Coins of the Indian rupee

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Coins of the Indian rupee were first minted in 1950. New coins have been produced annually since then and they make up a valuable aspect of the Indian currency system. Today, circulating coins exist in denominations of 50 p (i.e. 50 paisa or ₹0.50), ₹1, ₹2, ₹5, and ₹10. All of these are produced by four mints located across India, in Kolkata, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Noida.

History[edit]

After the Indian independence, the old British India coins continued to be in use as a frozen currency till 1950, when India became a Republic. The first rupee coins of Republic of India were minted in 1950. Other denomination coins produced were 1/2 rupee, 1/4 rupee, 2 Anna, 1 Anna, 1/2 Anna & 1 Pice coins which are also referred as Anna series or pre-decimal coinage. One rupee was divided into 16 annas or 64 pice, with each anna therefore equal to 4 pice.

In 1957, India shifted to the decimal system, but for a short period both decimal and non-decimal coins were in circulation. To distinguish between the two pice, the coins minted between 1957 and 1964 have the legend "Naya Paisa" ("new" paisa). The denominations in circulation were 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50 (naya) paisa and one rupee which remained as the same pre-decimal value. Therefore pre-decimal coins of one, half and quarter rupees could remain in circulation after decimalisation.

The word "naya" was dropped in 1964. In this year a new denomination the 3 paisa was introduced and in 1968 a 20 paisa coin was minted. Both these coins however did not gain much popularity. The 1, 2 and 3 paisa coins were phased out gradually in the 1970s. In 1982 a new coin, 2 rupee, was introduced as an experiment to replace 2 rupee notes. The 2 rupee coin was not minted again till 1990, after which it was minted every year.

Stainless steel coinage of 10, 25 and 50 paisa, was introduced in 1988 and in 1992, a new rupee coin was minted. This coin was smaller and lighter than the older rupee and was also made of stainless steel. In 1992, a 5 rupee Cupronickel coin was introduced. In 2005, 10 rupee coin was minted for the first time. The higher denomination coins were introduced due to increasing demand for change and increasing cost of printing 2, 5 and 10 rupee banknotes.

Effective from 30 June 2011, all coins in denominations of 25 paisa and below were officially demonetised. While other special coins were minted in years in the memory of special events or people and these are referred to as commemorative coins. Commemorative coins can be for collectors and also for circulation. They can be found in various denominations. Some of commemorative coins include coins depicting Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, B. R. Ambedkar, Rajiv Gandhi, Dnyaneshwar, 1982–Asian Games, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Subhas Chandra Bose, Sri Aurobindo, Chittaranjan Das, Chhatrapati Shivaji and logo of 2010-Commonwealth Games, Bhagat singh, Rabindranath Tagore. etc

Coin series: 1947-1950 (pre-decimalization)[edit]

Union of India 1947–1950[edit]

At Independence on 15 August 1947, India was partitioned into the new British Dominions of India and Pakistan. The new Dominion (or Union) of India retained the previous imperial currency with images of British monarchs. The basic unit of currency was the Indian rupee, which was itself divided into annas (16 annas to a rupee) and pice (the old spelling of paisa - 64 pice to a rupee).[1] The lowest-denomination Indian coins, the half-pice (128 to a rupee) and the pie (192 to a rupee) were officially demonetized in 1947; while both denominations had continued to circulate up to that time, new examples were not minted after 1942 as they were practically worthless (India remained a member of the sterling area after independence and the rupee remained pegged to the pound sterling. Until 1966, the rupee was worth 1s.6d, or 18 old British pence; a half-pice was therefore worth 0.141 old pence and a pie 0.09 old pence.)[2]

From 15 August 1947 until 26 January 1950, the Indian coinage structure was as follows: (bold - denominations minted)[3]

Rupee and its fractions Annas Pice Pies (demonetized after 1947)
Rupee 16 annas 64 pice 192 pies
Half rupee 8 annas 32 pice 96 pies
Quarter rupee 4 annas 16 pice 48 pies
1/8 rupee 2 annas 8 pice 24 pies
1/16 rupee 1 anna 4 pice 12 pies
1/32 rupee Half anna 2 pice 6 pies
1/64 rupee 1/4 anna 1 pice 3 pies

This represented the currency arrangements during the transition period up to the establishment of the Indian Republic.

