List of states with limited recognition
A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such. These entities often have de facto control of their territory. A number of such entities have existed in the past.
There are two traditional doctrines that provide indicia of how a de jure sovereign state comes into being. The declarative theory defines a state as a person in international law if it meets the following criteria:
- a defined territory
- a permanent population
- a government, and
- a capacity to enter into relations with other states.
According to the declarative theory, an entity's statehood is independent of its recognition by other states. By contrast, the constitutive theory defines a state as a person of international law only if it is recognised as such by other states that are already a member of the international community.
Proto-states often reference either or both doctrines in order to legitimise their claims to statehood. There are, for example, entities which meet the declarative criteria (with de facto partial or complete control over their claimed territory, a government and a permanent population), but whose statehood is not recognised by any other states. Non-recognition is often a result of conflicts with other countries that claim those entities as integral parts of their territory. In other cases, two or more partially recognised states may claim the same territorial area, with each of them de facto in control of a portion of it (as have been the cases of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the People's Republic of China (PRC), and North and South Korea). Entities that are recognised by only a minority of the world's states usually reference the declarative doctrine to legitimise their claims.
In many situations, international non-recognition is influenced by the presence of a foreign military force in the territory of the contested entity, making the description of the country's de facto status problematic. The international community can judge this military presence too intrusive, reducing the entity to a puppet state where effective sovereignty is retained by the foreign power. Historical cases in this sense can be seen in Japanese-led Manchukuo or the German-created Slovak Republic and Independent State of Croatia before and during World War II. In the 1996 case Loizidou vs. Turkey, the European Court of Human Rights judged Turkey for having exercised authority in the territory of Northern Cyprus.
There are also entities which do not have control over any territory or do not unequivocally meet the declarative criteria for statehood but have been recognised to exist de jure as sovereign entities by at least one other state. Historically this has happened in the case of the Holy See (1870–1929), Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (during Soviet annexation), and more recently the State of Palestine at the time of its declaration of independence in 1988. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is currently in this position. See list of governments in exile for unrecognised governments without control over the territory claimed.
- 1 Criteria for inclusion
- 2 Background
- 3 Present geopolitical entities by level of recognition
- 4 Excluded entities
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
Criteria for inclusion
- satisfy the declarative theory of statehood, or
- be recognised as a state by at least one UN member state.
Some states are slow to establish relations with new states and thus do not recognise them, despite having no dispute and sometimes favorable relations. These are excluded from the list. Some countries fulfill the declarative criteria, are recognised by the large majority of other states and are members of the United Nations, but are included in the list here because one or more other states do not recognise their statehood, due to territorial claims or other conflicts. There are 193 United Nations (UN) member states. The Holy See and the State of Palestine have observer state status in the United Nations.
Some states maintain informal (officially non-diplomatic) relations with states that do not officially recognise them. The Republic of China (Taiwan) is one such state, as it maintains unofficial relations with many other states through its Economic and Cultural Offices, which allow regular consular services. This allows the ROC to have economic relations even with states that do not formally recognise it. A total of 56 states, including Germany, Italy, the United States, and the United Kingdom, maintain some form of unofficial mission in the ROC. Kosovo, the Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh), the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Abkhazia, Transnistria, the Sahrawi Republic, Somaliland, and Palestine also host informal diplomatic missions, and/or maintain special delegations or other informal missions abroad.
Present geopolitical entities by level of recognition
UN member states not recognised by at least one UN member state
|Name||Declared||Status||Other claimants||Further information||References|
|Republic of Korea||1948||South Korea, independent since 1948, is not recognised by one UN member, North Korea.||North Korea claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)|||
|Republic of Armenia||1991||Armenia, independent since 1991, is not recognised by one UN member, Pakistan, as Pakistan has a position of supporting Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War.||None||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)|||
|Republic of Cyprus||1960||The Republic of Cyprus, independent since 1960, is not recognised by one UN member (Turkey) and one UN non-member (Northern Cyprus), due to the ongoing civil dispute over the island.||Northern Cyprus claims part of the island of Cyprus.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)|||
|Democratic People's Republic of Korea||1948||North Korea, independent since 1948, is not recognised by three UN members: France, Japan, South Korea; and one non-UN member: Taiwan.[original research?]||South Korea claims to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)|||
|People's Republic of China||1949||The People's Republic of China (PRC), proclaimed in 1949, is the more widely recognised of the two claimant governments of "China", the other being the Republic of China (ROC, also known as Taiwan). The PRC does not accept diplomatic relations with states that recognise the ROC (19 UN members and the Holy See as of 13 June 2017). Most of these states do not officially recognise the PRC as a state, though some states have established relations with the ROC while stating they do not intend to stop recognising the PRC (Kiribati, Nauru). Some states which currently recognise only the PRC have attempted simultaneous recognition and relations with the ROC and the PRC in the past (Liberia, Vanuatu). According to United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758, the PRC is the only legitimate representative of China to the United Nations.[Note 1]||Republic of China claims to be the sole legitimate government over all of China under the Constitution of the Republic of China.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
PRC's diplomatic relations dates of establishment
|State of Israel||1948||Israel, founded in 1948, is not recognised by 31 UN members.|| Syria claims Golan Heights.
