Mbunda language

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Mbunda
Mbúùnda, Chimbúùnda
Native to Angola, Zambia
Ethnicity Mbunda people
Native speakers
260,000  (2000–2010)[1]
Standard forms
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
mck – Mbunda
nkn – Nkangala
yax – Yauma
Glottolog mbun1249  (Mbunda)[2]
nkan1238  (Nkangala)[3]
K.15,18[4]

Mbunda is a Bantu language of Angola and Zambia. There are several dialects: Katavola, Yauma,[5][6] Nkangala, Mbalango, Sango, Ciyengele ("Shamuka"), and Ndundu, all of which are close.[7] Mbunda was one of six languages selected by the Instituto de Línguas Nacionais (National Languages Institute) for an initial phase to establish spelling rules in 1980[8] to facilitate teaching in schools and promoting its use. [9][10]

Sounds[edit]

Mbunda is similar to Luchazi, but has some differences in the consonants. Among other differences,[clarification needed] where Luchazi has /s, z/, Mbunda has /θ, ð/. Where Luchazi has /ts/, Mbunda has dental /t̪/, contrasting with a Portuguese-like denti-alveolar /t/.

Vowels[edit]

Like other languages in eastern Angola and Zambia, Mbunda language has five contrastive vowels:

Front
(unrounded)
Central
(unrounded)
Back
(rounded)
high i u
mid ɛ ɔ
low a

Consonants[edit]

Voiced plosives only occur as prenasalized stops, where they contrast with aspirated plosives. Otherwise only tenuis plosives are found in Mbunda.[11]

Prenasalized consonants
Aspirated Voiced Place of formation Sample Word Sound Translation
/mpʰ/ mp /mb/ mb bilabial mbandu
sore
/nt̪ʰ/ nths /nd̪/ ndthz dental ndthzili
power
/ntʰ/ nt /nd/ nd alveolar ndolome
brother
/ndʒ/ nj alveopalatal njamba
elephant
/ŋkʰ/ nk /ŋɡ/ ng velar ngonde
moon

Orthography[edit]

Graphic Representation Phonetic Symbol(*) Word Example Word Sound Translation
a /a/ angula
choose
mb /mb/ mbunga
crowd
ch (used with nouns)
or c
/tʃ/ cili
true
chiyambi
hunter
nd /nd/ ndumba
lion
e /ɛ/ ewa
yes
f /f/ fundanga
gunpowder
ng /ŋɡ/ ngombe
cow, ox
ŋ /ŋ/ ŋala
crab
h /h/ hanja
outside
i /i/ imanena
wait
j /ʒ/ jombolola
reveal
k /k/ kovela
enter
l /l/ lilonga
plate, dish
m /m/ mulonga
offence
n /n/ naana
my mother
ndthz /nd̪/ ndthzita
war
nk /ŋkʰ/ nkuta
court
ny /ɲ/ or maybe /nʲ/ nyali
brother or sister-in-law
o /ɔ/ owo
that one
p /p/ putuka
start
mp /mpʰ/ mpulu
male animal
t /t/ tulo
asleep, sleepy
th /θ/ thimbu
time
ths /t̪/ thsa
die
thz /ð/ thzala
dress up
u /u/ uli
where is he (she)
v /β/ vwato
boat, canoe
w /w/ wahi
he (she) is not here
x /ʃ/ xwata
forest
y /j/ yange
myself
Orthographies of six languages of Angola,[12][13]

Population[edit]

Mbunda is spoken by the Mbunda people of the Moxico Province and Cuando Cubango Province of Angola. From there they migrated to western Zambia at the end of the 18th century,[14] upon the migration of among others, the Ciyengele,[15] and also at the beginning of the 20th century due to their resistance to Portuguese colonial occupation,[16] and later because of the impact of the Angolan War of Independence (1961–1974), the decolonization conflict in Angola (1974–1975),[17] and the Angolan Civil War (1975–2002). As a consequence of the civil war, a number of Mbunda also took refuge in Northern Namibia, the west and east of Kavango Region region, around Rundu and Nkurenkuru and Caprivi Strip.[18]