The coins used after 1947 until the introduction of Republic of India - Pre decimalisation series were as follows:

George VI series (Independent India) (1947 - 1950)
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
One Rupee 1 Indian rupee (1947) - Obverse.jpg Nickel Circular 28 mm 1947
Half Rupee 24 mm 1946 - 1947
Quarter Rupee 19 mm 1946 - 1947
2 Annas Nickel - Brass Square 25.1 mm 1945
Copper - Nickel 22 mm 1946 - 1947
1 Anna Nickel - Brass 12 Scalloped 21 mm 1945
Copper - Nickel 21 mm 1946 - 1947
1/2 Anna INR half anna George 6-O.jpg INR half anna George 6-R.jpg Square 19.7 mm 1946 - 1947
1 Pice INR 1 pice George 6-O.jpg INR 1 pice George 6-R.jpg Bronze Circular with a hole 21.32 mm 1943 - 1947

Republic of India 1950-1957[edit]

On 26 January 1950, India became a sovereign republic. This series was introduced on 15 August 1950 and represented the first coinage of Republic India. The British King's portrait was replaced by the Lion Capital of the Ashoka Pillar. A corn sheaf replaced the Tiger on the one rupee coin. In some ways this symbolised a shift in focus to progress and prosperity. Indian motifs were incorporated on other coins. The previous monetary system and the old units of currency were retained unchanged.

Republic of India Pre-decimalization series (1950 - 1957)
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
One Rupee Nickel Circular 27.9 mm 1950 - 1954
Half Rupee 24 mm 1950 - 1956
Quarter Rupee INR quarter rupee republic 1950-1957-O.jpg INR quarter rupee republic 1950-1957-R.jpg 19 mm 1950 - 1956
Two Annas Cupro-Nickel Square 25.4 mm 1950 - 1955
One Anna 12 Scalloped 21 mm 1950 - 1955
Half Anna INR half anna republic 1950-1957-O.jpg INR half anna republic 1950-1957-R.jpg Square 19.5 mm 1950 - 1955
One Pice Bronze Circular 21 mm 1950 - 1955

Decimalization[edit]

The move towards decimalization was afoot for over a century. However, it was in September, 1955 that the Indian Coinage Act was amended for the country to adopt a metric system for coinage. The Act came into force with effect from 1 April 1957, after which anna and pice denominations were demonetised. The rupee remained unchanged in value and nomenclature. It, however, was now divided into 100 'paisa' instead of 16 annas or 64 pice. Effective from 30 June 2011, all coins in denominations of 25 paisa and below were officially demonetized.[4]

Pre-decimal currency (1950-1957; minting ceased in 1955) Decimal currency replacement (1957–present) Decimal currency (dates minted)
N/A 10 rupees 2006–present
N/A 5 rupees 1992–present
N/A 2 rupees 1982–present
Rupee Rupee (divided into 100 new paisa 1957-1964; divided into 100 paisa 1964–present. 1962–present
Half rupee 50 paisa 1960–present
Quarter rupee 25 paisa 1957-2002. Demonetized from 2011.
N/A 20 paisa 1968-1994. Demonetized from 2011.
2 annas 10 paisa 1957-1998. Demonetized from 2011.
Anna 5 paisa 1957-1994. Demonetized from 2011.
N/A 3 paisa 1964-1972; proofs minted until 1981. Demonetized from 2011.
Half anna 2 paisa 1957-1979; proofs minted until 1981. Demonetized from 2011.
Pice Paisa 1957-1972; proofs minted until 1981. Demonetized from 2011, but retained as a unit of currency.

Coin series 1957-present (decimal)[edit]

Naya paisa series 1957–1963[edit]

The antiquated spelling of "pice" was modified to "paisa" in the singular and "paise" in the plural. For public recognition, the new decimal paisa was termed 'Naya Paisa' (New Paisa) till 1 June 1964 when the term 'Naya' was dropped. The coins of 50p, 25p, 10p, 5p, 2p, and 1p had a legend in Devanagari script explaining the value of coin in terms of fraction of a rupee.

