List of sovereign states by date of formation

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Below is a list of sovereign states with the dates of their formation (date of their independence or of their constitution), sorted by continent.

This list includes the 195 states which are currently full member states or observer states of the United Nations. This does not include List of former sovereign states, but does include several states with limited recognition.[note 1] For proposed states or various indigenous nations which consider themselves still under occupation, see list of active autonomist and secessionist movements. Micronations are not included in this list.

Nation-building is a long evolutionary process, and in most cases the date of a country's "formation" cannot be objectively determined; e.g., the fact that England and France were sovereign kingdoms on equal footing in the medieval period does not prejudice the fact that England is not now a sovereign state (having passed sovereignty to the UK in 1707), while France is a Republic founded in 1792 (technically, France currently refers to the French Fifth Republic, formed in 1958).

An unambiguous measure is the date of national constitutions; but as constitutions are an entirely modern concept, all formation dates by that criterion are modern or early modern (the oldest constitution being that of San Marino, dating to 1600).

Independence dates for widely recognised states earlier than 1919 should be treated with caution, since prior to the founding of the League of Nations, there was no international body to recognise nationhood, and independence had no meaning beyond mutual recognition of de facto sovereigns (the role of the League of Nations was effectively taken over by the United Nations after the Second World War). See also: disputed territories.

Many countries have some remote (or fantastically remote) symbolic foundation date as part of their national mythology, sometimes artificially inflating a country's "age" for reasons of nationalism, sometimes merely gesturing at a long and gradual process of the formation of an ethnic identity. Such dates reflect not the formation of a state (an independent political entity), but of a nation (an ethnic or cultural grouping), terms that are often conflated in the context of nation states.

The following list contains the formation dates of countries with a short description of those events. For a more detailed description of a country's formation and history please see the main article for each country.

List[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Algeria 1963 Adoption of the present constitution. July 3, 1962 French recognition of Algerian referendum on independence held two days earlier July 5, 1962 Algeria gains sovereignty over the entire Algerian territory upon independence from France.
 Angola 1975 November 11, 1975 Independence from Portugal
 Benin August 1, 1960 Independence from France January 15, 1894 Borders of French Protectorate of Dahomey set at conclusion of Second Franco-Dahomean War
 Botswana September 30, 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom December 13, 1999 Sedudu ruled to belong to Botswana rather than Namibia by the International Court of Justice.
 Burkina Faso August 5, 1960 Independence from France
 Burundi November 28, 1966 Monarchy replaced by republic July 1, 1962 Independence from Belgium
 Cape Verde July 5, 1975 Independence from Portugal
 Cameroon January 1, 1960 Independence from France October 1, 1961 Merger of part of British Cameroons with Cameroon
 Central African Republic September 21, 1979 Monarchy replaced by republic August 13, 1960 Independence from France
 Chad August 11, 1960 Independence from France February 3, 1997 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad
 Comoros July 6, 1975 Independence from France declared
 Democratic Republic of Congo May 17, 1997 June 30, 1960 Independence from Belgium
 Republic of Congo August 15, 1960 Independence from France
 Cote d'Ivoire December 4, 1958 Autonomous republic within French Community
August 7, 1960 Independence from France
 Djibouti June 27, 1977 Independence from France
 Egypt June 18, 1953 Egyptian revolution of 1952, Egyptian monarchy overthrown in a military coup, republic declared February 28, 1922 Britain ends its protectorate, granting independence to Egypt 1925 The eastern borders of Libya and British Egypt are changed to their present boundaries.
 Equatorial Guinea October 12, 1968 Independence from Spain
 Eritrea May 24, 1993 Independence from Ethiopia declared April 1, 2002 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean–Ethiopian War). Contested by Ethiopia
 Eswatini (Swaziland) February 8, 2006 Constitution of Swaziland September 6, 1968 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Ethiopia March 21, 1975 Monarchy abolished and replaced by republic 900 Zagwe dynasty April 1, 2002 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea–Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean–Ethiopian War). Contested by Ethiopia
 Gabon August 17, 1960 Independence from France
 Gambia February 18, 1965 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Ghana March 6, 1957 Independence from the United Kingdom December 13, 1956 Union of British Togoland with Gold Coast
 Guinea October 2, 1958 Independence from France
 Guinea-Bissau September 24, 1973 Independence from Portugal declared
September 10, 1974 Independence from Portugal recognized
 Kenya December 12, 1963 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Lesotho October 4, 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom March 12, 1868 Area that is now Lesotho placed under British rule
 Liberia July 26, 1847 Independence from American Colonization Society January 6, 1986 Current constitution came into effect
 Libya August 4, 2014 House of Representatives takes power.[note 2] December 24, 1951 Independence from UN Trusteeship (British and French administration after Italian governance ends in 1947) February 13, 1984 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad.
 Madagascar October 14, 1958 The Malagasy Republic was created as autonomous state within French Community
June 26, 1960 France recognizes Madagascar's independence
 Malawi July 6, 1964 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Mali November 25, 1958 French Sudan gains autonomy April 8, 1960 Senegal secedes from Mali Federation
September 22, 1960 Independence from France
 Mauritania November 28, 1960 Independence from France August 11, 1979 Mauritania withdraws from Tiris al-Gharbiyya (part of Western Sahara)
 Mauritius March 12, 1968 Independence from the United Kingdom 1965 Separation of Chagos Archipelago
 Morocco February 24, 788 Enthronement of Idriss 1st in Volubilis 1631 Sultanate de Tafilalt November 18, 1955 Protectorate abolished
 Mozambique June 25, 1975 Independence from Portugal
 Namibia March 21, 1990 Independence from South African rule March 1, 1997 Walvis Bay integrated into Namibia
 Niger December 4, 1958 Autonomy within French Community
August 3, 1960 Independence from France
 Nigeria October 1, 1960 Independence from the United Kingdom January 15, 1970 Biafra re-integrated into Nigeria
June 1, 1961 Northern Cameroons integrated in Nigeria
 Rwanda July 1, 1962 Independence from Belgium
 São Tomé and Príncipe July 12, 1975 Independence from Portugal
 Senegal August 20, 1960 Independence from France
 Seychelles June 29, 1976 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Sierra Leone April 27, 1961 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Somalia August 20, 2012 Federal Government of Somalia established.[note 3] July 1, 1960 Union of Trust Territory of Somalia (former Italian Somaliland) and State of Somaliland (formerly British Somaliland) May 18, 1991 (disputed) Somaliland declares independence, but is not recognized by any UN state.
 South Africa May 31, 1961 Republic declared December 11, 1931 Statute of Westminster, which establishes a status of legislative equality between the self-governing dominion of the Union of South Africa and the UK March 21, 1990 De facto: South West Africa declares independence, forming Namibia
February 4, 1997 The post-Apartheid Constitution of South Africa comes into effect May 31, 1910 Creation of the autonomous Union of South Africa from the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River April 27, 1994 De jure: Reincorporation of the nominally independent but unrecognised bantustans into post-apartheid South Africa
 South Sudan July 9, 2011 2011 South Sudanese independence referendum July 9, 2011 Separation of Southern Sudan from Sudan
 Sudan April 15, 2010 First democratic election since the Second Sudanese Civil War January 1, 1956 Independence from Egyptian and British joint rule July 9, 2011 South Sudan secedes from Sudan
 Tanzania July 1, 1991 Amendment to Constitution of Tanzania ends status as one-party state December 9, 1961 Independence of Tanganyika from the United Kingdom April 26, 1964 Merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form Tanzania
 Togo August 30, 1958 Autonomy within French Union
April 27, 1960 Independence from France
 Tunisia January 26, 2014 Constitution of Tunisia following the Tunisian Revolution March 20, 1956 Independence from France
 Uganda March 1, 1962 Self-government granted
October 9, 1962 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Zambia October 24, 1964 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Zimbabwe December 22, 1987 Robert Mugabe revises the Constitution of Zimbabwe to create an executive presidency.[note 4] November 11, 1965 Unilateral declaration of independence by Southern Rhodesia 1901 BSAC separates North-Eastern Rhodesia from Southern Rhodesia
April 18, 1980 Recognized independence from the United Kingdom as Zimbabwe

