Phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles means stopping selling and using vehicles which are powered by fossil fuels, such as gasoline, diesel, kerosene and fuel oil: it is one of the three most important parts of the general fossil fuel phase-out process, the others being the phase-out of fossil fuel power plants for electricity generation and decarbonization of industry.[1]

Many countries and cities around the world have stated they will ban the sale of passenger vehicles (primarily cars and buses) powered by fossil fuels such as petrol, liquefied petroleum gas and diesel at some time in the future.[2][3] Synonyms for the bans include phrases like "banning gas cars",[4] "banning petrol cars",[5] "the petrol and diesel car ban",[6] or simply "the diesel ban".[7] Another method of phase-out is the use of zero-emission zones in cities.

A few places have set dates for banning other types of vehicles, such as fossil fuelled ships and lorries.

Background[edit]

Reasons for banning further sale of fossil fuel vehicles include: reducing health risks from pollution particulates, notably diesel PM10s and other emissions, notably nitrogen oxides;[8] meeting national greenhouse gas, such as CO2, targets under international agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement; or energy independence. The intent to ban vehicles powered by fossil fuels is attractive to governments as it offers a simpler compliance target,[9] compared with a carbon tax or phase-out of fossil fuels.[10]

A BMW i3 being charged in Amsterdam. Electric cars had a world market share of around 5% in 2021.[11][12]

The automotive industry is working to introduce electric vehicles to adapt to bans[3] with varying success and it is seen by some in the industry as a possible source of money in a declining market. A 2020 study from Eindhoven University of Technology showed that the manufacturing emissions of batteries of new electric cars are much smaller than what was assumed in the 2017 IVL study[note 1] (around 75 kg CO2/kWh) and that the lifespan of lithium batteries is also much longer than previously thought (at least 12 years with a mileage of 15,000 km annually): they are cleaner than internal combustion cars powered by diesel or petrol.[13]

There is some opposition to simply moving from fossil-fuel powered cars to electric cars, as they would still require a large proportion of urban land.[14] On the other hand, there are many types of (electric) vehicles that take up little space, such as (cargo) bicycles and electric motorcycles and scooters.[15] Making cycling and walking over short distances, especially in urban areas, more attractive and feasible with measures such as removing roads and parking spaces and improving cycling infrastructure and footpaths (including pavements), provides a partial alternative to replacing all fossil-fuelled vehicles by electric vehicles.[15][16] Although there are as yet very few completely carfree cities (such as Venice), several are banning all cars in parts of the city, such as city centers.[17][18]

Methods[edit]

The banning of fossil-fuelled vehicles of a defined scope requires authorities to enact legislation that restricts them in a certain way. Proposed methods include:

  • A prohibition on further sales or registration of new vehicles powered with specific fuels from a certain date in a certain area.[19] At the date of implementation existing vehicles would remain legal to drive on public highways.[20]
  • A prohibition on the importation of new vehicles powered with specific fuels from a certain date into a certain area. This is planned in countries such as Denmark, Israel and Switzerland;[21][22][23] However, some countries, such as Israel, have no legislation on the subject.[24]
  • A prohibition on any use of certain vehicles powered with specific fuels from a certain date within a certain area. Restrictions such as these are already in place in many European cities, usually in the context of their low-emission zones (LEZs).[25]
  • Making emission legislation so strict that it can in reality not be fulfilled.

Fuel cell (electric) vehicles (FCVs or FCEVs) also allow running on (some) non-fossil fuels (i.e., hydrogen, ethanol,[26] methanol,[27] ...).

Cities generally use the introduction of low-emission zones (LEZs) or zero-emission zones (ZEZs), sometimes with an accompanying air quality certificate sticker such as Crit'air (France), in order to restrict the use of fossil-fuelled cars in some or all of its territory.[19] These zones are growing in number, size and strictness.[19][28] Some city bans in countries such as Italy, Germany and Switzerland are only temporarily activated during particular times of the day, during winter, or when there is a smog alert (for example, in Italy in January 2020); these do not directly contribute to the phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles, but they make owning and using such vehicles less attractive as their utility is restricted and the cost of driving them increases.[29][30][31]

Some countries have given consumers various incentives such as subsidies or tax breaks in order to stimulate the purchase of electric vehicles, while fossil-fuelled vehicles are taxed increasingly heavily.[19]

Helped by government incentives, Norway became the first country to have the majority of new vehicles sold in 2021 be electric. In January 2022, 88 percent of new vehicles sold in the country were electric, and based upon current trends, they would most likely hit the goal of no new fossil fuel cars being sold by 2025.[32]

Places with planned fossil-fuel vehicle restrictions[edit]

Countries[edit]

Countries with proposed bans or implementing 100% sales of zero-emissions vehicles include China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, Singapore, the UK, South Korea, Iceland, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Slovenia, Germany, Italy, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Portugal, Canada, the 12 U.S. states that adhered to California's Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Program, Sri Lanka, Cabo Verde, and Costa Rica.[2]

In 2018, Denmark proposed an EU-wide prohibition on petrol and diesel cars, but that turned out to be contrary to EU regulations. In October 2019, Denmark made a proposal for phasing out fossil fuel vehicles on the member state level by 2030 and was supported by 10 other EU member states.[21]

In July 2021, the European Commission proposed a 100% reduction of emissions for new sales of cars and vans as of 2035.[33][34]

Map of proposed bans.
  2020s
  2030s
  2040s
  2050s
Country Start year Status Scope Details
 Austria 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Azerbaijan 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Belgium 2026[36]

2029[37]

Climate plan 2026: No further tax deductibility of Diesel, petrol employee company cars

2029: (Flanders region) Diesel, petrol

2026: Only for new cars which are provided as compensation to employees

2029: (Flanders region) New car and van sales

 Cambodia 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Canada 2035[note 2] climate plan[38][39] Diesel, petrol, non-electric New light-duty vehicle sales
 Cape Verde 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Chile 2035 Chilean government Green New Deal.[40] Diesel, petrol New vehicle sales
 China 2035 Government climate plan.[41] Diesel, petrol New private vehicle sales and registration.
 Costa Rica 2050[42][43] Proposed by Costa Rica President Carlos Alvarado as a "roadway" in 2019. Diesel, petrol New light vehicle sales
 Croatia 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Cyprus 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Denmark 2030–2035[44] Diesel, petrol New vehicle sales (2030), new hybrid vehicle sales will continue to be allowed until 2035.[44]
 Dominican Republic 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Egypt 2040[45] Government plan Diesel, petrol, non-electric New car sales
 El Salvador 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Finland 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Germany 2030 Bundesrat decision[46] Emitting New car sales[46]
 Ghana 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Greece 2030 Government plan[47] Emitting, non-electric New vehicle sales
 Hong Kong 2035[48] Hong Kong Legislature plan, Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic Of China. Diesel, petrol New private vehicle sales and registration.
 Iceland 2030 climate plan[49] Cars than run exclusively on Diesel, petrol New car sales, but with exceptions for regional considerations (areas where it would be difficult to ban petrol or diesel cars)[49]
 Indonesia 2050[50] Proposed by the Government as a "roadway" in 2021 Diesel, petrol All motorcycle sales (2040), all car sales (2050)
 Ireland 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Israel 2030 Emitting, non-electric New car sales, newly imported vehicles
 Italy 2035 Ministry of ecologic transition directive [51] Emitting New private vehicle sales by 2035
New commercial vehicle sales by 2040
 Japan 2035 Japanese government plan cease sales of new Diesel-, petrol-only cars Diesel and petrol hybrid cars to continue to be sold indefinitely[52]
 Kenya 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Lithuania 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Luxembourg 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Macau 2035[citation needed] Macau Legislature plan, Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic Of China. Diesel, petrol New private vehicle sales and registration.
 Mexico 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Morocco 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Netherlands 2030[53] coalition agreement[54] Diesel, petrol New passenger car sales. Commercial vehicles to continue to use petrol and diesel until 2040.
 New Zealand 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Norway 2025 tax and usage incentives[55] Diesel, petrol All new passenger cars. Commercial vehicles to continue to use petrol and diesel until 2035.
 Paraguay 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Poland 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Portugal 2035 Government climate plan proposed by the ruling Socialist Party of Portugal.[56][57] Diesel, petrol New car sales
 Rwanda 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 Singapore 2025 (Diesel-only Cars and Taxis)[58]

2030 (Petrol-only and Diesel-only Vehicles)[59]

February 2021 Climate plan, brought forward ten years earlier since 2020 announcement. Petrol, Diesel, non-electric Sales and Registration of all new Diesel-only Cars and Taxis to cease by 2025, Sales and Registration of all new Diesel-only Commercial Vehicles and Petrol-only Vehicles to cease by 2030.