Naya Paisa Series (1957 - 1963)
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
One Rupee Nickel Circular 28 mm 1962 - 1974
Fifty Naye paisa 24 mm 1957 - 1963
Twenty Five Naye paisa 19 mm 1957 - 1963
Ten Naye paisa Cupro-Nickel Eight Scalloped 23 mm (across scallops) 1957 - 1963
Five Naye paisa Square 22 mm (across corners) 1957 - 1963
Two Naye paise INR 2naya paisa-O.jpg INR 2naya paisa-R.jpg Eight Scalloped 18 mm (across scallops) 1957 - 1963
One Naya Paisa 1 naya paisa (obverse).jpg 1 naya paisa (reverse).jpg Bronze Circular 16 mm 1957 - 1962
Nickel Brass 1962 - 1963

Paisa series I with Devanagari Legend 1964 onwards[edit]

In June 1964, the term 'Naya' was dropped and the coins were reminted. The legend in Devanagari script explaining the value of coin in terms of fraction of a Rupee continued till it was finally dropped from the new design minted 1964 onwards.

Paisa Series I with Devanagari Legend (1964 - 1980s)
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
50 paisa INR 50p series2-O.jpg INR 50p series2-R.jpg Nickel Circular 24 mm 1964 - 1971
25 paisa INR 25p series1-O.jpg INR 25p series1-R.jpg Nickel 19 mm 1964 - 1972
10 paisa Copper Nickel 8 Scalloped 23 mm 1964 - 1967
Nickel Brass 1968 - 1971
5 paisa Copper Nickel Square 22 mm 1964 - 1966
INR 5p series1-O.jpg INR 5p series1-R.jpg Aluminium 1967 - 1971
2 paisa Copper Nickel 8 Scalloped 18 mm 1964
1 paisa Nickel Brass Circular 16 mm 1964

Series II without the Devanagari Legend (1964 - 1983)[edit]

The coin minted from 1965 did not have the legend in Devanagari, explaining the value of the coin as a fraction of the rupee. Small denomination coins which were made of bronze, nickel-brass, cupro-nickel, and aluminium-bronze were gradually minted in aluminium.The first coin minted in such type was the 3 Paisa coin in 1964, which was a new denomination, and continued to be minted till 1971. One and Two paisa coins were changed to Aluminium and were minted without the Devanagari legend from 1965. 20 paisa coin was introduced in 1968, which continued to be minted till 1971.

Series II without Devanagari Legend (1964 - 1983)
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
1 rupee INR 1 series2-O.jpg INR 1 series2-R.jpg Copper Nickel Circular 28 mm 1975 - 1982
50 paisa 24 mm 1972 - 1973
INR 50p series1-O.jpg INR 50p series1-R.jpg 1974 - 1983
25 paisa INR 25p series2-O.jpg INR 25p series2-R.jpg 19 mm 1972 - 1990
20 paisa INR 20p series2-O.jpg INR 20p series2-R.jpg Nickel Brass 22 mm 1968 - 1971
10 paisa INR 10p series2-O.jpg INR 10p series2-R.jpg Aluminium 12 Scalloped 25.91 mm 1971 - 1982
5 paisa Square 22 mm 1972 - 1984
3 paisa INR 3p series2-O.jpg INR 3p series2-R.jpg Hexagonal 21 mm 1964 - 1971
2 paisa INR 2p series2-O.jpg INR 2p series2-R.jpg 8 Scalloped 20 mm 1965 - 1981
1 paisa INR 1p series2-O.jpg INR 1p series2-R.jpg Square 17 mm 1965 - 1981

Series III 1982 Onwards[edit]

From 1982, New series was launched. the 20 paisa coin which was last minted in 1971, was reintroduced again, but in Aluminium. The size and the design of 10 paisa, 50 paisa and 1 rupee was changed, though they continued to be minted in the same metal. Coins of 3p, 2p and 1p were discontinued but continued to be the legal tender.

Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
1 Rupee INR 1 series3-O.jpg INR 1 series3-R.jpg Copper - Nickel Circular 26 mm 1983 - 1991
50 paisa INR 50p series3-O.jpg INR 50p series3-R.jpg 24 mm 1984 - 1990
20 paisa INR 20p series3-O.jpg INR 20p series3-R.jpg Aluminium Hexagonal 26 mm 1982 - 1997
10 paisa INR 10p series3-O.jpg INR 10p series3-R.jpg 8 Scalloped 23 mm 1983 - 1993
5 paisa INR 5p series3-O.jpg INR 5p series3-R.jpg Square 22 mm 1984 - 1994

Series IV 1988 Onwards[edit]

In Series IV, 5 paisa and 20 paisa coins were discontinued though they continued to be minted in Series III till 1994 and 1997 respectively. 10 paisa, 25 paisa and 50 paisa coins were minted in Stainless Steel. 1992 onwards, 1 Re coin was also minted in Steel and Rs. 2 and Rs. 5 coins in Copper Nickel were introduced. The very considerable costs of managing note issues of Re 1, Rs 2, and Rs 5 led to the gradual coinage of these denominations. These coins continued to be minted till 2004, when the Unity in diversity series was launched.

Cupro-Nickel coins are not minted anymore. Ferritic Stainless Steel coins of Two and Five Rupee denominations are currently in production.[5]

2004 Unity in diversity Series[edit]

In 2004, RBI issued a series in denominations of 1 rupee, followed by 2 rupee and 10 rupee in 2005. These issues however came into circulation in 2006, and created a controversy over their design. 10 rupee coins were the first bimetallic coins issued in India, and because of the controversy and being minted in only one mint, most of the coinage never found its way into circulation. The ones which did were hoarded by Coin collectors and Coin hoarders.

2004 Unity in Diversity Series
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
10 rupee INR 10 unity-O.jpg INR 10 unity-R.jpg Bimetallic

Copper Nickel Center in

Aluminium Bronze ring

Circular 27 mm 2005 - 2007
2 rupee INR 2 unity-O.jpg INR 2 unity-R.jpg Stainless Steel 26.75 mm
1 rupee INR 1 unity-O.jpg INR 1 unity-R.jpg 25 mm 2004 - 2006

2007 Hasta Mudra Series[edit]

in 2007 RBi issued a new series of Coins, The Hasta Mudra Series, in coins of denominations 50 p, 1 rupee and 2 rupee. These coins were Stainless steel coins, and displayed various Hasta Mudras, - hand gestures in Indian Classical dance. 5 rupee Stainless Steel coin with waves in its design was also issued in 2007, as well as a new 10 rupee coin with changed design in 2008. 5 rupee coin design was again reverted to the previous design, though now it was issued in Nickel-brass instead of Copper-nickel. However these 5 rupee and 10 rupee coins were not the part of the Hasta Mudra series.

2007 Hasta Mudra Series
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
2 rupee INR 2 hasta-O.jpg INR 2 hasta-R.jpg Stainless Steel Circular 27 mm 2007 - 2011
1 rupee INR 1 hasta-O.jpg INR 1 hasta-R.jpg 25 mm
50 p INR 50p hasta-O.jpg INR 50p hasta-R.jpg 22 mm 2008 - 2010

The 5 rupee and 10 rupee coins were issued for common circulation in 2007, 2008, 2009 with changed designs and continued to be minted until the introduction of the Rupee Symbol series in 2011.

2007 - 2010 Common Circulation Coins for 5 rupee and 10 rupee
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
5 rupee INR 5 2007-O.jpg INR 5 2007-R.jpg Stainless Steel Circular 23 mm 2007 - 2008
10 rupee INR 10 common-O.jpg INR 10 common-R.jpg Bimetallic

Copper Nickel Center in Aluminium Bronze ring

27 mm 2008 - 2010
5 rupee INR 5 common-O.jpg INR 5 common-R.jpg Nickel - Brass 23 mm 2009 - 2010

2011 New Series with the Rupee Symbol (₹)[edit]

In 2011, RBI issued a series in denominations of 50p, ₹1, ₹2, ₹5, and ₹10. The 50p, ₹1, ₹2, and ₹5 designs are identical except the absence of the rupee symbol in 50p coin. The ₹10 coin continued to be issued in bimetallic issues as previously.