Lebanon claims Shebaa Farms.
Palestine claims areas controlled by Israel. Subject to the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian peace process and broader Arab-Israeli peace process.
|Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Non-UN member states recognised by at least one UN member state
|Name||Declared||Status||Other claimants||Further information||References|
|State of Palestine||1988||The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) declared the State of Palestine in 1988. At the time the Israeli Armed Forces had control of most of the proclaimed territory. It is recognised by 136 UN member states and the Holy See, as well as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Today the PLC (Palestinian Legislative Council) executes the government functions in all Palestinian territories outside of Israeli military-controlled zones. Prior to the Council's administration, the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) was established in 1994 according to the Oslo Accords and the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement. Palestine participates in the United Nations as an observer state, and has membership in the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and UNESCO. It was accorded non-member observer state status at the United Nations by United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19.||Israel does not recognise the state of Palestine and controls areas claimed by Palestine. Subject to the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian peace process.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Proposals for a Palestinian state
|Republic of Kosovo||2008||Kosovo declared its independence in 2008. It is recognised by 111 UN members and Taiwan, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, the Cook Islands, and Niue. The United Nations, as stipulated in Security Council Resolution 1244, has administered the territory since 1999 through the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, with cooperation from the European Union since 2008. It is a member of the International Monetary Fund, World Bank Group, Venice Commission, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the International Olympic Committee, among others.||Serbia claims Kosovo as part of its sovereign territory.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition; Political status
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||1976||Both the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) and Morocco claim sovereignty over the territory of Western Sahara. The SADR, which declared its independence in 1976, has been recognised by 84 UN member states and South Ossetia. 38 states, however, have since retracted or suspended recognition, pending the outcome of a referendum on self-determination. Western Sahara is not recognised as part of Morocco by any state, but some states support the Moroccan autonomy plan. Moroccan "territorial integrity" is favoured by the Arab League. The SADR is a member of the African Union. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 34/37 recognised the right of the Western Sahara people to self-determination and recognised also the Polisario Front as the representative of the Western Sahara people. Western Sahara is listed on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories.||Morocco claims Western Sahara as part of its sovereign territory.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition; Political status
|Republic of China||1912[Note 2]||The Republic of China (ROC, usually called Taiwan), constitutionally formed in 1912, is recognised as the government of the state of China by 19 UN members and the Holy See as of 13 June 2017. All other UN member states do not officially recognise the ROC as a state; some of them regard its controlled territory as de jure part of the People's Republic of China (PRC) while some others have used careful diplomatic language to avoid taking a position as to whether the territory of the ROC is part of the PRC.[Note 1] Throughout the years, the ROC has adopted differing positions towards simultaneous recognition of the ROC and the PRC by other countries.||People's Republic of China claims to be the successor of the former Republic of China and claims all of the territory under ROC jurisdiction as part of its sovereign territory.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
|Republic of South Ossetia||1991||South Ossetia declared its independence in 1991. It has been recognised by five UN member states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Nauru, with Tuvalu recognizing but subsequently withdrawing their recognition), and four UN non-member states (Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Abkhazia, Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) and Transnistria).||Georgia claims both Abkhazia and South Ossetia as part of its sovereign territory.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
|Republic of Abkhazia||1999||Abkhazia declared its independence in 1999. It has been recognised by six UN member states (Russia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and Nauru, with Tuvalu and Vanuatu recognizing but subsequently withdrawing their recognition), and three UN non-member states (South Ossetia, Transnistria and Republic of Artsakh).||Georgia claims both Abkhazia and South Ossetia as part of its sovereign territory.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
|Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus||1983||Northern Cyprus declared its independence in 1983. It is recognised by one UN member, Turkey. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization have granted Northern Cyprus observer status under the name "Turkish Cypriot State". United Nations Security Council Resolution 541 defines the declaration of independence of Northern Cyprus as legally invalid. The International Court of Justice stated in its advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence in 2010 that "the Security Council in an exceptional character attached illegality to the DOI of TRNC because it was, or would have been connected with the unlawful use of force" and "general international law contains no applicable prohibition of declarations of independence".||Cyprus claims Northern Cyprus as part of its sovereign territory.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
Non-UN member states recognised only by non-UN member states
|Name||Declared||Status||Other claimants||Further information||References|
|Republic of Artsakh||1991||Artsakh (formerly known as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic) declared its independence in 1991 (roughly at the same time as Azerbaijan itself when the Soviet Union fell). It is recognised by three UN non-members: Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria.||Azerbaijan claims Artsakh as part of its sovereign territory.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Political status
|Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic||1990||The Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (also known as Transnistria) declared its independence in 1990. It is recognised by three UN non-members: Abkhazia, Republic of Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) and South Ossetia.||Moldova claims Transnistria as part of its sovereign territory.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)
International recognition, Political status
Non-UN member state not recognised by any state
|Name||Declared||Status||Other claimants||Further information||References|
|Republic of Somaliland||1991||Somaliland declared its independence from Somalia in 1991. It claims to be the successor to the State of Somaliland, a short lived sovereign state that existed from 26 June 1960 (when the British Somaliland Protectorate gained full independence from the United Kingdom) to 1 July 1960 (when the State of Somaliland united with Somalia to form the Somali Republic). Somaliland is internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia.||Somalia claims Somaliland as part of its sovereign territory.||Foreign relations, missions (of, to)|||
- The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is a non-state sovereign entity and is not included, as it claims neither statehood nor territory. It has established full diplomatic relations with 105 sovereign states as a sovereign subject of international law and participates in the United Nations as an observer entity. Although it is not recognised as a subject of international law by France, the order maintains official, but not diplomatic, relations with France and also with five other states: Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Luxembourg and Canada. Five more states maintain neither and do not recognise its passports: Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, Iceland and Greece.
- Uncontacted peoples who either live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.
- Entities considered to be micronations are not included.[Note 3] Even though micronations generally claim to be sovereign and independent, it is often debatable whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory.[Note 4] For this reason, micronations are usually not considered of geopolitical relevance. For a list of micronations, see list of micronations.
- Those areas undergoing current civil wars and other situations with problems over government succession, regardless of temporary alignment with the inclusion criteria (e.g. by receiving recognition as state or legitimate government), where the conflict is still in its active phase, the situation is too rapidly changing and no relatively stable rump states have emerged yet.
- Rebel groups which have declared independence and exert some control over territory, but which reliable sources do not describe as meeting the threshold of a sovereign state under international law. Examples include Donetsk People's Republic, Luhansk People's Republic, Kachin Independence Army and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
- Those of the current irredentist movements and governments in exile that do not satisfy the inclusion criteria by simultaneously not satisfying the declarative theory and not having been recognised as state or legitimate government by any other state.
- Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations
- Diplomatic recognition
- Exclusive mandate
- Flags of unrecognized and partially recognized states
- Frozen conflict
- Government in exile
- List of civil wars
- List of historical unrecognized states
- List of micronations
- List of rebel groups that control territory
- List of sovereign states
- List of territorial disputes
- List of rump states
- Nation state
- List of modern proto-states
- Territorial dispute
- Territorial integrity
- Unilateral declaration of independence
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
- Both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China claim sovereignty over the whole of China, stating China is de jure a single sovereign entity encompassing both the area controlled by the PRC and the area controlled by the ROC. The position of individual states on this matter varies. Several states fully accept the PRC's position that there is only one China and that the PRC is the sole legitimate representative of China. Other states merely acknowledge this position, while recognising only the PRC as a state. Some states recognise only the ROC as a state, but have expressed an interest in recognition and relations with both the ROC and the PRC.
- Date of constitutional formation.
- Micronations are not included even if they are recognised by another micronation.