Americas[edit]

Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Antigua and Barbuda     November 1, 1981 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Argentina May 1, 1853 The current Constitution of Argentina enters in force May 25, 1810 May Revolution installs first local government October 18, 1884 Conquest of the Desert
July 9, 1816 Argentine Declaration of Independence from Spain.
 Bahamas     January 7, 1964 Internal self-governance granted    
July 10, 1973 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Barbados     November 30, 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Belize     September 21, 1981 Independence from the United Kingdom 1859 Treaty establishes border between British Honduras and Guatemala
January 1, 1964 Self-governing colony
 Bolivia January 25, 2009 Constitution of Bolivia August 6, 1825 Bolivian War of Independence from Spain. November 11, 1903 Treaty of Petrópolis with Brazil whereby Bolivia gained lands in Mato Grosso in exchange for the territory of Acre
July 21, 1844 Independence recognized by Spain
 Brazil October 5, 1988 Constitution of Brazil established as the third Federative Republic September 7, 1822 Independence from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves declared November 11, 1903 Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Bolivia whereby Brazil was given the territory of Acre in exchange for lands in Mato Grosso
August 29, 1825 Independence recognized by Portugal
November 15, 1889 Proclamation of the Federal Republic
 Canada December 11, 1931 Statute of Westminster July 1, 1867 Granted nominal independence (Dominion status), establishing as a federation April 1, 1999 Nunavut Territory created as per native land claims act from two thirds of the area of Northwest Territories.
April 17, 1982 Constitution Act, 1982 established
 Chile August 17, 1989 Amendment to the Constitution of Chile ends the military dictatorship September 18, 1810 First Government Junta July 3, 1929 Chile awarded Arica district in Treaty of Lima
January 1, 1818 Chilean Declaration of Independence from Spain
April 25, 1844 Independence recognized by Spain
 Colombia July 4, 1991 Colombian Constitution of 1991 established as a presidential republic. July 20, 1810 Colombia declares independence from Spain. July 4, 1991 The Sovereign territory was organized under the National Constituent Assembly.
December 17, 1819 Colombia merged with Venezuela, Panama, and Ecuador.
November 19, 1831 Gran Colombia dissolved creating a pact with Panama as the Republic of New Granada.
May 22, 1858 The Republic of New Granada was replaced to the Granadine Confederation under the 1858 constitution.
May 8, 1863 The Granadine Confederation was replaced to the United States of Colombia under the constitutional change of 1864.
January 30, 1881 Declaration of Independence recognized by Spain
August 8, 1886 Establishment of the current sovereignty of Colombia as a republic.
 Costa Rica November 7, 1949 Constitution of Costa Rica September 15, 1821 Costa Rica declared independence from Spain July 25, 1824 Partido de Nicoya
November 15, 1838 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
May 10, 1850 Independence recognized by Spain
 Cuba January 1, 1959 Cuban Revolution October 10, 1898 Several wars were declared against Spain from 1868 to 1898, ending with the military support of USA to the Cuban Revolution.    
December 10, 1898 Spain loses the war against United States and the military occupation of Cuba by USA begins.
May 20, 1902 United States military occupation ends[1]
 Dominica November 3, 1978 Constitution of Dominica February 27, 1967 Became an associated state of the United Kingdom    
November 3, 1978 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Dominican Republic November 28, 1966 Civilian constitution of the Dominican Republic following the Dominican Civil War.[note 5] February 27, 1844 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti May 9, 1936 Haiti and the Dominican Republic sign a treaty setting a definitive border.
October 14, 1874 Independence recognized by Spain
 Ecuador September 28, 2008 Constitution of Ecuador established. August 10, 1809 First declaration of Independence from Spain February 26, 1942 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Peru
May 24, 1822 Second declaration of independence from Spain of Gran Colombia, of which Ecuador is a part of
May 13, 1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
February 16, 1840 Declaration of Independence recognized by Spain
 El Salvador December 16, 1983 Constitution of El Salvador established as the third Unitary presidential republic September 15, 1821 El Salvador becomes independent from Spain, and 9 days later becomes province in First Mexican Empire    
July 1, 1823 El Salvador becomes a state of Federal Republic of Central America from the First Mexican Empire
February 2, 1841 Dissolution of the Federal Republic of Central America, El Salvador becomes independent nation
February 18, 1841 El Salvador was internationally recognized.
June 24, 1865 Independence recognized by Spain
 Grenada     February 27, 1967 Associated state of the United Kingdom    
February 7, 1974 Full independence from the United Kingdom
 Guatemala May 31, 1985 Constitution of Guatemala established September 15, 1821 Guatemala becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain    
April 17, 1839 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America declared
May 29, 1863 Independence recognized by Spain
 Guyana     May 26, 1966 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Haiti March 1987 Constitution of 1987 (superseded) January 1, 1804 The French colony Saint-Domingue gains independence as Haiti February 27, 1844 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti
May 9, 1936 Haiti and the Dominican Republic sign a treaty setting a definitive border.
 Honduras January 11, 1982 Constitution of Honduras. September 15, 1821 Honduras becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain September 1, 1972 Swan Islands returned to Honduras from United States occupation
October 26, 1838 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
November 17, 1894 Independence from Spain recognized
 Jamaica     August 6, 1962 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 Mexico February 7, 1917 Constitution of Mexico September 16, 1810 Independence from Spain declared December 30, 1853 Gadsden Purchase
September 27, 1821 Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
December 28, 1836 Declaration of Independence recognized by Spain
 Nicaragua January 9, 1987 Constitution of Nicaragua established September 15, 1821 Nicaragua becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain    
November 5, 1838 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America
July 24, 1850 Independence recognized by Spain
 Panama October 11, 1972 Constitution of Panama established November 3, 1903 Independence from Colombia December 31, 1999 Sovereignty of Panama Canal Zone transferred to Panama from the United States
May 10, 1904 Independence from Spain recognized
 Paraguay June 20, 1992 Democratic Constitution of Paraguay May 14, 1811 Independence from Spain declared 1938 Paraguay awarded a large portion of the Gran Chaco as a result of the Chaco War
September 10, 1880 Independence from Spain recognized
 Peru December 31, 1993 Constitution of Peru established July 28, 1821 Independence from Spain declared February 26, 1942 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Ecuador
August 14, 1879 Independence from Spain recognized
 Saint Kitts and Nevis     February 27, 1967 Associated state of the United Kingdom December 19, 1980 Anguilla separated from Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla
September 19, 1983 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Saint Lucia     February 27, 1967 Associated statehood    
February 22, 1979 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines     October 27, 1969 Associated statehood    
October 27, 1979 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Suriname     December 15, 1954 Self-government granted    
November 25, 1975 Independence from Netherlands
 Trinidad and Tobago     August 31, 1962 Independence from the United Kingdom    
 United States September 17, 1787 Ratification of the United States Constitution replaced the previous Articles of Confederation creating a new system of government July 4, 1776 Independence from Great Britain declared August 21, 1959 United States territory:
Territory of Hawaii joins as the state of Hawaii
September 3, 1783 Independence from Great Britain recognized September 7, 1981 Insular area:
The United States cedes Serrana Bank and Roncador Bank to the Republic of Colombia as a result of a treaty signed in 1972
 Uruguay December 8, 1996 1996 Uruguayan constitutional referendum August 25, 1825 Independence from Empire of Brazil declared, joined in union with United Provinces of the River Plate (current Argentina).    
August 27, 1828 Treaty of Montevideo signed, recognizing Uruguay's independence by Brazil
July 19, 1870 Independence recognized by Spain
 Venezuela December 20, 1999 New Constitution of Venezuela establishes the Bolivarian Fifth Republic April 19, 1810[2] Independence from Spain declared October 3, 1899 Tribunal of Arbitration awards most of Guayana Esequiba to British Guyana.
January 13, 1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
March 30, 1845 Independence recognized by Spain

Asia[edit]

Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Afghanistan January 26, 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan establishes Islamic Republic 1919 Treaty of Rawalpindi ends British control of foreign policy 1747 Durrani Empire 1893 Durand-Line through Pashtunistan, because of the Durand-Treaty
 Bahrain August 15, 1971 End of treaties with the United Kingdom July 1, 1521 Portuguese conquest of current territory
 Bangladesh November 4, 1972 De jure: Constitution of Bangladesh March 26, 1971 Independence from Pakistan declared July 31, 2015 India and Bangladesh exchange exclaves
February 27, 1991 De facto: First general election since restoration of parliamentary democracy.
 Bhutan March 24, 2008 First elections to the National Assembly 1885 Ugyen Wangchuck ends period of civil war and unites Bhutan November 11, 1865 Treaty of Sinchula
 Brunei September 29, 1959 De jure: Constitution of Brunei January 1, 1984 Brunei regains its independence after an agreement with the British on 4 January 1979 August 18, 1841 Kingdom of Sarawak founded
December 12, 1962 De facto: Martial law declared during the Brunei Revolt, suspending democratic elections indefinitely.
 Cambodia September 21, 1993 Constitution of Cambodia September 9, 1953 France grants Cambodia independence
September 26, 1989 Becomes free from Vietnamese occupation; it gets back its name instead of the People's Republic of Kampuchea
 China October 1, 1949 Establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the Chinese Civil War nears its end 221 BC First imperial unification under the Qin dynasty October 6, 2011 Tajikistan ceded to China 1158 square kilometers
 India January 26, 1950 De jure: Constitution of India 440 BC by Greeks, 900-800 BC as Bhārata. Independence from British Empire. Bhārata has been referred many times in ancient Vedic Texts, mainly Puranas. Emperor Bharata conquered whole of Indian subcontinent. July 31, 2015 India and Bangladesh exchange exclaves
 Iran February 11, 1979 Iranian Revolution ends monarchism and establishes an Islamic Republic 550 BC Founded by the Proto-Elamites 10 February 1828 Signing of the Treaty of Turkmenchay, whereby the territories that now constitute Armenia, Azerbaijan (the remaining part which hadn't been lost by the Treaty of Gulistan (1813), and Igdir are ceded to Russia)
 Iraq October 15, 2005 Constitution of Iraq following the Iraq War[note 6] October 3, 1932 Kingdom of Iraq February 28, 1991 Kuwait liberated.[note 6]
 Israel May 14, 1948 Democratic state of Israel. Reading of the Declaration of Independence of Israel May 14, 1948 Independence from the British Mandate of Palestine September 12, 2005 Completion of Israel's unilateral disengagement from the Gaza Strip
 Japan May 3, 1947 Coming into force of the current Constitution of Japan, whereby the emperor was deprived of his powers and a liberal democracy was established February 11, 660 BC (Traditional) Victory of Emperor Jimmu, and the capital established in Yamato. May 15, 1972 Return of the Ryukyu Islands to Japan and abolition of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands
 Jordan January 1, 1952 Constitution of Jordan May 25, 1946 End of the British Mandate for Palestine October 26, 1997 Signing of the Israel–Jordan Treaty of Peace, whereby most of the disputed 400 square-kilometer area in the Arabah was handed back to Jordan
June 12, 2011 The Cabinet of Jordan is made an elected body[3]
 North Korea September 9, 1948 Kim Il-sung declared Premier of North Korea, establishing the still-ruling Kim dynasty. Independence declared from the Soviet Union. September 9, 1948 Declaration of creation of North Korea July 27, 1953 Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the southern border along the Military Demarcation Line
December 25, 1972 Constitution of North Korea replaces Communism with Juche as North Korea's governing philosophy.[note 7]
 South Korea October 29, 1987 Current Sixth Republic of South Korea founded, ending military rule 1946 Japanese rule of Korea ends July 27, 1953 Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the northern border along the Military Demarcation Line
August 15, 1948 First Republic of Korea established, Independence declared from the United States.
 Kuwait November 11, 1962 Constitution of Kuwait February 28, 1991 End of Iraqi occupation (Gulf War) December 18, 1969 Formal division of Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone
 Kyrgyzstan June 10, 2010 Constitution of Kyrgyzstan introduces parliamentary system. August 31, 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union[4] December 5, 1936 Establishment of the Kirghiz SSR
 Laos December 2, 1975 Lao PDR formed October 22, 1953 Independence from France
 Lebanon May 23, 1926 Lebanese Republic formed November 26, 1941 Independence from France declared September 1, 1920 France establishes State of Greater Lebanon with current boundaries
November 22, 1943 Independence from France recognized
 Malaysia September 16, 1963 Formation of Malaysia[5][6] August 31, 1957 Malayan Independence[7] from the United Kingdom was declared in Dataran Merdeka (Independence Square) August 9, 1965 Singapore expelled from the Federation of Malaysia[8][9][10]