All new vehicles to run on cleaner energy (electric, hybrid, hydrogen fuel cell) from 2030, phase-out of internal combustion engines (from the entire population of motor vehicles) completed by 2040.[59][60][58][61]

 Slovenia 2031 emission limit of 50 g/km[62][63] Allow Diesel and petrol if emissions < 50 gr/km New car registration
 South Korea 2035[45] Government climate plan Petrol, diesel New vehicle sales.
 Spain 2040[3] ICE New passenger car sales only. Commercial vehicles[64] and motorcycles[65] to continue to use petrol or diesel.
 Sweden 2030 coalition agreement[66] Diesel, petrol New car sales
 Taiwan 2040[67] Government Climate plan announced by the Environmental Protection Administration. Diesel, petrol All bus and government-owned car use (2030), all motorcycle sales (2035), all car sales (2040)[67]
 Thailand 2035[68][69] Only proposals of National Electric Vehicle Policy Committee, not yet effective in any way.[69] Diesel, petrol New car sales[68][69] and new car registration.[69]
 Turkey 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] and declaration on lorries and buses[70] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest
 United Kingdom 2030–2035,[71][72] 2040[73] Diesel, petrol New non-electric car sales from 2030, new hybrid car sales from 2035, new CO2 emitting lorry and bus sales from 2040
 United States 2035[74] Introduced by US President Joe Biden via executive order that mandates 50% electric vehicle sales in the entire US by 2030, followed by a complete ban on all new Internal-combustion engine powered vehicles by 2035. Diesel, petrol, non-electric New car sales of government-owned vehicles (2027), new bus sales (2030), and new car sales of privately-owned vehicles along with commercial vehicles (2035). Entire population of government-owned vehicles with ICE engines will be phased-out and will be replaced by 100% all-electric vehicles by 2035.
 Uruguay 2040 Signatory of the Glasgow Declaration[35] Emitting New vehicle sales by 2040 at latest

Some politicians in some countries have made broad announcements[75][22] but have implemented no legislation[24] and therefore there is no phase-out and no binding legislation.[76] Ireland, for example, had made announcements but ultimately did not ban diesel nor petrol vehicles.[77][78]

The International Energy Agency predicted in 2021 that 70% of India's new car sales will be fossil powered in 2030,[79] despite earlier government announcements which were discarded in 2018.[80]

As of late 2021, France opposed a ban on combustion-powered cars and in particular of hybrid vehicles.[81]

Cities and territories[edit]

European emission standards
(older) 1992 1996 2000 2005 2009 2014
Euro 0 Euro 1 Euro 2 Euro 3 Euro 4 Euro 5 Euro 6

Some cities or territories have planned or taken measures to partially or entirely phase out fossil fuel vehicles earlier than their national governments. In some cases, this is achieved through local or regional government initiatives, in other cases through legal challenges brought on by citizens or civil organisations enforcing partial phase-outs based on the right to clean air.[82]

Some cities listed have signed the Fossil Fuel Free Streets Declaration, committing to ban emitting vehicles by 2030,[83] but this does not necessarily have force of law in those jurisdictions. The bans typically apply to a select number of streets in the urban centre of the city where most people live, not to its entire territory. Some cities take a gradual approach to prohibit the most polluting categories of vehicles first, then the next-most polluting, all the way up to a complete ban on all fossil-fuel vehicles; some cities have not yet set a deadline for a complete ban, and/or are waiting for the national government to set such a date.[84][85][86]

In California, emissions requirements for automakers to be permitted to sell any vehicles in the state was expected to force 15% of new vehicles offered for sale between 2018 and 2025 to be zero emission. Much cleaner emissions and increased efficiency in petrol engines mean this will be met with just 8% ZEV vehicles.[87] The "Ditching Dirt Diesel" law SB 44 sponsored by Nancy Skinner and adopted on 20 September 2019 requires the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to 'create a comprehensive strategy for deploying medium- and heavy-duty vehicles' to make California meet federal ambient air quality standards, and 'establish goals and spur technology advancements for reducing GHG emissions from the medium- and heavy-duty vehicle sectors by 2030 and 2050'. It stops short of directly requiring a phase-out of all diesel vehicles by 2050 (as the original bill did), but it would be the most obvious means of achieving the reduction goals.[88][89]

In the European Union, Council Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality assessment and management and Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality form the legal basis for EU citizens' right to clean air.[90] On 25 July 2008 in the case Dieter Janecek v Freistaat Bayern CURIA, the European Court of Justice ruled that under Directive 96/62/EC[91] citizens have the right to require national authorities to implement a short-term action plan that aims to maintain or achieve compliance to air quality limit values.[92] The ruling of the German Federal Administrative Court in Leipzig of 5 September 2013 significantly strengthened the right of environmental associations and consumer protection organisations to sue local authorities to enforce compliance with air quality limits throughout an entire city.[90] The Administrative Court of Wiesbaden declared on 30 June 2015 that financial or economic aspects were not a valid excuse to refrain from taking measures to ensure that the limit values were observed, the Administrative Court of Düsseldorf ruled on 13 September 2016 that driving bans on certain diesel vehicles were legally possible in order to comply with the limit values as quickly as possible, and on 26 July 2017 the Administrative Court of Stuttgart ordered the state of Baden-Württemberg to consider a year-round ban on diesel-powered vehicles.[90] By mid-February 2018, citizens in the EU member states the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Slovakia, Spain and the United Kingdom were suing their governments for violating the limit of 40 micrograms per cubic meter of breathable air as stipulated in the Ambient Air Quality Directive.[82]

A landmark ruling by the German Federal Administrative Court in Leipzig on 27 February 2018 declared that the cities of Stuttgart and Düsseldorf were allowed to legally prohibit older, more polluting diesel vehicles from driving in zones worst affected by pollution, rejecting appeals made by German states against the bans imposed by the two cities' local courts. The case was strongly influenced by the ongoing Volkswagen emissions scandal (also known as Dieselgate), which in 2015 revealed that many Volkswagen diesel engines were deceptively tested and marketed as much cleaner than they were. The decision was predicted to set a precedent for other places in the country and in Europe.[7] Indeed, the ruling triggered a wave of dozens of local diesel restrictions, brought about by Environmental Action Germany (DUH) suing city authorities and winning legal challenges across Germany.[93] While some groups and parties such as the AfD again tried to overturn them, others such as the Greens advocated for a national phaseout of diesel cars by 2030.[94][95] On 13 December 2018, the European Court of Justice overturned a 2016 European Commission relaxation of car NOx emission limits to 168 mg/km, which the Court declared illegal. This allowed the cities of Brussels, Madrid and Paris, who had filed the complaint, to proceed with their plans to also reject Euro 6 diesel vehicles from their urban centres, based on the original 80 mg/km limit set by EU law.[96][97][note 3]