2011 Rupee Symbol Series
Denomination Image Metal Shape Diameter Minted in Year
Obverse Reverse
₹10

Ten rupees

INR 10 rupee symbol-O.jpg INR 10 rupee symbol-R.jpg Bimetallic

Copper Nickel Center in

Aluminium Bronze ring

Circular 27 mm 2011 -
₹ 5

Five Rupees

INR 5 rupee symbol-O.jpg INR 5 rupee symbol-R.jpg Nickel Brass 27 mm 2011 -
₹ 2

Two Rupees

INR 2 rupee symbol-O.jpg INR 2 rupee symbol-R.jpg Stainless Steel 25 mm 2011 -
₹ 1

One Rupee

INR 1 rupee symbol-O.jpg INR 1 rupee symbol-R.jpg 21.93 mm 2011 -
50 p

Fifty paisa

19 mm 2011 -

Mints[edit]

Domestic mint marks[edit]

  • Kolkata - either no mint mark beneath the date of coin or a C is seen at 6'o clock position in British India coins.
  • Mumbai - diamond mint mark under the date of the coin.
  • Hyderabad - split diamond or a dot in diamond or five pointed star under the date of coin.
  • Noida - a small or thick dot under the date of the Coin.

Because of the increasing demand for coins, the Indian government was forced to mint coins in foreign countries at various points in the country's history.

Foreign Mint Marks[edit]

  • Pretoria - diamond mark under the date 1943.
  • Seoul - a five pointed star under the date of the coin but exactly below the first or Last Digits of dates 1985 and 1997.
  • Birmingham (Royal Mint, UK) - small dot under the date of the coin but exactly below the first digit of date 1985.
  • Heaton Press - Ornamental/decorated letter "H" under the last digit of the date 1985.
  • Ottawa - a "C" mint mark under the date of the coin.
  • Mexico City - "M" mint mark under the date of the coin.

Mints in Daegu, Korea, Slovakia (Kremnca), and Russia (Moscow) have also been used.

Commemorative coins[edit]

The first Indian commemorative coin was issued in 1964 to mourn the death of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India. Since then, numerous coins of these type on almost all denomination from 5 paisa to 10 rupees have been issued. These coins based on famous personalities (usually issued on their birth or death centenary, or in rare cases on their death), government programmes and social messages.

Mints[edit]

Commemorative coins are made at various mints across India including the ones at Mumbai, Noida, Kolkata and Hyderabad.

The First Commemorative Coins[edit]

The first commemorative coins was dated 1964 and had a bust of Jawaharlal Nehru on observe and was issued in one and half rupee.

List of Commemorative Coins[edit]