September 16, 1963 Malaysia was formed by the federation of North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore with the existing States of the Federation of Malaya.[5][11]
 Maldives November 11, 1968 Declaration of Republic July 26, 1965 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Mongolia February 12, 1992 Constitution of Mongolia declares the country a parliamentary democracy. 1206 Mongol Empire formed
December 29, 1911 Proclamation of Mongolian independence from Manchu's Qing Dynasty
 Myanmar March 30, 2011 The military junta is replaced by an elected government January 4, 1948 Myanmar (Burma) declares independence from the British Empire 1956 Signing of border treaty with the People's Republic of China
   Nepal May 28, 2008 Formation of Republic December 21, 1768 Nepali unification December 2, 1815 Sugauli Treaty ends the Gurkha War
 Oman June 10, 1749 Beginning of the Al Said dynasty, current absolute monarchical line of Oman. January 26, 1650 Expulsion of the Portuguese December 8, 1958 Gwadar sold to Pakistan
1996 Basic Law of Oman
 Pakistan August 14, 1973 Constitution of Pakistan August 14, 1947 Independence from British India in the Partition
 Palestine[Asia 1] May 4, 1994 Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area November 15, 1988 Palestinian Declaration of Independence June 15, 2007 Hamas takeover of the Gaza Strip
 Philippines[Asia 2] November 30, 1935 The Commonwealth of the Philippines was established through provisions of the Tydings–McDuffie Act. June 12, 1898 The evolving revolutionary movement in the Philippines declares itself independent from the Spanish Empire.[12][13][14] 2012[15][16] In 2012, the United Nations approved a 2009 claim by the Philippines to the Benham Rise.[16]
July 4, 1946 The United States recognises independence under the provisions of the Treaty of Manila (1946). The 1935 Constitution remained in effect until 1973, when the Marcos regime promulgated a newer one, in turn replaced by the present 1987 Constitution.
 Qatar September 3, 1971 Independence from the United Kingdom
 Saudi Arabia September 23, 1932 Regions of al-Hasa, Qatif, Nejd and Hejaz unified to become Saudi Arabia 1744 Establishment of the First Saudi State [17] June 12, 2000 Border with Yemen finalized by Treaty of Jeddah (2000)
 Singapore August 9, 1965[8] Singapore ceased to be a state of Malaysia June 3, 1959 Self-government under the United Kingdom August 9, 1965 Establishment of Singapore as an independent sovereign state[10]
August 9, 1965 separate from and independent of Malaysia[8][9]
 Sri Lanka May 22, 1972 Constitution of Sri Lanka February 4, 1948 Independence from United Kingdom February 14, 1815 De jure: The Kandyan Kingdom is annexed by British Ceylon
May 18, 2009 De facto: The Sri Lankan government regains control of the whole island following the end of the Sri Lankan Civil War.
 Syria February 27, 2012 Constitution of Syria[note 8] September 28, 1961 End of the United Arab Republic November 8, 1941 Lebanon declares independence from the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon[note 8]
 Tajikistan September 9, 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union[4] December 5, 1929 Establishment of the Tajik SSR
 Thailand April 6, 2017 Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand 2017 November 6, 1767 Salvage independence by Great king Taksin consist of Expulsion of Burmese and Establish a new kingdom together with reunification of Thailand March 10, 1909 Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
 Timor-Leste May 20, 2002 Constitution of East Timor November 28, 1975 East Timor declares its independence but was suppressed by the Indonesian invasion 1914 The borders of Portuguese Timor are agreed.[18]
May 20, 2002 Independence was recognized by the international community following the UN-sponsored act of self-determination of 1999
 Turkmenistan September 28, 2008 Constitution of Turkmenistan October 27, 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union[4] August 7, 1921 Establishment of the Turkmen SSR
 United Arab Emirates December 2, 1971 End of treaty relationship with the United Kingdom February 11, 1972 Ras al-Khaimah joins the UAE
 Uzbekistan August 31, 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union declared[4] October 24, 1924 Establishment of the Uzbek SSR
 Vietnam December 31, 1959 North Vietnam declared a socialist republic September 2, 1945 withdrawal of the Japanese after WWII July 2, 1976 Reunification of North Vietnam and South Vietnam as Socialist Republic of Vietnam
January 1, 2014 Current Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam
 Yemen May 22, 1990 Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen May 22, 1990 Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen
Table notes
  1. ^ Palestinian National Authority: For some clarification and more detail, see History of the State of Palestine.
  2. ^ Philippines: For some clarification and more detail, see Timeline of Philippine Sovereignty and Sovereignty of the Philippines.