City or territory Country Ban announced Ban commences Scope Details
Aachen Germany 2018 2019[95] Diesel Older diesel vehicles (2019), unless pollution reduces.[95]
Amsterdam Netherlands 2019 2030[100] Diesel, petrol Euro I–III diesel cars (2020), non-electric buses (2022), pleasure crafts and (light) mopeds (2025), all vehicles (2030).[101]
Antwerp Belgium 2016 2017–2025[102] Diesel, lpg, petrol Euro I–II diesels and 0 petrol/lpg (2017), Euro III diesels and 1 petrol/lpg (2020), Euro IV diesels and 2 petrol/lpg (2025).[102]
Arnhem Netherlands 2013, 2018 2014–2019[103] Diesel Euro I–III diesel trucks (2014), all Euro I–III diesel vehicles (2019)*.[103][note 4]
Athens Greece 2016 2025[104] Diesel All vehicles
Auckland New Zealand 2017 2030[3] Diesel, petrol All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Balearic Islands Spain 2018 2025−2035[105] Diesel, petrol All vehicles
Barcelona Spain 2017 2030[3] Diesel, petrol All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Berlin Germany 2018 2019[95] Diesel Euro I–V diesel vehicles (2019).[95]
Bonn Germany 2018 2019[95] Diesel Older diesel vehicles (2019).[95]
Bristol United Kingdom 2019 2021[106] Diesel All private vehicles (city center from 7 am to 3 pm)
British Columbia Canada 2018 2025[107] Diesel, petrol All vehicles by 2040, 10% ZEVs by 2025
Brussels Region Belgium 2018 2030–2035[108][109] Diesel, petrol Euro 0–I diesels (2018),[110] Euro II diesels and 0–1 petrols (2019), Euro III diesels (2020),[109] Euro IV diesels (2022), Euro V diesels and Euro 2 petrol (2025), all diesels (2030), all petrol vehicles (2035)[111]
California United States 2020 2035 Net-emitting vehicles All passenger vehicles and light-duty trucks.[112][113]
Cape Town South Africa 2017 2030[3] Diesel, petrol All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Cologne Germany 2018 2019[95] Diesel Older diesel vehicles (2019).[95]
Copenhagen Denmark 2017 2030[3] Diesel, petrol All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Darmstadt Germany 2018 2019[114] Diesel Euro I–V diesel vehicles on two streets (2019).[114]
Düsseldorf Germany 2013 2014[115] Diesel, petrol Euro I–III diesel vehicles and Euro 0 petrol vehicles (2014).[115]
Eindhoven Netherlands 2020 2030[116] Diesel, petrol Euro I–III diesel trucks (2007), Euro I–III diesel buses (2021), Euro IV diesel trucks (2022), all Euro IV diesel vehicles (2025), all vehicles (2030).[116]
Essen Germany 2018[95] 2030 Diesel Older diesel vehicles.[95]
Frankfurt Germany 2018 2019[95] Diesel Euro I–V diesel vehicles and Euro 1–2 petrol vehicles (2019).[95][117]
Gelsenkirchen Germany 2018[95] 2025 Diesel Older diesel vehicles.[95]
Ghent Belgium 2016[118] 2020–2028[119] Diesel, lpg, petrol Euro I–III diesel and 1 petrol/lpg (2020)*, Euro IV–V diesel and 2–3 petrol/lpg (2025–28)*.[119][note 5]
Hainan China 2018 2030[120] Diesel, petrol All vehicles
Hamburg Germany 2018[121] 2018[121] Diesel Euro I–V diesel vehicles in one street, older diesel trucks in another street (2020).[121]
Heidelberg Germany 2017 2030[3] Diesel, petrol All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Lausanne Switzerland 2021 2030[122] Thermic vehicles Zero mobility-related direct emissions
Lombardy Italy 2018 2019–2020[123] Diesel, petrol Euro I–III diesel and Euro 1 petrol (1 April 2019), Euro IV diesel (1 October 2020).[123]
London United Kingdom 2017 2020–2030[3][124] Diesel, petrol All vehicles, electric buses by 2025 (two zero emissions zones by 2022)[124]
Los Angeles United States 2017 2030[3] Diesel, petrol All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Madrid Spain 2016 2025[104] Diesel Euro I–III diesel and Euro 1–2 petrol vehicles (2018),[101] all vehicles (2025).[104]
Massachusetts United States 2020 2035[125] Diesel, petrol Will set equivalent regulations to match California's Advanced Clean Cars Program
Mainz Germany 2018 2019[95] Diesel, petrol Euro I–III diesel vehicles and Euro 0 petrol vehicles (2019).[95][126]
Mexico City Mexico 2016 2025[104] Diesel All vehicles
Milan Italy 2017 2030[3] Diesel All diesel vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Moscow Russia 2012, 2019[127] 2013–2021[127] Non-electric Euro I–IV bus purchases (2013), all non-electric bus purchases (2021), Euro I–III vehicles (20??), all non-electric vehicles (20??).[127]
Munich Germany 2011 2012[128] Diesel, petrol Euro I–III diesel vehicles and Euro 0 petrol vehicles (2012).[128]
New York State United States 2021 2035[129] Non-ZEV vehicles New passenger cars and trucks and off-road vehicles and equipment
New York City United States 2020 2040[130] Non-electric vehicles All vehicles owned or operated by New York City
Nijmegen Netherlands 2018 2021[86] Diesel Euro I–III diesel cars (2021).[86]
Oregon United States 2021 2030 All vehicles Gas cars (2025), gas trucks (2030)
Oslo Norway 2019 2030[19] Emitting City centre fossil-free (2024), entire city fossil-free (2030).[19]
Oxford United Kingdom 2017 2020−2035[3] Diesel, petrol All vehicles (initially during daytime hours on six streets)[131][132]
Paris France 2016 2025[104] Diesel All vehicles
Quebec Canada 2020 2035 Diesel, petrol Ban of new gas-powered vehicle sales by 2035.[133]
Quito Ecuador 2017 2030[3] Diesel, petrol All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Rome Italy 2018 2024[134] Diesel All vehicles, only from historical center
Rotterdam Netherlands 2015[135] 2016[135] Diesel Euro I–III diesel trucks (2016). Other bans were dropped in 2019.[135]
Seattle United States 2017 2030[3] Diesel, petrol All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Stockholm Sweden 2017 2020-2022 Diesel, petrol Euro I–IV vehicles (2020), Euro V vehicles (2022) on one street[136]
Stuttgart Germany 2018 2019–2020[137][114] Diesel Euro I–IV diesel vehicles (2019),[137] Euro V diesel vehicles (2020).[114]
The Hague Netherlands 2019 2030[85] Diesel, petrol Two-stroke mopeds (2020), Euro I–III diesel vehicles (2021), all vehicles (2030).[85]
Utrecht Netherlands 2013,[138] 2020[84] 2030[84] Diesel, petrol Pre-2001 diesel vehicles from 2015,[138] pre-2004 diesels from 2021,[84] pre-2009 (Euro I–IV) diesels from 2025,[84] all vehicles from 2030.[84]
Vancouver Canada 2017 2030[3] Diesel, petrol All vehicles, electric buses by 2025
Washington United States 2021 2030 Emitting New car sales (2025), new truck sales (2030)
Wallonia Belgium 2018 2023–2030[139] Diesel, petrol Euro 0–I (2023), Euro II (2024), Euro III (2025), Euro IV (2026), Euro V diesel vehicles (2028), Euro VI diesel vehicles (2030).[139]
Wiesbaden Germany 2018 2019[95] Diesel, petrol Euro I–III diesel vehicles and Euro 0 petrol vehicles (2019).[95][126]