- It is far from certain that micronations, which are generally of minuscule size, have sovereign control over their claimed territories, contrasted with the mere disregard and indifference toward micronations’ assertions by the states from which they allege to have seceded. By not deeming such declarations (and other acts of the micronation) important enough to react in any way, these states generally consider micronations to be private property and their claims as unofficial private announcements of individuals, who remain subject to the laws of the states in which their properties are located.
- Thomas D. Grant, The recognition of states: law and practice in debate and evolution (Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 1999), chapter 1.
- "Non-member State". Un.org. Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "Germany - Countries A to Z". Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "Ambasciate Consolati e Uffici di promozione". Esteri.it. Retrieved 29 April 2011.[dead link]
- U.S. Department of State Websites of U.S. Embassies, Consulates, and Diplomatic Missions Retrieved 2011-02-03
- "Find an Embassy". Fco.gov.uk. 14 March 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "Foreign Missions in Kosovo". Government of Kosovo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Permanent Representations". Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Representative Offices Abroad". Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Public Information Office. Archived from the original on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Embassies & Representatives of Abkhazia". Government of Abkhazia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- "Pagina nueva 1". Archived from the original on 10 August 2011.
- "Contacts and addresses of the Somaliland Representative Offices around the world". Government of Somaliland. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- "Embassies, Missions, General and Special Delegations of Palestine abroad". WebGaza.net. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
- US Library of Congress (7 October 2000). "World War II and Korea". Country Studies. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Sterngold, James (3 September 1994). "China, Backing North Korea, Quits Armistice Commission". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
- Pakistan Worldview - Report 21 - Visit to Azerbaijan Senate of Pakistan — Senate foreign relations committee, 2008
- Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] - Today.Az
- European Parliament Directorate-General External Policies Policy Department "Turkey and the problem of the recognition of Cyprus" 20 January 2005 Retrieved 2011-02-03
- CIA World Factbook (28 February 2008). "Cyprus". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- "Cyprus exists without Turkey's recognition: president". XINHUA. 1 October 2005. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
- European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs "The influence of Turkish military forces on political agenda-setting in Turkey, analysed on the basis of the Cyprus question" 18 February 2008 Retrieved 2011-02-03
- See South Korea–Taiwan relations.
- Seung-Ho Joo, Tae-Hwan Kwak - Korea in the 21st Century
- "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 27 October 2008.
- Commission de la défense nationale et des forces armées (30 March 2010). "Audition de M. Jack Lang, envoyé spécial du Président de la République pour la Corée du Nord." (in French). Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2010-05-02.
- Goodman, David (2015). "Handbook of the Politics of China". Retrieved 29 September 2017. "Seoul recognized Taiwan as the sole legitimate government of China"
- "Declaration of Independence". TIME. 19 August 1966. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
- Scofield, David (4 January 2005). "Seoul's double-talk on reunification". Asia Times. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
- Lee, Meifang "Minister announces resumption of diplomatic ties with Nauru" Taiwan Today 2005-05-20 Retrieved 2011-04-29
- "Kiribati president upbeat on conference, Taiwan" Radio Australia 21 June 2010 Retrieved 2011-04-29
- Crocombe, Ron Asia in the Pacific Islands: Replacing the West University of the South Pacific. Institute of Pacific Studies 2007 p. 258 Online version available at Google Books
- "Looking East: China-Africa Engagements Liberia Case Study" African Center for Economic Transformation, Monrovia December 2009
- Chiu, Hungdah "The International Legal Status of the Republic of China (Revised Version)" Occasional Papers/Reprints Series in Contemporary Asian Studies Number 5 - 1992 (112), School of Law, University of Maryland ISBN 0-925153-23-0
- "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". International Human Rights Treaties and Documents Database. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Government of Israel (14 May 1948). "Declaration of Israel's Independence 1948". Yale University. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- United States Congress (5 June 2008). "H. RES. 1249" (PDF).
- "'Reply' Online Book Chapter 1". Mythsandfacts.org. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "Khartoum Resolution". Council on Foreign Relations.
- Government of Israel. "Israel's Diplomatic Missions Abroad: Status of relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
- Staff writers (20 February 2008). "Palestinians 'may declare state'". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 22 January 2011.:"Saeb Erekat, disagreed arguing that the Palestine Liberation Organisation had already declared independence in 1988. "Now we need real independence, not a declaration. We need real independence by ending the occupation. We are not Kosovo. We are under Israeli occupation and for independence we need to acquire independence".