Europe[edit]

Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Albania April 29, 1991  Socialist People's Republic of Albania was replaced by the Republic of Albania. 1190 c. Principality of Arbër was established by archon Progon. 1945 Occupied Kosovo, west Macedonia and border region of Montenegro returned to Yugoslavia
November 28, 1912 Declaration of independence from Ottoman Empire
November 28, 1944 Albanian state re-established after Italian/German occupation
 Andorra April 28, 1993 Current Constitution of Andorra entered force 1813 Reversal of annexation of Andorra by the Napoleonic Empire, through the Peninsular War August 28, 2001 The Andorra–France border is adjusted to allow Andorra to construct the Envalira Tunnel access bridge
 Austria November 12, 1918 Declaration of the Republic of German-Austria May 15, 1955 Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state December 14, 1921 City of Sopron, and 8 other towns moved to Hungary after plebiscite
September 17, 1156 Privilegium Minus: Sovereignty from Duchy of Bavaria as a Duchy of the Holy Roman Empire
August 11, 1804 Proclamation of the Austrian Empire
 Belarus November 28, 1996 Constitutional amendment abolishes the Supreme Soviet and establishes the National Assembly July 27, 1990 Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic 1945 Western border with Poland: modification of the Curzon Line determined at the 1945 Yalta Conference
August 25, 1991 Independence recognized by Soviet Union[4]
 Belgium July 21, 1831 King Leopold I of Belgium swears allegiance to the constitution making the country a constitutional monarchy October 4, 1830 Independence was proclaimed by the provisonial government June 28, 1919 Belgian proper:
Treaty of Versailles and annexation of the East Cantons
July 1, 1962 Belgian colonial empire:
Ruanda-Urundi declares independence and split within two countries: Rwanda and Burundi.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina March 3, 1992 Independence declared from the SFR Yugoslavia[note 9] 1154 Formation of the Banate of Bosnia November 25, 1943 Establishment of SR Bosnia in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
 Bulgaria November 10, 1989 People's Republic of Bulgaria was replaced by the Republic of Bulgaria 632 Formation of Old Great Bulgaria September 7, 1940 Under the First and Second Vienna Awards, Southern Dobruja was returned to Kingdom of Bulgaria
681 First Bulgarian Empire formed
1185 Second Bulgarian Empire formed
July 13, 1878 Autonomy within Ottoman Empire recognized internationally by the Treaty of Berlin
September 22, 1908 Independence from Ottoman Empire
 Croatia October 8, 1991 Independence from SFR Yugoslavia[note 9] 626 Formation of Duchy of Croatia[19][20][21][22][23] February 10, 1947 Annexation of most of Istria to SR Croatia as a result of signing the 1947 Paris Peace Treaties
925 Formation of Kingdom of Croatia by King Tomislav
 Czech Republic January 1, 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Czech Republic and Slovakia 895 Independence from Great Moravia    
 Denmark June 5, 1953 Constitutional Act of Denmark 777 (or prior) Various Danish kings are mentioned throughout the 8th century.
June 15, 1920 Denmark proper:
Sønderjylland was recovered from Germany.[note 10]
 Estonia February 24, 1918 Estonian Declaration of Independence, whereby a republic was declared[Europe 1] February 24, 1918 Independence declared from the Russian Empire July 1, 1920 De jure: Signing of the Estonia–Latvia Border Treaty whereby Valga proper was ceded to Estonia
August 20, 1991 Independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation[note 11] January 1, 1945 De facto: Eastern coast of Narva river and most of Petseri County were transferred to Russian SFSR
 Finland March 29, 1809 Diet of Porvoo, birth of Finland as an autonomous state entity within Russian Empire December 6, 1917 Independence from Russian Empire declared January 26, 1956 Porkkala returned from Soviet control
January 3, 1918 Independence from Russia recognized by the highest Soviet executive body, VTsIK
 France October 4, 1958 Establishment of the current semi-presidential system known as the Fifth Republic 481 then
843
First creation with (Clovis), king of the Franks