Manufacturers with planned fossil-fuel vehicle phase-out roadmaps[edit]

In 2017, Volvo announced plans to phase out internal combustion-only vehicle production by 2019, after which all new cars manufactured by Volvo will either be fully electric or electric hybrids.[140] In 2020, the Volvo Group with other truck makers including DAF Trucks, Daimler AG, Ford, Iveco, MAN SE, and Scania AB pledged to end diesel truck sales by 2040.[141]

In 2018, Volkswagen Group's strategy chief said "the year 2026 will be the last product start on a combustion engine platform" for its core brand, Volkswagen.[142]

In 2021, General Motors announced plans to go fully electric by 2035.[143] In the same year, the CEO of Jaguar Land Rover, Thierry Bolloré also claimed it would "achieve zero tailpipe emissions by 2036" and that its Jaguar brand would be electric-only by 2025.[144] By March, Volvo Cars announced that by 2030 it "intends to only sell fully electric cars and phase out any car in its global portfolio with an internal combustion engine, including hybrids."[145] In April 2021, Honda announced that it will stop selling gas-powered vehicles by 2040.[146] In July 2021, Mercedes-Benz announced that its new vehicle platforms will be EV-only by 2025.[147] In Oct 2021, Rolls-Royce announced that it will be fully electric by 2030.[148] In November 2021, at 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference, car manufacturers including BYD Auto, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, Jaguar, Land Rover, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo have committed to "work towards all sales of new cars and vans being zero emission globally by 2040, and by no later than 2035 in leading markets".[149][150]

In 2022, Maserati announced its plans to go fully electric by 2025, and its intention to halt production of combustion engine vehicles in 2030.[151]

Railways[edit]

While railway electrification is often pursued for reasons unrelated to the emissions caused by fossil fuels, there has been an increased push in the 21st century to replace diesel locomotives with alternatives such as battery electric multiple units,[152] hydrogen fuel trains like the Alstom Coradia iLint or overhead wire electrification.[153] To date the only (non-micro- or city-state) country to have electrified its entire mainline railway network, Switzerland, pursued this phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles before the term or concept existed in the modern form, in large part because importing coal for steam locomotives had proven difficult during the World Wars but Switzerland has plenty of domestic hydropower resources to power electric trains.[154][155] Israel Railways which had no electrified mainline rail services prior to 2018 when the Tel Aviv-Jerusalem railway became the first line to see electric train operation, plans to electrify most [note 6] or all of its network[156] and to phase out diesel locomotives and diesel multiple units.[157] The project was further accelerated in 2020 as the temporary shutdown of rail traffic due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel allowed faster construction[158] and ERTMS level 2 was being rolled out.[159] However, in 2019 Israel Railways ordered diesel powered rolling stock to replace the aging IC3 trains with media reports citing delays in the electrification program as the main reason.[160]

Shipping[edit]

Emissions will be banned from Norway’s Geirangerfjord and Nærøyfjord world heritage sites from 2026.[161]

Besides boats driven by batteries or indeed trolley boats, there have been several attempts to adapt nuclear marine propulsion which has been a part of the military naval forces of many countries for decades in the form of nuclear submarines, nuclear aircraft carriers and nuclear icebreakers to civilian uses. While prototypes like Otto Hahn (ship) (German) NS Savannah (American) and RV Mirai (Japan) were built, the only non-icebreaker nuclear powered ship to remain in civilian service is the Russian Sevmorput built in the late 1980s by the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union and its successor state Russia also maintains a fleet of nuclear icebreakers to keep the Northern Sea Route open.

Sail ships and oars rely on renewable resources rather than fossil fuels (wind and human muscle-power respectively) but have disadvantages in terms of speed and labor-costs and have thus been phased out of virtually all commercial uses. There are some attempts to use wind-powered ships for commercial purposes, but as of 2022 they have remained marginal.[162][163][164]

Aviation[edit]

Norway, and possibly some other Scandinavian countries, are aiming for all domestic flights to be emission free by 2040.[165][166] A major obstacle to decarbonizing air travel is the low energy density of current and foreseeable battery technology.[167][168] Thus alternatives to electric planes such as so called sustainable aviation fuels[169][170] or e-fuels (fuels derived from electrochemical conversion of substances like water and carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons) are also proposed as a future replacement of current jet fuels.[171][172][173] In 2021 the first production scale plant for e-fuels to be used in aviation opened in northern Germany. Production capacity is planned to reach 8 barrels a day by 2022.[174] Lufthansa will be among the chief users of the synthetic fuel produced in the new facility.[175] Germany's plan to transform aviation to net zero carbon emissions relies heavily on e-fuels.[176]

Besides the need to rapidly scale up currently minuscule production capacity, the main obstacles to wider deployment of sustainable aviation fuels and e-Fuels are their much higher cost in the absence of meaningful carbon pricing in aviation.[177] Furthermore, with current CORSIA regulations for sustainable aviation fuels allowing up to 90% of emissions compared to conventional fuels, even those options are currently far from carbon neutral.[178]

There were attempts at building Nuclear-powered aircraft during the Cold War, which unlike nuclear marine propulsion never got very far and were always only proposed for military uses. As of 2022 no country or private enterprise is seriously pursuing nuclear propulsion for passenger aircraft.

However, short haul, low demand routes can be easily flown using electric aircraft and manufacturers such as Heart Aerospace are planning to introduce them with United Airlines in 2026.

Unintended side-effects[edit]

Second-hand vehicle dumping[edit]

From the European Union, there is already an export market which includes millions of used cars which are sent to Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, central Asia and Africa.[179][180] According to UNECE, the global on-road vehicle fleet is to double by 2050 (from 1.2 billion to 2.5 billion,[181] see introduction), with most future car purchases taking place in developing countries. Some experts predict that the number of vehicles in developing countries will increase by 4 or 5-fold by 2050 (compared to current car use levels), and that the majority of these will be second-hand.[182][183] There are currently no global or even regional agreements that rationalise and govern the flow of second-hand vehicles.[182] Others say that new electric 2-wheelers may sell widely in developing countries as they are affordable.[184]

Besides the fact that (internal combustion engine) cars that may no longer comply to local environmental standards are exported to developing countries (where such stringent legislation on vehicle emissions does not exist), there is also the fact that fuel efficiency levels of these vehicles become worse as they age (and in some developing countries, such as Uganda, the average age of a car imported is already 16.5 years and it will likely be driven for another 20 years).[182][185] In addition, national vehicle inspection requirements vary widely depending on the country.

