Phase-out of fossil fuel vehicles
An expanding list of countries have proposed to ban the future sale of passenger vehicles powered by fossil fuels such as gasoline, LPG and diesel. These include India, China  (the largest auto market globally), Japan (the third largest auto market globally) that has comprehensive plans for a "hydrogen economy" by 2040, South Korea, Taiwan, also the EU auto market nations of Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Germany, France, the Netherlands, Spain, and Portugal, as well as Costa Rica in Central America. The intent to ban vehicles powered by fossil fuels is attractive to governments as it offers simpler target compliance as it is focused on a specific industry, compared with a more encompassing carbon tax or phase-out of fossil fuels. The automotive industry is working to introduce electrified vehicles to adapt to bans  with varying success. A partial ban enacted in 2012 by California, requiring that 15% of new vehicles offered for sale between 2018 and 2025 must be Zero Emission Vehicles ZEVs) in order for the automaker to sell any vehicles in the state, has yielded 8% compliance.
Reasons for banning further sale of fossil fueled vehicles include to meet national climate targets under international agreements such as the Kyoto Accord and the Paris Agreement to reduce carbon emissions that cause climate change, energy independence, or health risk due to local emissions.
The banning of fossil fuels vehicles has a defined scope and is generally applied in the form of a legislated decision to restrict further sales or registration of new vehicles powered with specific fuels from a future date. At the date of implementation current vehicles would still be registrable. As at 2017, most bans are over 10 years into the future and are not yet legislated.
List of jurisdictions
Countries with a full ban enacted into law
|Country||Ban announced||Ban commences||Scope||Selectivity|
|China||2017||2040||Gasoline and diesel||New vehicles sales|
|Costa Rica||2018||2021||Fossil fuel vehicles||All vehicles|
|Denmark||2019||2030||Gasoline and diesel||New vehicle sales|
|France||2017||2040||Gasoline and diesel||New vehicle sales|
|India||2017||2030||Gasoline and diesel||New vehicle sales|
|Ireland||2018||2030||Gasoline and diesel||New vehicle sales|
|Israel||2018||2030||Gasoline and diesel||Imported vehicles|
|Netherlands||2017||2030||Gasoline and diesel||New vehicle sales|
|Norway||2017||2025||Gasoline and diesel||New vehicle sales|
|Sweden||2019||2030||Gasoline and diesel||New vehicle sales|
|United Kingdom||2017||2040 – England, Wales, Northern Ireland
2032 – Scotland
|Gasoline and diesel||New vehicle sales|
Cities and territories
Some cities listed have signed the Fossil Fuel Free Streets Declaration, committing to ban emitting vehicles by 2030, but this does not necessarily have force of law in those jurisdictions.
|City or Territory||Country||Ban announced||Ban commences||Scope||Selectivity|
|Auckland||New Zealand||2017||2030||Gasoline or Diesel||All vehicles, electric buses by 2025|
|Barcelona||Spain||2017||2030||Gasoline or Diesel||All vehicles, electric buses by 2025|
|British Columbia||Canada||2018||2025||Gasoline or Diesel||All vehicles by 2040, 10% ZEVs by 2025|
|Cape Town||South Africa||2017||2030||Gasoline or Diesel||All vehicles, electric buses by 2025|
|Copenhagen||Denmark||2017||2030||Gasoline or Diesel||All vehicles, electric buses by 2025|
|Heidelberg||Germany||2017||2030||Gasoline or Diesel||All vehicles, electric buses by 2025|
|London||United Kingdom||2017||2030||Gasoline or Diesel||All vehicles, electric buses by 2025|
|Los Angeles||United States||2017||2030||Gasoline or Diesel||All vehicles, electric buses by 2025|
|Mexico City||Mexico||2016||2025||Diesel||All vehicles|
|Milan||Italy||2017||2030||Gasoline or Diesel||All vehicles, electric buses by 2025|
|Oxford||United Kingdom||2017||2020||Gasoline and Diesel||All vehicles|
|Quito||Ecuador||2017||2030||Gasoline or Diesel||All vehicles, electric buses by 2025|
|Seattle||United States||2017||2030||Gasoline or Diesel||All vehicles, electric buses by 2025|
|Vancouver||Canada||2017||2030||Gasoline or Diesel||All vehicles, electric buses by 2025|
- Wall Street Journal. "China Sets New Deadline for Electric Car Production".
- IFRI Center for Energy. "Japan's Hydrogen Strategy and its Economic and Geopolitical Implications" (PDF).
- Weaver, R. Kent. "Target Compliance: The Final Frontier of Policy Implementation" (PDF). Brookings Institution.
- "International Trade Governance and Sustainable Transport: The Expansion of Electric Vehicles" (PDF). International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development. December 2017.
- Burch, Isabella (September 2018). "Survey of Global Activity to Phase Out Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles" (PDF).
- "What Will It Take for Automakers to Meet California's EV Requirements? Not as Much as You Might Think". Union of Concerned Scientists.
- "These countries are banning gas-powered vehicles by 2040".
- Slezak, Michael (30 July 2017). "As the UK plans to phase out petrol cars, is Australia being left behind?". the Guardian.
- "China to ban petrol and diesel cars, state media reports".
- "Costa Rica Plans To Eliminate Fossil Fuels By 2021".
- "Denmark embraces electric car revolution with petrol and diesel ban plan". 2 October 2018 – via www.reuters.com.
- "France plans ban on petrol cars by 2040". 6 July 2017 – via www.bbc.com.
- "Countries are announcing plans to phase out petrol and diesel cars. Is yours on the list?".
- "Ireland 2040: €22bn to turn State into low-carbon economy".
- "Israel aims to eliminate use of coal, gasoline and diesel by 2030".
- "Denmark embraces electric car revolution with petrol and diesel ban plan". 7 January 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
- "Nine countries say they'll ban internal combustion engines". 7 August 2018 – via qz.com.
- Regeringskansliet, Regeringen och (2019-01-21). "Regeringsförklaringen den 21 januari 2019". Regeringskansliet (in Swedish). Retrieved 2019-01-21.
- Asthana, Anushka; Taylor, Matthew (25 July 2017). "Britain to ban sale of all diesel and petrol cars and vans from 2040". the Guardian.
- "C40 : Fossil-Fuel-Free Streets Declaration". www.c40.org. Retrieved 2019-01-23.
- Harvey, Fiona (2016-12-02). "Four of world's biggest cities to ban diesel cars from their centres". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
- B.C. plans to ban new gas, diesel car sales by 2040
- gjs. "Brussel gaat dieselwagens verbannen vanaf 2030, regering wil ook maatregelen tegen benzinewagens". Het Nieuwsblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 2019-01-25.
- "Rome latest city to announce car ban, will ban diesel cars from historical center starting 2024". 28 February 2018.