Creation of the Kingdom of France (West Francia), Treaty of Verdun

February 10, 1947 Metropolitan France:
Annexation of Tende, La Brigue and other villages formerly in Italy.[note 12][note 13]
July 5, 1962 Overseas France:
Loss of the French departments in Algeria following the latter's independence.
 Germany May 23, 1949 The Basic Law of Germany comes into effect. 843 then

962

Creation of East Francia

East Francia becomes the Holy Roman Empire (with the Kingdom of Germany as a main part of the empire)

October 3, 1990 Reunification of West Germany and East Germany
1815 German Confederation founded
January 18, 1871 German Empire founded
1954 German Democratic Republic (commonly referred to at the time as East Germany) declared fully sovereign
May 5, 1955 Federal Republic of Germany (commonly referred to at the time as West Germany) declared fully sovereign
May 15, 1991 Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany ends the Four Power occupation.
 Greece June 11, 1975 Third Hellenic Republic March 25, 1821 (Traditional)

February 23, 1821 (Actual)

Greek Revolution starts, various regional administrations established during 1821 February 10, 1947 Peace treaty with Italy awards the Dodecanese to Greece
January 1, 1822 First Hellenic Republic proclaimed
February 3, 1830 Independence recognised by the London Protocol as Kingdom of Greece.
 Hungary October 23, 1989 People's Republic of Hungary was replaced by the Republic of Hungary. 895 Principality of Hungary formed February 10, 1947 With the Paris Peace Treaty, Hungary loses all territories that were regained with the First and Second Vienna Awards and during World War II, thus it returns to the 1921 borders (except for three villages in the northwest given to Czechoslovakia).
January 1, 2012 The Basic Law of Hungary comes into effect. 1000 Formation of the Kingdom of Hungary by Stephen I of Hungary.
 Iceland 930 The Icelandic Commonwealth established and first meeting held of the Althingi (Parliament). December 1, 1918 Iceland becomes sovereign and independent from Denmark as the Kingdom of Iceland but retains a personal union with the King of Denmark. September 1, 1972 No territorial changes on land have taken place, however the expansion of the Exclusive Economic Zone was such an important change in territory for Iceland that it merits a special inclusion here.
July 1, 1845 The Althingi resumes meeting after hiatus since 1799. June 17, 1944 Kingdom of Iceland becomes a Republic.
 Ireland January 21, 1919 Elected Irish Parliament Dáil Éireann unilaterally declares Ireland's independence from the United Kingdom 1542 Foundation of the Kingdom of Ireland
December 6, 1922 Irish Free State secedes from United Kingdom by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty but remains a dominion of the British Empire December 8, 1922 De facto: Northern Ireland secedes from the Irish Free State and rejoins the United Kingdom in accordance with the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922
December 11, 1931 Statute of Westminster confers legislative independence from the United Kingdom
December 29, 1937 Constitution of Ireland establishes the roles of Taoiseach and President, and replaces the Irish Free State (or Saorstat Eireann in Irish language) with a new state named Ireland (or Éire in Irish language). April 18, 1949 Republic of Ireland Act 1948 terminates the functions of the British King in Ireland's diplomatic relations; domestic United Kingdom law purports that Ireland was one of the King's dominions until this date; Irish law does not accept this interpretation. December 2, 1999 De jure: Amendment to the Irish constitution removes irredentist claims to Northern Ireland.[note 14]
 Italy January 1, 1948 Constitution of Italy creating the Italian Republic March 17, 1861 Italian unification
August 23, 476 Establishment of the Kingdom of Italy, an independent successor state created after the Fall of the Western Roman Empire
January 2, 888 c. Sovereignty of the Kingdom of Italy, an independent successor state of the dissolved Carolingian Empire
April 25, 1945 Disestablishment of the German-backed Italian Social Republic, whereby the unity and independence of the Italian state was restored January 1, 1948 The Peace treaty with Italy officially determines the boundaries of the Republic of Italy. The Italian Constitution of 1948 implements it at articles 10 and 117.
 Latvia November 7, 1922 Constitution of Latvia enforced[Europe 1] November 18, 1918 Independence declared from Russia 1944 Abrene district ceded to Russian SFSR (modern Russia)
May 4, 1990 Independence (from Soviet Union) reasserted[note 11]
 Liechtenstein March 16, 2003 The 2003 Liechtenstein constitutional referendum increases the Prince's powers and makes the country an absolute monarchy[25] October 19, 1813 Dissolution of the Confederation of the Rhine January 23, 1719 Purchase of Vaduz