Potential solutions[edit]

  • Export prohibitions: some proposed that the European Union could implement a rule that does not allow the most polluting cars to leave the EU.[179] The European Union itself is of the opinion that it "should stop exporting its waste outside of the EU" and it will therefore "revisit the rules on waste shipments and illegal exports".[186]
  • Import prohibitions: include used vehicle bans, used vehicle import age limits, taxation and inspection tests as a precondition to vehicle registration[187]
  • Convert fossil fuel vehicles to electric: As of 2021 this is expensive so tends only to be done for classic cars.[188]
  • Mandatory recycling: the European Commission is considering plans to introduce rules on mandatory recycled content in specific product groups, for instance for packaging, vehicles, construction materials and batteries.[189] The EU announced a new Circular Economy Action Plan in March 2020,[190] and it mentioned that "the Commission will also propose to revise the rules on end-of-life vehicles with a view to promoting more circular business models.[191]
  • Scrappage programs: governments can offer a premium to owners to have their fossil fuelled vehicles voluntarily scrapped, and to buy a cleaner vehicle from that money (if they so choose). For example, the city of Ghent offers a scrapping premium of 1000 euros for diesel vehicles and 750 euros for petrol vehicles; as of December 2019, the city had allocated 1.2 million euros for this purpose to the scrapping fund.[118]

Mobility transition[edit]

In Germany, activists have coined the term Verkehrswende (mobility transition, analogous to "Energiewende", energy transition) for a project of not only changing the motive power of cars (from fossil fuels to renewable power sources) but the entire mobility system to one of walkability, complete streets, public transit, electrified railways and bicycle infrastructure.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Romare, M. & Dahllöf, L. The Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Lithium-Ion Batteries. 58 (2017). 'IVL' stands for Institutet för Vatten- och Luftvårdsforskning (Institute of Water and Air Navigation Research).
  2. ^ brought forward 5 years since 2017 announcement
  3. ^ The 80 mg/km limit is defined in Regulation (EC) No 692/2008, Table 2 of Annex XVII and Footnote 1 of Annex XI.[97][98] The European Court of Justice ruled that the European Commission illegally circumvented this limit by introducing a 'temporary conformity factor of 2,1 (...) in order to allow manufacturers to gradually adapt to the RDE [Real Driving Emissions] rules' in Regulation (EU) 2016/646, Preamble 10 and Annex II '2.1.2 Temporary conformity factors'. This meant 2.1 times 80 mg/km = 168 mg/km.[97][99]
  4. ^ *Access for banned diesel vehicles is only possible by buying a one-day exemption for 36 euros, which the owner is allowed to do up to 12 times (a year?). Old diesel cars for transporting disabled people are exempt.[103]
  5. ^ *From 2020 on, vehicles are gradually prohibited from most to least polluting; banned vehicles can only get temporary access by buying Low Emission Zone (LEZ) day ticket, which the owner is allowed to do up to 8 times a year.[119]
  6. ^ There is still no clear decision whether the old Jaffa-Jerusalem railway is to be electrified, shut down, kept as a heritage railway or converted to hydrogen fuel or battery-electric operation