Commemorative Year 5P 10P 20P 25P 50P 1₹ 2₹ 5₹ 10₹ 20₹ 25₹ 50₹ 60₹ 75₹ 100₹ 125₹ 150₹ 200₹ 500₹ 1000₹
Jawaharlal Nehru 1964 KM KM
Mahatma Gandhi 1969 KHM KM KM KM
Food For All 1970 KM KM
Food For All 1971 KM M
25th Independence 1972 KM KM
Grow More Food 1973 KM M M M
Planned Families Food for All 1974 KHM
Women Year 1975 KHM M M
Food & Work For All 1976 KHM KM M M
Save for Development 1977 KHM KM M M
Food & Selter For All 1978 KHM KHM M M
International Year of the Child (P) 1978 M
International Year of the Child 1979 KHM KHM M M M
Rural Women's Advancement 1980 KHM KHM M M
World Food Day 1981 KM KHM M M
IX Asian Games 1982 KHM KHM KM M M
World Food Day 1982 KHM KH
National Integration 1982 KM KM M M
Fisheries 1983 KH
Forestry for Development 1985 KHM
Reserve Bank of India 1985 KHM KM M
Indira Gandhi 1985 KHM HM M
International Youth Year 1985 KHM K M
Fisheries 1986 KHM M M
Small Farmer 1987 KHM M M
Rainfed Farming 1988 KHM
Jawaharlal Nehru 1989 KHM HM M M
World Food Day 1989 KHM
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar 1990 HM
ICDS 1990 HM
SAARC Year - Girl Child 1990 HM
Food For the Future 1990 KH
Rajiv Gandhi 1991 HM
Commonweath Parliamentary 1991 M M M
Tourism Year 1991 HM M M
Food & Nutrition 1992 K
Land Vital Resource 1992 K
Quit India Movement 1993 KHM M M M
Inter Parliamentary Union 1993 M
Small Family Happy Family 1993 HM
Bio Diversity 1993 HM
International Year of the Family 1994 MN
Water for Life 1994 KHM
ILO 1994 HMN M M
World Tamil Conference 1995 KHMN M MN
Globalizing Indian Agriculture 1995 KM
UNO 1995 MN
FAO 1995 HMN
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel 1995 M
Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel 1996 KHMN M M M
Mother's Health is Child's Health 1996 KHMN
International Crop Science 1996 K
Subhash Chandra Bose 1996 KN
Subhash Chandra Bose 1997 KHMN M M M
50 year of Independence 1997 KHMN M
Cellular Jail 1997 KHMN
Sri Aurobindo 1998 KMN M M M
Deshbandhu Chittranjan Das 1998 KHN K
Saint Dnyaneshwar 1999 KMN M
Chattrapati Shivaji 1999 KHMN M M
Suprime Court of India 2000 KMN M
Dr. Syama Prasad 2001 KHN K M K
Bhagwan Mahabir 2001 MN M
Loknayak Jayprakash Narayan 2002 HM
Saint Tukaram 2002 KHMN K M M
Maharana Pratap 2003 HM M M
Veer Durgadas 2003 HM M M
Indian Railway 2003 KHMN K
Dadabhai Naoraji 2003 KHM
Kumarasami Kamraj 2003 KHM M
India Post 2004 K K
Telecommunication 2004 K K
Lal Bahadur Sastri (CuNi) 2004 K K
Lal Bahadur Sastri (SS) 2004 KHM
Dandi March (CuNi) 2005 M M
Dandi March (SS) 2005 M
Mahatma Basaveshwara (CuNi) 2006 M M
Mahatma Basaveshwara (SS) 2006 M
ONGC (CuNi) 2006 K M
ONGC (SS) 2006 KH
Sree Narayan Gurudev (CuNi) 2006 M M
Sree Narayan Gurudev (SS) 2006 M
SBI (CuNi) 2006 K K
SBI (CuNi) 2006 KH
Indian Airforce 2007 K K
Lokamanya Bal Gandhar Tilak (CuNi) 2007 M K
Lokamanya Bal Gandhar Tilak (SS) 2007 M
Tilakji Error (CuNi) 2007 M
First War of Independence 2007 M M
Khadi & Village Industries (CuNi) 2007 M M
Khadi & Village Industries (SS) 2007 M
Bhagat Singh 2007 KH K
Shri Guru Granth Sahib 2008 HM M
Saint Alphonsa 2009 KHM M
Louis Braille 2009 KHM K
Perarignar Anna 2009 KHM K
60 years of Commonwealth 2009 KHM M
Dr. Rajendra Prasad 2009 KHMN K
Homi Bhaba 2009 MN M
Reserve Bank of India 2010 HM KHM HM HMN KMHN
XIX Commonwealth Games 2010 KHN KHMN
C. Subramaniam 2010 KHMN HM
Brihadeswarar Temple Thanjaveer 2010 KHMN M
Mother Teresa 2010 KHMN K
Comptroller & Auditor General 2010 KHMN K
Income Tax - Chanakya 2010 KHM K
Income Tax - Chanakya 2011 KN
Civil Aviation 2010 H
Civil Aviation 2011 KHMN M
Rabindra Nath Tegore 2011 KHMN K
Indian Council of Medical Research 2011 KHMN HM
Madan Mohan Malviya 2011 KHMN M
Parliament of India 2012 KHMN
Shree Mata Vaishno Devi 2012 HMN HMN M
Kolkata Mint 2012 KHMN K
Motilal Nehru 2012 KHMN M
Kuka Movement 2013 KHMN M
Swami Vivekananda 2013 KHMN K
Coir Board 2013 KHMN M
Acharya Tulsi 2014 KHMN M
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad 2014 KHMN K
Jawaharlal Nehru 2014 KHMN K
Komagata Maru Incident 2014 HMN
Jamshetji Nusserawanji Tata 2015 KM
Begum Aktar 2015 KM K
Rani Gaidiliu 2015 K
1965 Operation 2015 M M
BHEL 2015 KM K
Allahabad High Court 2015 HM M
Biju Patnaik 2015 K K
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar 2015 HM K
Dr. Sarvapalli Radha Krishnan 2015 M K
3rd Indo Africa Forum 2015 K K
Maharana Pratap 2015 M M
Swami Chimayananda 2015 KM K
Gandhi Return from Africa 2015 KHMN
International Yoga Day 2015 MN
Nabakalebar Rath Yatra 2015 M M
University of Mysore 2016 M M
Lala Lajpat Rai 2016 K
Tatya Tope 2016 K K
Banaras Hindu University 2016 M M
National Archive of India 2016 K K
Pt Dindayal Upadhyai 2016 M M
Biju Patnik 2016 M M
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu 2016 M M
Shrimad Rajchandra 2017 M M