 Lithuania March 11, 1990 Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation[note 11][Europe 1] 1253 Coronation of King Mindaugas (state established some time earlier, perhaps in the 1230s) October 27, 1939 and
August 3, 1940
Western part (approximately half) of Vilnius Region ceded to Lithuania
February 16, 1918 Independence declared from Germany and Russia
 Luxembourg November 23, 1890 Separates from union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands, becomes Grand Duchy in its own right 1945 End of German occupation during World War II April 19, 1839 Partition of Luxembourg under the Treaty of London
 Malta December 13, 1974 The State of Malta became a republic September 21, 1964 Independence from United Kingdom August 20, 1801 Gozo rejoined Malta
 Moldova August 27, 1997 Constitution of Moldova (1997) August 27, 1991 Independence from Soviet Union[4] August 2, 1940 De jure: Moldavian SSR formed
September 2, 1990 De facto: Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic declares independence. The government is not recognized by any UN member, but has de facto control over the Transnistria region.
 Monaco December 17, 1962 Amendment to Constitution of Monaco curtails the power of the prince and establishes the modern National Council 1861 Franco-Monegasque Treaty confirms Monaco's sovereignty (formerly a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia) 1848 Secession of Menton and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
 Montenegro October 22, 2007 Constitution of Montenegro 1077 Formation of Kingdom of Duklja/Zeta by King Mihajlo I November 25, 1943 Establishment of SR Montenegro
July 13, 1878 Independence officially confirmed by Ottoman Empire internationally by the Treaty of Berlin other countries recognized earlier.
June 3, 2006 Declaration of independence from Serbia and Montenegro.
 Netherlands August 24, 1815 Adoption of the constitution of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. July 26, 1581 Plakkaat van Verlatinghe signed, independence from Spain March 16, 1839 European Netherlands:
The United Kingdom of the Netherlands divided under the Treaty of London (1839).
December 15, 1954 Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands signed May 5, 1945 Surrender of Nazi forces occupying the Netherlands November 25, 1975 Kingdom of the Netherlands:
Suriname declares independence.
 North Macedonia
(until 2019 Republic of Macedonia)
November 17, 1991 Constitution of North Macedonia September 8, 1991 After a referendum, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia[note 9] August 2, 1944 Establishment of SR Macedonia
 Norway 1814 Constitution of Norway 872 King Harald I of Norway unifies the Petty kingdoms of Norway. February 27, 1930 Jan Mayen was made part of the Kingdom of Norway.
1814 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Denmark.
June 7, 1905 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden.
May 8, 1945 German occupying forces surrender.
 Poland June 4, 1989 The first partially free Parliament's vote after 45-year-long Soviet domination 966 adoption of Christianity by the first historically documented Polish ruler Mieszko I. February 15, 1951 Polish-Soviet border adjustment treaty
1025 formation of the Kingdom of Poland by Mieszko's son Bolesław I Chrobry.
 Portugal April 2, 1976 Constitution of Portugal July 26, 1139 County of Portugal becomes independent from the Kingdom of León after the Battle of Ourique as part of the Reconquista. Recognized by León in 1143 and by the Pope in 1179. June 6, 1801 Continental Portugal:
Spain occupies the present day border town of Olivença since the War of the Oranges.
December 20, 1999 Portuguese Overseas:
De facto: Portuguese Macau transferred to the People's Republic of China
May 20, 2002 Portuguese Overseas:
De jure: Portuguese Timor, occupied by Indonesia since 1975, officially dissolved to form the independent state of East Timor.[note 15]
 Romania December 22, 1989 Romanian Revolution of 1989 January 24, 1859 Autonomous Principality of Romania founded; becomes kingdom in 1866 and achieved independence 1878 Ottoman Empire February 10, 1947 Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina
July 13, 1878 International recognition by the Treaty of Berlin.
 San Marino 1600 Constitution of San Marino September 3, 301 Traditional founding 1463 Added Fiorentino, Montegiardino, Serravalle, and Faetano
1243 Formation of republican government
 Serbia April 27, 1992 Independence from SFR Yugoslavia, forming the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[note 9] 590 then arrival on Balkan before 650 then 768[26] Dervan first ruler of Serbs by name, mentioned in Chronicle_of_Fredegar in 7th century in White Serbia (today Saxony, Bavaria and Czech Republic) Lusatia in coalition with Samo win over frankish king Dagobert I: dux gente Surbiorum que ex genere Sclavinorum

768-Independence of Serbian Principality from the Byzantine Empire.