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Net Zero by 2050 – Analysis". IEA. Archived from the original on 19 May 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  2. ^ a b International Energy Agency (IEA), Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) (June 2020). "Global EV Outlook 2020: Entering the decade of electric drive?". IEA Publications. Archived from the original on 10 September 2021. Retrieved 15 June 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) See Table 2.1
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Burch, Isabella (March 2020). "Survey of Global Activity to Phase Out Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  4. ^ Muoio, Danielle. "These countries are banning gas-powered vehicles by 2040". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 28 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  5. ^ Slezak, Michael (30 July 2017). "As the UK plans to phase out petrol cars, is Australia being left behind?". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  6. ^ "How will the petrol and diesel car ban work?". BBC News. 4 February 2020. Archived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  7. ^ a b "Diesel ban approved for German cities to cut pollution". BBC News. 27 February 2018. Archived from the original on 2 September 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  8. ^ "Diesel car pollution is significantly higher in London suburbs". Air Quality News. 19 August 2020. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  9. ^ Weaver, R. Kent. "Target Compliance: The Final Frontier of Policy Implementation" (PDF). Brookings Institution. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 August 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  10. ^ "International Trade Governance and Sustainable Transport: The Expansion of Electric Vehicles" (PDF). International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development. December 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 5 December 2018.
  11. ^ "Trends and developments in electric vehicle markets – Global EV Outlook 2021 – Analysis". IEA. Archived from the original on 26 July 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  12. ^ "Electric vehicle sales surge in 2021". www.power-technology.com. 15 September 2021. Archived from the original on 4 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  13. ^ Heleen Ekker (1 September 2020). "Nieuwe studie: elektrische auto gaat langer mee dan gedacht" [New study: electric car lasts longer than earlier thought]. NOS (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 4 September 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  14. ^ Gonsalvez, Venkat Sumantran, Charles Fine and David (16 October 2017). "Our cities need fewer cars, not cleaner cars". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 June 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  15. ^ a b Richard Casson (25 January 2018). "We don't just need electric cars, we need fewer cars". Greenpeace. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  16. ^ Francesca Perry (30 April 2020). "How cities are clamping down on cars". BBC Future Planet. Archived from the original on 17 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  17. ^ "Urban Mobility - Do We Want or Need Car-Free Cities?". www.provizsports.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  18. ^ Peters, Adele (30 January 2020). "Here are 11 more cities that have joined the car-free revolution". Fast Company. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Frank Jacobs (17 September 2020). "EV incentives and city bans in Europe: an overview". Fleet Europe. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  20. ^ "How will the petrol and diesel car ban work?". BBC News. 4 February 2020. Archived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  21. ^ a b Jonas Ekblom (4 October 2019). "Denmark calls for EU strategy to phase out diesel and petrol cars from 2030". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 September 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  22. ^ a b Shoshanna Solomon (27 February 2018). "Israel aims to eliminate use of coal, gasoline and diesel by 2030". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 1 October 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  23. ^ Kyle Hyatt (15 August 2018). "Swiss government bans diesel models from Mercedes and Porsche". CNET. Archived from the original on 9 November 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  24. ^ a b "Israel Pledges to Stop Using Fossil Fuels by 2050". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  25. ^ "How to get rid of dirty diesels on city roads" (PDF). Transport & Environment. March 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  26. ^ "Researchers develop new composite membrane for direct ethanol fuel cells". Green Car Congress. Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  27. ^ "Element 1, CO-WIN road testing medium-duty fuel cell truck with onboard methanol-based hydrogen generation". Green Car Congress. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  28. ^ Frank (9 August 2021). "Europe's tightening city bans: a complex (and simple) story". Fleet Europe. Retrieved 10 October 2021.
  29. ^ "Zufahrtsbeschränkungen in Europa" (in German). ADAC. 18 February 2020. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  30. ^ Susan Misicka (7 November 2019). "Banning dirty cars to help fight Geneva's smog". Swissinfo. Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  31. ^ Reuters Staff (14 January 2020). "Rome bans all diesel cars in battle to curb pollution". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  32. ^ Ummelas, Ott (1 February 2022). "EV Sales Hit Record in Norway With Fossil Engines Soon Gone". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  33. ^ "COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, THE COUNCIL, THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMITTEE AND THE COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS 'Fit for 55': delivering the EU's 2030 Climate Target on the way to climate neutrality". eur-lex.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 29 July 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  34. ^ "Proposal for a REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL amending Regulation (EU) 2019/631 as regards strengthening the CO2 emission performance standards for new passenger cars and new light commercial vehicles in line with the Union's increased climate ambition". eur-lex.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 29 July 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "COP26 declaration on accelerating the transition to 100% zero emission cars and vans". UK Government. 10 November 2021. Archived from the original on 10 November 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  36. ^ "Vanaf 2026 enkel elektrische bedrijfswagens fiscaal aftrekbaar (maar voordeel zakt geleidelijk)" [From 2026 only electric company cars will be tax deductible (but the benefit will gradually decrease)]. De Standaard (in Dutch). 17 September 2020. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  37. ^ "Vanaf 2029 moeten alle nieuwe auto's elektrisch zijn, maar zullen we die wel allemaal kunnen opladen?" [From 2029 all new sold cars have to be electric.]. VRT NWS (in Dutch). 4 November 2021. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
  38. ^ Canada, Environment and Climate Change (29 December 2017). "Canada's actions to reduce emissions". aem. Archived from the original on 5 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  39. ^ Canada, Transport (29 June 2021). "Building a green economy: Government of Canada to require 100% of car and passenger truck sales be zero-emission by 2035 in Canada". www.canada.ca. Archived from the original on 30 June 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
  40. ^ "Chile to ban sale of light and medium internal combustion engines in 2035". 18 October 2021. Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  41. ^ "China plans to phase out conventional gas-burning cars by 2035". Archived from the original on 29 October 2021. Retrieved 29 October 2021.
  42. ^ Schwanen, Tim (19 September 2019). "The five major challenges facing electric vehicles". Archived from the original on 19 September 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  43. ^ https://presidencia.go.cr/comunicados/2019/02/sintesis-plan-nacional-de-descarbonizacion-2018-2050/ Archived 25 September 2019 at the Wayback Machine "SÍNTESIS: PLAN NACIONAL DE DESCARBONIZACIÓN 2018-2050 [...] 2050: 100% de las ventas de vehículos ligeros nuevos será de vehículos cero emisiones
  44. ^ a b Sam Morgan (2 October 2018). "Denmark to ban petrol and diesel car sales by 2030". Euractiv. Archived from the original on 4 October 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  45. ^ a b "Gasoline Phaseouts Around the World".
  46. ^ a b Sven Böll (8 October 2016). "Bundesländer wollen Benzin- und Dieselautos verbieten". Der Spiegel (in German). Archived from the original on 26 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  47. ^ "Greece stop fossil fuelled car sales in 2030". 8 November 2021.
  48. ^ "Hong Kong Roadmap on Popularisation of Electric Vehicles" (PDF). Retrieved 4 April 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  49. ^ a b Arnar Thor Ingolfsson (9 October 2018). "Stefna að bensín- og dísilbílabanni 2030" [Policy for petrol and diesel car ban 2030] (in Icelandic). Morgunblaðið. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2019 – via mbl.is. Mögulega verði þannig gerðar undanþágur, með vísan til byggðasjónarmiða, á þeim svæðum þar sem erfitt væri að nota aðra bíla en þá sem ganga fyrir bensíni og dísilolíu
  50. ^ "Dadah... Mobil Bensin Setop Dijual di Indonesia Tahun 2050" [Bye... Petrol cars will stop for sale in Indonesia in 2050]. detikcom (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 12 October 2021. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  51. ^ "Transizione ecologica: phase out auto nuove con motore a combustione interna entro il 2035, 2040 per furgoni e veicoli commerciali leggeri". mit.gov.it (in Italian). 10 December 2021. Archived from the original on 10 December 2021. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  52. ^ Peter Landers; Chieko Tsuneoka (25 December 2020). "Japan to Phase Out Gasoline-Powered Cars, Bucking Toyota Chief". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Archived from the original on 4 January 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021. Japan would still permit the sale of hybrid gas-electric cars after 2035 under the plan
  53. ^ "The countries and states leading the phase out of fossil fuel cars". The Driven. 12 November 2020. Archived from the original on 10 December 2020. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  54. ^ "Nieuw initiatief wil overgang naar elektrisch rijden versnellen". RTL Nieuws (in Dutch). 1 June 2021. Archived from the original on 18 July 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  55. ^ "Nine countries say they'll ban internal combustion engines". 7 August 2018. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019 – via qz.com.
  56. ^ "Portugal proposes total ban on diesel and petrol cars by 2035". 11 January 2021.
  57. ^ "Portugal proposes fossil fuel-only car sale ban in 2035 | Argus Media". 11 January 2021.
  58. ^ a b "LTA | Factsheet: Accelerating Nationwide Deployment of Electric Vehicle Charging Points". www.lta.gov.sg. Retrieved 12 January 2022. These measures will support Singapore’s targets to cease new diesel car and taxi registrations from 2025, require all new Vehicle registrations to be of cleaner-energy models from 2030, and have all vehicles run on cleaner energy by 2040.
  59. ^ a b "Transport". www.nccs.gov.sg. Retrieved 25 December 2021. All Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles will be phased out by 2040. All newly registered vehicles will be cleaner-energy models starting from 2030.
