings Institution.
  4. ^ "International Trade Governance and Sustainable Transport: The Expansion of Electric Vehicles" (PDF). International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development. December 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Burch, Isabella (September 2018). "Survey of Global Activity to Phase Out Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles" (PDF).
  6. ^ "What Will It Take for Automakers to Meet California's EV Requirements? Not as Much as You Might Think". Union of Concerned Scientists.
  7. ^ "These countries are banning gas-powered vehicles by 2040".
  8. ^ Slezak, Michael (30 July 2017). "As the UK plans to phase out petrol cars, is Australia being left behind?". the Guardian.
  9. ^ "China to ban petrol and diesel cars, state media reports".
  10. ^ "Costa Rica Plans To Eliminate Fossil Fuels By 2021".
  11. ^ "Denmark embraces electric car revolution with petrol and diesel ban plan". 2 October 2018 – via www.reuters.com.
  12. ^ "France plans ban on petrol cars by 2040". 6 July 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
  13. ^ "Countries are announcing plans to phase out petrol and diesel cars. Is yours on the list?".
  14. ^ "Ireland 2040: €22bn to turn State into low-carbon economy".
  15. ^ "Israel aims to eliminate use of coal, gasoline and diesel by 2030".
  16. ^ "Denmark embraces electric car revolution with petrol and diesel ban plan". 7 January 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
  17. ^ "Nine countries say they'll ban internal combustion engines". 7 August 2018 – via qz.com.
  18. ^ Regeringskansliet, Regeringen och (2019-01-21). "Regeringsförklaringen den 21 januari 2019". Regeringskansliet (in Swedish). Retrieved 2019-01-21.
  19. ^ Asthana, Anushka; Taylor, Matthew (25 July 2017). "Britain to ban sale of all diesel and petrol cars and vans from 2040". the Guardian.
  20. ^ "C40 : Fossil-Fuel-Free Streets Declaration". www.c40.org. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
  21. ^ a b c d Harvey, Fiona (2016-12-02). "Four of world's biggest cities to ban diesel cars from their centres". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
  22. ^ B.C. plans to ban new gas, diesel car sales by 2040
  23. ^ gjs. "Brussel gaat dieselwagens verbannen vanaf 2030, regering wil ook maatregelen tegen benzinewagens". Het Nieuwsblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 2019-01-25.
  24. ^ "Rome latest city to announce car ban, will ban diesel cars from historical center starting 2024". 28 February 2018.