- Bannoura, Saed (28 August 2011). "124 Out Of 193 Countries Recognize Palestinian Independence". IMEMC News. International Middle East Media Center. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
- Shelley, Toby (1988). "Spotlight on Morocco". West Africa. London: West Africa Publishing Company Ltd (3712–3723: December 5–31): 2282. "...the SADR was one of the first countries to recognise the state of Palestine."
- Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on special area classification. Israel maintains minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air, sea beyond internal waters, land) in the Gaza strip (its interior and Egypt portion of the land border are under Hamas control), maximum in "Area C" and varying degrees of interference elsewhere. See also Israeli-occupied territories.
- "Palestinians win upgraded UN status by wide margin". BBC News. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- "Israel's control of the airspace and the territorial waters of the Gaza Strip". btselem.org.
- "Map of Gaza fishing limits, "security zones"". dissidentvoice.org. December 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- Israel's Disengagement Plan: Renewing the Peace Process: "Israel will guard the perimeter of the Gaza Strip, continue to control Gaza air space, and continue to patrol the sea off the Gaza coast. ... Israel will continue to maintain its essential military presence to prevent arms smuggling along the border between the Gaza Strip and Egypt (Philadelphi Route), until the security situation and cooperation with Egypt permit an alternative security arrangement."
- Dore Gold (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- Zak M. Salih (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 28 October 2004. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- "International Recognition of the State of Palestine". Official website of the Palestinian National Authority. November 1988. Archived from the original on 10 October 2003.. The PNA has publicly acknowledged recognition from 94 states, including the former Yugoslavia.
- Venezuela Pledges Support for Palestinian Statehood during Abbas Visit, November 2009.
- "Costa Rica Recognizes 'Palestine'" Archived 15 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine., The Journal of Turkish Weekly 26 February 2008 Retrieved 2011-02-07
- "South African Representative Office to the Palestinian National Authority". Sarep.org. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "Embassies of Palestine". Webgaza.net. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "Embassy of the State of Palestine in Bratislava". Palestine.sk. Archived from the original on 2009-08-09. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "Kosovo MPs proclaim independence". BBC News. 17 February 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- "Kosovo" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-16. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "Here the states which recognize the SADR. It is a non official list, with dates of recognition and cancellation:". ARSO. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
- "About Western Sahara". Australia Western Sahara Association. November 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- Resolutions adopted by the General Assembly at its 34th session, United Nations.
- "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic". Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. 27 February 1976. Archived from the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- "Taiwan cuts ties with Costa Rica over recognition for China". The New York Times. 7 June 2007. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- Bush III, Richard C. "The Role of the United States in Taiwan-PRC Relations", Taiwan: Beyond the Economic Miracle M.E. Sharpe, Inc. ISBN 0-87332-879-5 p. 358 Online version available at Google Books
- Global Investment and Business Center, Inc. Staff Taiwan Foreign Policy and National Security Yearbook 2011 Second Edition International Business Publications, USA ISBN 0-7397-3660-4 Online version available at Google Books
- "Tuvalu takes back recognition of independence of Abkhazia and so-called South Ossetia". 31 March 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia - Ministry's Statements". Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- "South Ossetia opens embassy in Abkhazia". The Tiraspol Times. Archived from the original on 2008-04-22.
- (in Russian) Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", - сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." - сказал он." English language translation from Microsoft Translator
- "BBC NEWS - Europe - Russia recognises Georgian rebels".
- "Venezuela's Chavez draws closer to Moscow". Reuters. 10 September 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
- "Regions and territories: Abkhazia". BBC news. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
- Government of Vanuatu (17 June 2011). "Vanuatu’s recognition to the Republic of Abkhazia". Archived from the original on 2011-06-24. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- Vanuatu's initial recognition was invalidated after the Kilman government was annulled by the Supreme Court. Kilman was subsequently re-elected and its recognition was re-confirmed by its Foreign Minister in July 2011: Natapei withdraws recognition of Abkhazia, Vanuatu Daily Post, 19 June 2011
- "Vanuatu official denies Abkhazia recognition". Solomon Star. 6 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-06-11.
- "Transparency International Vanuatu press release on recognition of Abkhazia". TI Georgia.