  60. ^ "LTA | Electric Vehicles". www.lta.gov.sg. Retrieved 25 December 2021. Singapore aims to phase out all Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles and have all vehicles run on cleaner energy by 2040.
  61. ^ "MOT Singapore – Gain new perspectives on land, sea & air transport". www.mot.gov.sg. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  62. ^ "Slovenia All In on Electric/Hybrid Cars". BalkanInsider. 12 October 2017. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021. prohibited after 2030
  63. ^ "Po letu 2030 nič več novih avtomobilov na notranje izgorevanje". RTVSLO.si. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  64. ^ "¡La prohibición de los coches de gasolina y diésel en España ya tiene fecha!". MARCA. 14 May 2021. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  65. ^ "El Gobierno prohibirá los coches de gasolina en 2040 y ¿qué pasará con las motos?". La Vanguardia. 22 June 2021. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  66. ^ Kristensson, Johan. "Ny regering – nu väntar förbud mot bensinbilar". Ny Teknik (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  67. ^ a b Chen Wei-han (22 December 2017). "Cabinet to ban sales of fossil fuel-powered vehicles". Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 4 February 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  68. ^ a b Thanthong-Knight, Randy (22 April 2021). "Thailand Lays Out Bold EV Plan, Wants All Electric Cars by 2035". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
  69. ^ a b c d "ชัวร์หรือมั่ว? ไทยจ่อยกเลิกขายรถสันดาปในปี 2035 ดันขายรถไฟฟ้า 100%" [True or false? Thailand prepares to cancel combustion car sales by 2035, push to sell 100% of electric vehicles.]. Sanook.com (in Thai). 25 March 2021. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  70. ^ "Fossil fuel buses face ban from 2040 as transport leads Cop26 agenda". The Independent. 10 November 2021. Archived from the original on 12 November 2021. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  71. ^ "UK plans to bring forward ban on fossil fuel vehicles to 2030". the Guardian. 21 September 2020. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  72. ^ Rincon, Paul (24 September 2020). "UK can be 'Saudi Arabia of wind power' - PM". BBC News. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  73. ^ "UK confirms pledge for zero-emission HGVs by 2040 and unveils new chargepoint design". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 10 November 2021. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  74. ^ https://zutobi.com/us/driver-guides/the-us-electric-vehicle-charging-point-report
  75. ^ "China to ban all petrol and diesel cars". The Independent. 10 September 2017. Archived from the original on 9 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  76. ^ Chris Randall. "Austria considers combustion ban for 2030". Elecdrive. Archived from the original on 19 July 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021. the “Mobility Master Plan 2030” is not binding
  77. ^ George, Lee (7 October 2020). "Ban on sale of petrol, diesel cars from 2030 not in new Climate Action Bill". RTE News. RTE. Archived from the original on 6 April 2021. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  78. ^ "Kerry motor dealers welcome omission of car ban from Climate Bill". RadioKerry.ie. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  79. ^ "Electric Vehicles This Week: Assessing India's 2030 Electric Mobility Goals & More". 29 April 2021. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  80. ^ "Government finally wakes up: Sets a realistic goal of 30% electric vehicles by 2030 from existing 100% target". 8 March 2018. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 3 October 2021.
  81. ^ Ania Nussbaum; Tara Patel (12 July 2021). "France Pushes Back Against EU Banning Combustion Cars by 2035". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 4 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021. France is resisting the European Union effectively phasing out combustion-engine car sales by 2035, advocating for a more lenient target for the end of the decade and a longer leash for plug-in hybrid models
  82. ^ a b Gropp, Martin (21 February 2018). "Fahrverbot-Kommentar: Der Diesel, die Luft und das Verbot". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). ISSN 0174-4909. Retrieved 23 February 2018.
  83. ^ "C40 : Fossil-Fuel-Free Streets Declaration". www.c40.org. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  84. ^ a b c d e f "Gemeente wil luchtkwaliteit Utrecht verbeteren; Strengere eisen milieuzone en snorfiets naar de rijbaan". De Utrechtse Internet Courant (in Dutch). 8 July 2020. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
    "Utrecht kiest voor gezonde lucht". Utrecht.nl (in Dutch). Municipality of Utrecht. July 2020. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  85. ^ a b c Malou Seijdel (10 October 2019). "Oude dieselauto's en vervuilende brommers komen centrum Den Haag straks niet meer in". Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  86. ^ a b c Geert Willems (3 June 2019). "Oude diesel snel de stad uit, maar Nijmegen wil wel dat het ordelijk verloopt". De Gelderlander (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 5 March 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  87. ^ "What Will It Not as Much as You Might Think". Union of Concerned Scientists. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  88. ^ "Gov. Newsom Signs SB 44, "Ditching Dirty Diesel"". Senate of California. 20 September 2019. Archived from the original on 29 August 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  89. ^ Matt Cole (23 September 2019). "New California laws further tighten state's emissions standards for trucks". CCJ Digital. Commercial Carrier Journal. Archived from the original on 3 October 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  90. ^ a b c "Legal Actions for Clean Air" (PDF). Right to Clean Air. Deutsche Umwelthilfe. 25 November 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 December 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  91. ^ Europa (1996). "Summaries of EU legislation – Management and quality of ambient air". Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  92. ^ European Court of Justice, CURIA (2008). "PRESS RELEASE No 58/08 Judgment of the Court of Justice in Case C-237/07" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  93. ^ "In deze Duitse steden komt in 2019 een dieselverbod". Duitslandnieuws.nl (in Dutch). 11 December 2018. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  94. ^ Sandor Zsiros & Damon Embling (25 April 2019). "Germany's diesel car ban revs up political debate". Euronews. Archived from the original on 30 October 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  95. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Reuters Staff (15 November 2018). "Factbox: German cities ban older diesel cars". Reuters. Retrieved 15 September 2020.[dead link]
  96. ^ Sandra Laville (13 December 2018). "EU relaxation of diesel emission limits was illegal, court rules". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  97. ^ a b c Anna Krajinska (8 May 2019). "EU must withdraw carmakers' 'license to pollute' as data shows new cars meet limits". Transport & Environment. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  98. ^ "Commission Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 of 18 July 2008 implementing and amending Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type-approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information". Official Journal of the European Union. Eur-Lex. 18 July 2008. Archived from the original on 16 January 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  99. ^ "Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/646 of 20 April 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 692/2008 as regards emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 6)". Official Journal of the European Union. Eur-Lex. 20 April 2016. Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  100. ^ "City of Amsterdam to ban polluting cars from 2030". Reuters. 2 May 2019. Archived from the original on 2 May 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  101. ^ a b Daniel Boffey (3 May 2019). "Amsterdam to ban petrol and diesel cars and motorbikes by 2030". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 September 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  102. ^ a b "17 procent van alle wagens in Vlaanderen mag vanaf 1 januari niet meer in Antwerpen en Gent: deze diesels zijn verboden". Het Laatste Nieuws (in Dutch). 11 November 2019. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  103. ^ a b c Eric van der Vegt (1 January 2019). "Milieuzone voor oude dieseltjes in Arnhem van kracht". De Gelderlander (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 5 November 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  104. ^ a b c d e Harvey, Fiona (2 December 2016). "Four of world's biggest cities to ban diesel cars from their centres". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 July 2021. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  105. ^ "Mallorca Goes Deep Green". Affordable Mallorca. Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  106. ^ Laville, Sandra (5 November 2019). "Bristol council votes to ban diesel cars in first for a UK city". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 13 November 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
  107. ^ "B.C. plans to ban new gas, diesel car sales by 2040 - NEWS 1130". www.citynews1130.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  108. ^ gjs. "Brussel gaat dieselwagens verbannen vanaf 2030, regering wil ook maatregelen tegen benzinewagens". Het Nieuwsblad (in Flemish). Archived from the original on 26 January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  109. ^ a b "Vanaf vandaag (strengere) lage-emissiezones in Gent, Antwerpen en Brussel: met welke wagen mag je waar nog binnen?". VRT NWS (in Dutch). VRT. 1 January 2020. Archived from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  110. ^ Erik Kouwenhoven (1 October 2018). "Oude diesels mogen vanaf vandaag Brussel niet meer in, boete 350 euro". Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  111. ^ Frederik Vertongen, Nunzia Petralia (25 June 2021). "Brussel kondigt "einde van diesel- en benzinetijdperk" aan, diesel- en benzinemotoren tegen 2035 niet meer welkom". VRT.be (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 6 July 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  112. ^ "California Governor Signs Order Banning Sales Of New Gasoline Cars By 2035". NPR.org. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  113. ^ Exec. Order No. N-79-20 (September 23, 2020; in English) Governor of California. Retrieved on 2020-09-25.
  114. ^ a b c d Reinder Hummel (19 February 2020). "The German diesel ban". The German Emissions Sticker. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  115. ^ a b "Environmental Zone Düsseldorf". EnvironmentalBadge.com. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  116. ^ a b Michel Theeuwen (10 June 2020). "Eindhoven zet kleine stapjes op weg naar nul-emissiezone binnen Ring". Eindhovens Dagblad (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  117. ^ "German court says Frankfurt must ban older diesel cars". Business Insider. Reuters. 5 September 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  118. ^ a b Sandra Stacius (9 December 2019). "Meest vervuilende auto's mogen Gent niet meer binnen vanaf 1 januari 2020: hoe zal het in zijn werk gaan?". VRT NWS (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 22 January 2021. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  119. ^ a b c "Hoe weet je of je voertuig de lage-emissiezone (LEZ) mag inrijden?" (in Dutch). Stad Gent. Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  120. ^ "2030, Pulau Ini Larang Penjualan Mobil Berbahan Bakar Fosil - Otomotif Tempo.co".