Dialects[edit]

The Mbunda language in Zambia Angola is not spoken exactly the same way. In Zambia it has a strong upper teeth contact with the tongue, to pronounce words like: "Mundthzindthzime" (shadow), "chithzalo" (dress), "Kuthsa" (death) and many more. The difficult sounds represented by TH.[19] Mbunda language in Angola and Namibia is spoken without the TH sounds, like in the Luchazi language;[20] the words above are pronounced as "Mutzitzime" (shadow), "chizalo" (cloth), "Kutsa" (death). Even within Zambia, the Mbunda language spoken by the Chiyengele group that migrated earlier is different from that spoken by the Mbunda group that fled into Zambia as a consequence of the Mbunda-Portuguese war of 1914. That is why the Mbunda language of the Chiyengele group, mainly found in Mongu, is nicknamed "Shamuka"[clarification needed],[21] heavily influenced by Lozi language. The same term can be attributed to the Mbunda language in Namibia, which is heavily influenced by the Nyemba and Luchazi languages.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mbunda at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Nkangala at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Yauma at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Mbunda". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Nkangala". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  5. ^ Robert Papstein, 1994, The History and Cultural Life of the Mbunda Speaking People, Lusaka Cheke Cultural Writers Association, page 114 ISBN 99 820 3006X
  6. ^ Bantu-Languages.com, citing Maniacky 1997
  7. ^ Bantu-Languages.com, citing Maniacky 1997
  8. ^ http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/mbun1249 For additional sources
  9. ^ Resolution adopted by Council of Ministers - Official Gazette No. 3/87 of May 1987
  10. ^ Angola Harmonização das línguas bantu dificultada pela fonética e grafia
  11. ^ Tusona: Luchazi Ideographs : a Graphic Tradition of West-Central Africa By Gerhard Kubik, page 300
  12. ^ História da criação dos alfabetos em línguas nacionais, edições 70 - Portugal (History of the creation of alphabets in national languages, 70th editions - Portugal)
  13. ^ Tusona: Luchazi Ideographs : a Graphic Tradition of West-Central Africa By Gerhard Kubik, pages 291
  14. ^ The elites of Barotseland, 1878-1969: a political history of Zambia's Western Province: a. Gerald L. Caplan ISBN 0900966386 Publisher: C. Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd, 1970
  15. ^ Bantu-Languages.com, citing Maniacky 1997
  16. ^ René Pélissier, Les Guerres Grises: Résistance et revoltes en Angola (1845–1941), Montamets(Orgeval: Éditions Pélisier, 1977
  17. ^ Franz-Wilhelm Heimer, Der Entkolonisierungskonflikt in Angola, Munich: Weltforum Verlag, 1979 ISBN 3-8039-0179-0
  18. ^ Franz-Wilhelm Heimer, Der Entkolonisierungskonflikt in Angola, Munich: Weltforum Verlag, 1979 ISBN 3-8039-0179-0
  19. ^ A.W, July 1, 1917, A Comparative Vocabulary of Sikololo-Silui-Simbunda, African Affairs, Oxford University Press
  20. ^ Tusona: Luchazi Ideographs : a Graphic Tradition of West-Central Africa By Gerhard Kubik, pages 291, 292
  21. ^ Bantu-Languages.com, citing Maniacky 1997

Literature[edit]

  • Jacky Maniacky, 1997, "Contribution à l'étude des langues bantoues de la zone K: analyse comparative et sous-groupements", Mémoire pour l'obtention du DEA de langues, littératures et sociétés, études bantoues, INALCO (Paris - France), 101p.
  • José Redinha, 1975, Etnias e Culturas de Angola, Luanda: Instituto de Investigação Científica de Angola; reprinted fac-simile by the Associação das Universidades de Língua Portuguesa, 2009, ISBN 978 989 8271 00 6

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 14°06′44″S 21°26′07″E / 14.11222°S 21.43528°E / -14.11222; 21.43528Category:Populated places in Moxico Province Category:Populated places in Cuando Cubango Province Category:Municipalities of Angola