- "Vanuatu annuls recognition of Abkhazia - report". Radio New Zealand International. 19 June 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
- "Georgia Says Vanuatu Has Withdrawn Recognition of Abkhazia". Bloomberg L.P. 20 May 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
- Government of Tuvalu (20 September 2011). "On the establishment of diplomatic relations between Republic of Abkhazia and Tuvalu". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- Clogg, Rachel (2001). "Abkhazia: Ten Years On" (PDF). Conciliation Resources. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- John Pike. "Georgia mocks Nauru's recognition of Abkhazia". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "Security Council resolution 541 (1983) on Cyprus". Un.int. Archived from the original on 28 August 2003. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- "Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, Paragraph 81" (PDF). International Court of Justice. 22 July 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- Hadar, Leon (16 November 2005). "In Praise of 'Virtual States'". AntiWar. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Ker-Lindsay, James (2012). The Foreign Policy of Counter Secession: Preventing the Recognition of Contested States. Oxford University Press. p. 53.
...there are three other territories that have unilaterally declared independence and are generally regarded as having met the Montevideo criteria for statehood but have not been recognized by any states: Transnistria, Nagorny Karabakh, and Somaliland.
- BBC Country Profiles: Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- "Abkhazia: Ten Years On". BBC 2. 2001. Archived from the original on 2009-12-21. Retrieved 16 June 2008.
- BBC Country Profiles: Regions and territories: Somaliland. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
- "La Orden de Malta y su Naturaleza Jurídica". Venezuela Analitica. 1 May 1999. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015. English language translation "The Order of Malta, within the limits that are compatible with its actual position as a subject deprived of territory, is in the international community, a sovereign entity on par with the States, and the Prince Grand Master is comparable, from the point of view of international law, to the Heads of State."
- Permanent Observer Mission of the Order of Malta to the United Nations in New York "The admission of Order of Malta to the United Nations also further solidified its legally recognized sovereignty ..."
- Shaw, Malcolm Nathan International Law Fifth Edition Cambridge University Press 2003 ISBN 0-521-82473-7 p. 218 Searchable text, available via Amazon.com, "The Italian Court of Cassation in 1935 recognised the international personality of the Order, noting that ‘the modern theory of the subjects of international law recognises a number of collective units whose composition is independent of the nationality of their constituent members and whose scope transcends by virtue of their universal character the territorial confines of any single state.’ (Nanni v. Pace and the Sovereign Order of Malta 8 AD, p. 2. See also …)"
- "Reconócese a la Soberana Orden Militar de Malta como Entidad Internacionál Independiente". Boletín Oficiál de la República Argentina, Año LIX, Número 16.92. Buenos Aires. 19 June 1951. p. 1. "The Senate and Chamber of Deputies of Argentina, in Congress assembled, enact as LAW: Article 1 – The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is hereby recognized as an international independent entity."
- "La Orden de Malta y su Naturaleza Jurídica". Venezuela Analitica. 1 May 1999. Archived from the original on 1 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015. English language translation "[T]he clear territorial separation of sovereign areas that exists between the Italian State and the State of Vatican City does not exist between the Order of Malta and the Italian State, but neither can it be said that the treatment given to the headquarters of the Order (Aventine, Via Condotti) is, simply, that reserved for the headquarters of diplomatic missions accredited to the Italian State. In fact, the headquarters of the Order have diplomatic extraterritoriality (authoritarian acts of any kind – executive, acts of inspection, judicial – cannot take place inside), but in addition, the Italian State recognizes the exercise, in the headquarters, of the prerogatives of sovereignty. This means that Italian sovereignty and Maltese sovereignty coexist without overlapping, because the Order exercises sovereign functions in a wider area than occurs in the diplomatic missions of the States for, although [those diplomatic missions] enjoy extraterritoriality, the guarantees deriving from the privilege of immunity are constrained to a purely administrative area; the Order, instead, makes use of extraterritoriality to meet the very acts of sovereign self-determination that are the same as the States (legislative, judicial, administrative, financial acts)."
- The Sovereign Military Order of Malta maintains embassies around the world and receives accreditations from foreign ambassadors.
- "The Sovereignty of the Order of Malta". heraldica.org.
- Ordine di Malta. "Bilateral relations". orderofmalta.org. Archived from the original on 2010-08-07.
- "Schengen States Visa Working Party - Table of travel documents". Council of the European Union. 27 June 2010. Archived from the original (Online PDF) on 20 November 2010.