  121. ^ a b c Philip Oltermann (23 May 2018). "Hamburg becomes first German city to ban older diesel cars". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  122. ^ webmaster@lausanne.ch, Bureau de la communication-Web & multimédia –. "Plan climat lausannois". Site officiel de la Ville de Lausanne (in French). Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  123. ^ a b "Stop alle auto con motore diesel Euro 3 in Lombardia". Motori Virgilio (in Italian). 26 September 2018. Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  124. ^ a b "UK's first 24/7 zero emission street to launch on 18 March". UK’s first 24/7 zero emission street to launch on 18 March. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  125. ^ "Archived copy". www.bizjournals.com. Archived from the original on 31 December 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  126. ^ a b "Environmental Zone Mainz and Wiesbaden". EnvironmentalBadge.com. Archived from the original on 4 August 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  127. ^ a b c "Мэрия Москвы поддерживает предложение СПЧ по ограничению транспорта низких экологических классов". president-sovet.ru (in Russian). Council under the President of the Russian Federation for the Development of Civil Society and Human Rights. 28 January 2019. Archived from the original on 5 December 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  128. ^ a b "Environmental Zone Munich". EnvironmentalBadge.com. Archived from the original on 10 August 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  129. ^ "In Advance of Climate Week 2021, Governor Hochul Announces New Actions to Make New York's Transportation Sector Greener, Reduce Climate-Altering Emissions". Pressroom of the Office of the Governor (Press release). 8 September 2021. Archived from the original on 8 September 2021. Retrieved 9 September 2021.
  130. ^ "New York City Executive Order 53" (PDF). Official website of New York City. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 November 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  131. ^ Smith, Lydia (11 October 2017). "Oxford to ban all petrol and diesel vehicles and become 'world's first zero-emissions zone'". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. Archived from the original on 7 July 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  132. ^ "Oxford Zero Emission Zone (ZEZ) frequently asked questions". Oxford City Council. 2019. Archived from the original on 7 July 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  133. ^ "Quebec to ban sale of new gas-powered vehicles as of 2035". cbc.ca. CBC. 14 November 2020. Archived from the original on 14 November 2020. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  134. ^ "Rome latest city to announce car ban, will ban diesel cars from historical center starting 2024". 28 February 2018. Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  135. ^ a b c After a legal battle, the 2016 ban on pre-1992 petrol cars and pre-2001 diesel cars was dropped in 2019, but the ban on pre-2005 (Euro IV) trucks was maintained. "Rotterdam weert vervuilende oude auto's". NOS (in Dutch). 30 April 2015. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
    Erik Kouwenhoven (9 December 2019). "Oude diesels volgend jaar weer welkom in Rotterdam". Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 4 November 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  136. ^ Stockholm, Traffic department (1 June 2021). "Miljözon Hornsgatan". Archived from the original on 2 June 2021. Retrieved 1 June 2021.
  137. ^ a b "Stuttgart to introduce diesel driving ban in 2019". Deutsche Welle. 11 July 2018. Archived from the original on 24 May 2021. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  138. ^ a b "Oude dieselauto's niet meer welkom in Utrecht". Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). 1 November 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  139. ^ a b "Mon Véhicule". Wallonie Basses Emission (in French). Government of the Walloon Region. 2018. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  140. ^ Ricker, Thomas (5 July 2017). "Volvo to end gas-only cars by 2019". The Verge. Archived from the original on 20 February 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  141. ^ Gislam, Steven (14 December 2020). "Truckmaker alliance pledges to end diesel sales by 2040". Industry Europe.
  142. ^ "Volkswagen says last generation of combustion engines to be launched in 2026". 4 December 2018. Archived from the original on 16 February 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2021 – via www.reuters.com.
  143. ^ industry, Paul A. EisensteinPaul A. Eisenstein is an NBC News contributor who covers the auto. "GM to go all-electric by 2035, phase out gas and diesel engines". NBC News. Archived from the original on 16 February 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2021. {{cite web}}: |first= has generic name (help)
  144. ^ Jolly, Jasper (15 February 2021). "JLR to make Jaguar brand electric-only by 2025". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 15 February 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  145. ^ "Volvo Cars to be fully electric by 2030" (Press release). 2 March 2021. Archived from the original on 2 March 2021. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  146. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (23 April 2021). "Honda will phase out gas-powered cars by 2040". The Verge. Archived from the original on 8 June 2021. Retrieved 8 June 2021.
  147. ^ Gardner, Greg. "Mercedes-Benz To Spend $47 Billion To Speed Conversion To Electric-Only Lineup". Forbes. Archived from the original on 6 August 2021. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
  148. ^ "A PROPHECY FULFILLED, A PROMISE KEPT, A REMARKABLE UNDERTAKING UNDERWAY. ROLLS-ROYCE MOTOR CARS ANNOUNCES FIRST FULLY ELECTRIC CAR". www.press.rolls-roycemotorcars.com. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  149. ^ "COP26: Deal to end car emissions by 2040 idles as motor giants refuse to sign". Financial Times. 8 November 2021. Archived from the original on 14 November 2021. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  150. ^ "COP26: Every carmaker that pledged to stop selling fossil-fuel vehicles by 2040". CarExpert. 11 November 2021. Archived from the original on 14 November 2021. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  151. ^ Maserati plans to go fully electric by 2025
  152. ^ "Akku-Züge kommen Ende 2022 in SH aufs Gleis | NDR.de - Nachrichten - Schleswig-Holstein". NDR.de. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  153. ^ "Wasserstoffzüge: Siemens und Alstom arbeiten an der Technologie - WELT". Welt.de. 19 April 2021. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  154. ^ "Unter Strom – wie die Schweiz elektrifiziert wurde - SWI" (in German). Swissinfo.ch. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  155. ^ "Elektrifizierung" [Electrification]. hls-dhs-dss.ch (in German). 9 September 2009. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021.
  156. ^ "Railway electrification program, Israel | DB Engineering & Consulting". Db-engineering-consulting.com. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  157. ^ Halavy, Dror (26 July 2018). "Israel Railways Announces Plans for Electrification". Hamodia.com. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  158. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  159. ^ "Israel electrification programme accelerated as ETCS Level 2 tested / News / News / Railpage". Railpage.com.au. 11 April 2020. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  160. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  161. ^ "Fording the fjords | SKF Marine News". 28 January 2021. Archived from the original on 4 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  162. ^ https://www.spiegel.de/panorama/gesellschaft/tres-hombres-einziger-frachtsegler-auf-dem-atlantik-a-942679.html
  163. ^ https://timbercoast.com/de/
  164. ^ https://www.energiezukunft.eu/mobilitaet/emissionsfrei-ueber-die-weltmeere/
  165. ^ Nilsen, Thomas; Observer, The Independent Barents (15 March 2021). "Norwegian airline Widerøe aims to launch all-electric plane by 2026". Eye on the Arctic. Archived from the original on 4 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  166. ^ "Nordic States Set Electric-Planes Pace After Green-Cars Push". Bloomberg.com. 13 December 2020. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  167. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  168. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (14 August 2018). "Electric flight is coming, but the batteries aren't ready". The Verge. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  169. ^ "Sustainable aviation fuel: An important step in international trade". The Seattle Times. 5 October 2021. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  170. ^ 3 minute read (16 July 2021). "Sustainable Aviation Fuel Is Too Expensive For Ultra Low Cost Carriers". Simple Flying. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  171. ^ Petro Industry News. "What Are E-Fuels? Petro Online". Petro-online.com. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  172. ^ "Can E-Fuels Save the Combustion Engine? - WSJ". Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 November 2021.
  173. ^ "E-Fuels: A Realistic Alternative for Powering Aviation?". Stay Grounded. 8 September 2020. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  174. ^ "Aviation: Germany opens world's first plant for clean jet fuel". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 23 November 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  175. ^ "K+N and Lufthansa Cargo partner on PTL aviation fuel". www.aircargonews.net. 4 October 2021. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021.
  176. ^ "E-fuels development for aviation gets a boost with Germany’s new PtL roadmap – GreenAir News". Greenairnews.com. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  177. ^ Furness, Dyllan (11 November 2021). "Low-carbon aviation fuels are on the horizon. But for now, activists say we need to stay grounded". the Guardian. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  178. ^ "How Germany's PtL Roadmap For Aviation Fuel Outlines Larger Green Plans". Evalueserve.com. 4 December 2021. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  179. ^ a b "[Opinion] Second-hand cars flaw in EU Green Deal". EUobserver. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  180. ^ "Used vehicle background overview, see page 19" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  181. ^ "Used vehicle background overview" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  182. ^ a b c "Geneva meeting on used cars exporting pollution to developing countries". Archived from the original on 28 September 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  183. ^ "Regulation for 2nd hand vehicles" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  184. ^ Rajper, Sarmad Zaman; Albrecht, Johan (2020). "Prospects of Electric Vehicles in the Developing Countries: A Literature Review". Sustainability. 12 (5): 1906. doi:10.3390/su12051906.
  185. ^ "Used vehicle background overview, see page 5" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  186. ^ "European Green Deal Communication" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  187. ^ "Used vehicle background overview, see page 23" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2021. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  188. ^ "The classic cars being converted to electric vehicles". BBC News. 3 October 2021. Archived from the original on 4 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  189. ^ "Commission's "Green Deal" could lead to ban on EU waste exports | EUWID Recycling and Waste Management". www.euwid-recycling.com. Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  190. ^ "First circular economy action plan". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  191. ^ "EUR-Lex - 52020DC0098 - EN - EUR-Lex". eur-lex.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  192. ^ "Register of Commission expert groups and other similar entities". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.