Note: Bold Marks are Silver Coins, Mint index: K = Kolkata (no mark), H = Hyderabad (⋆), M = Mumbai (◆ or B), Noida = (●).

Controversies[edit]

Controversy over 2006 two-rupee coin[edit]

denier of Louis.

The two-rupee coin issued from 2006 by the Reserve Bank, in stark contrast to the earlier coin, is rounded and simpler in design, without the map of India. The coin has already been criticized for being difficult to recognize by the visually impaired.[6] Most controversially, it features an equal-armed cross with the beams divided into two rays and with dots between adjacent beams. According to RBI, this design represents "four heads sharing a common body" under a new "unity in diversity" theme.[7] However, Hindu nationalists have charged that the symbol is a Christian cross resembling the symbol on the deniers issued by Louis the Pious.[8]

Bimetallic Coin[edit]

India's much awaited first ever bimetallic 10 rupee coin was released in 2005 under the theme "Unity in Diversity". But, due to its controversial design resembling a cross, it was criticised and was not minted in large numbers. Another reason for its availability being scarce is that it was minted only in one (Noida) of four mints in India. Coin dealers and the public who got this coin hoarded it and it never came into circulation. It is available for sale on some auction websites, but the price of this coin is very high in comparison to its denomination due to the uncertain number of issued coins. Some coin sellers claim that this coin is a limited edition. However, official information is not yet available on the number of mintage. A press release from Reserve Bank of India mentioned that there will be two themes of 10 rupee coins: "Unity in Diversity" and "Connectivity and Information technology". From 2008 coins based on the second theme, "Connectivity and Information technology", were also released. The coin depicts 15 rays above the numeric 10. It was again minted only by the Noida mint and was not easily available in circulation. From 2011, the same theme was continued with a slight design change showing 10 rays instead of the earlier 15 and the introduction of the new Re symbol. Now it is being minted in all four mints, which are Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, and Noida. Apart from these definitive coins, 10 rupee bi-metallic commemorative coins have also been released as follows: 2008 – Tri Centenary of Gur-ta-Gaddi 2009 – Homi Bhabha Birth Centenary 2010 – RBI Platinum Jubilee 2012 – 60 Years of Parliament's first sitting.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ India - Currency, Weights and Measures, The Statesman's Year Book 1947, pg 133, Macmillan & Co.
  2. ^ Schedule of Par Values, Currencies of Metropolitan Areas, The Statesman's Year Book 1947, pg xxiii, Macmillan & Co.
  3. ^ India - Currency, Weights and Measures, The Statesman's Year Book 1947, pg 133, Macmillan & Co.
  4. ^ Krause, Chester. Mishler, Clifford. "India-Republic," 2005 Standard Catalog of World Coins 1901-present, 32nd edition. Krause Publications. Iola, WI
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ New two-rupee coin is confusing for the blind
  7. ^ RBI to come out with new Rs 2 coin
  8. ^ An assault on the soul of the nation – V Sundaram

External links[edit]