February 17, 2008 (disputed)[27] The region of Kosovo declared independence unilaterally on 17 February 2008, and is recognized by 108 UN states. Serbia recognizes the government of Kosovo but claims its territory as an Autonomous Province.
June 8, 2006 Republic of Serbia declared legal successor to Serbia and Montenegro, ending the process of the dissolution of Yugoslavia.
 Slovakia January 1, 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia January 1, 1993 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Slovakia and Czech Republic    
 Slovenia December 13, 1991 Constitution of Slovenia June 25, 1991 Declaration of independence from Yugoslavia[note 9] February 19, 1945 Formation of SR Slovenia
 Spain December 6, 1978 Spanish Constitution 1479 Dinastical unification of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon by the Catholic Monarchs. The governments, institutions, and legal traditions of each kingdom remained independent of each other to the present day; alien laws (Leyes de extranjeria) determined that the national of one kingdom was a foreigner in the other Crowns/States.[28] February 26, 1976 Spanish Sahara is lost following the Madrid Accords.
1707~1716 De jure by the Nueva Planta decrees
1831 Dissolution of crowns and kingdoms and creation de jure, of the unified Kingdom of Spain.
 Sweden January 1, 1974 Instrument of Government 970 (Or prior) Eric the Victorious, the first king of Sweden about whom anything definite is known, becomes king. March 29, 1809 Loss of Finland to Imperial Russia.
June 6, 1523 Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden and marking a definite secession from the Kalmar Union.
  Switzerland November 12, 1848 Foundation of the federal state after Sonderbund war 1291 Traditional founding 1815 The cantons of Valais, Neuchâtel and Geneva join the Swiss Confederation.
August 7, 1815 Restoration of the Ancien Régime (federalism), reverting the changes imposed by Napoleon Bonaparte.
 Ukraine August 24, 1991 Independence from Soviet Union 882 Formation of the Kievan Rus' March 18, 2014 Annexation of Crimea by Russia
January 22, 1918 Independence of Ukrainian People's Republic from Russian Republic declared.
August 24, 1991 Independence of former Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic from Soviet Union declared.[4]
 United Kingdom January 1, 1801 The Acts of Union united the two kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland[29][30][31] 519 then
927
Kingdom of Wessex
Kingdom of England

United with Scotland in 1707

December 6, 1922
then December 8, 1922
Irish Free State secedes from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922, and Northern Ireland opts to exclude itself from the Free State two days later.[note 12]
843 Kingdom of Scotland

United with England in 1707

(Devolved Parliament since 1999)

May 1, 1707 Kingdom of Great Britain July 1, 1997 British Overseas Territories:
Hong Kong was transferred to the People's Republic of China in 1997.
1171 then
1542
Lordship of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
1216 Principality of Wales

United with or annexed to England in 1542

(Devolved Assembly since 1999)

  Vatican City 1274 Birth of current form of government the Papal conclave in 1274 June 7, 1929 Ratification of the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican City a sovereign State February 11, 1929 Signing of the Lateran Treaty
Table notes
  1. ^ a b c The date of formation of the current Baltic states is subject to an international dispute. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania all maintain that they were illegally occupied by the Soviet Union, and that the current states are direct continuations of the pre-WWII states, which continued to exist through governments-in-exile. Russia maintains that the current Baltic States are legally distinct entities newly created after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. All three states were admitted the UN as independent nations, not successor states of the USSR. For more information, see State continuity of the Baltic states.

Oceania[edit]

Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Australia January 1, 1901 Commonwealth of Australia established as federation. January 1, 1901 Independence from United Kingdom. September 16, 1975 Papua New Guinea becomes formally independent of Australia
December 11, 1931 Statute of Westminster
March 3, 1986 Australia Act 1986
 Fiji     October 10, 1970 Independence from United Kingdom    
 Kiribati     July 12, 1979 Independence from United Kingdom October 1, 1975 Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu)
 Marshall Islands May 1, 1979 Constitution and local government established October 21, 1986 Compact of Free Association with the United States    
 Federated States of Micronesia May 10, 1979 Constitution ratified November 3, 1986 Compact of Free Association with the United States May 10, 1979 Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae unite to form the Federated States of Micronesia
 Nauru     January 31, 1968 Independence from UN Trusteeship (Australian, British and New Zealand administration ends)    
 New Zealand February 6, 1840 Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and the indigenous Māori tribes cedes kawanatanga of New Zealand to Queen Victoria. January 17, 1853 Self-Government June 1, 1962 Samoa becomes fully independent from New Zealand. It is also the first small-island country in the Pacific to become independent.
April 18, 1856 Responsible Government
September 26, 1907 Granted nominal independence (Dominion status).
October 25, 1926 Balfour Declaration of 1926 — Great Britain and the Dominions are “autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs”
July 27, 1938 Governor-General ceases to represent the British Government and becomes the personal representative of the King.
November 25, 1947 Statute of Westminster adopted — Britain loses the power to legislate for New Zealand except by request
December 10, 1947 Full power to amend own constitution
December 1, 1967 Governor-General becomes a New Zealand appointment
 Palau January 1, 1981 Republic of Palau created upon adoption of constitution October 1, 1994 Emerged from United Nations trusteeship (administered by the United States).    
 Papua New Guinea     December 1, 1973 Self-governing territory    
September 16, 1975 Independence from Australia
 Samoa     June 1, 1962 Independence from New Zealand    
 Solomon Islands     January 2, 1976 Self-government granted by United Kingdom    
July 7, 1978 Independence from United Kingdom
 Tonga     July 4, 1970 Independence from United Kingdom December 4, 1845 Unification of what is now the islands of Tonga by George Tupou I of Tonga
 Tuvalu October 1, 1975 Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu) October 1, 1978 Independence from United Kingdom February 7, 1979 Treaty with United States recognizing Tuvaluan control over Funafuti, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, and Niulakita atolls
 Vanuatu     July 30, 1980 Independence from joint British-French condominium[32]    

Transcontinental states[edit]

Country Date of current form of government Birth of current form of government Date of acquisition of sovereignty Acquisition of sovereignty Date of territorial modification Most recent significant territorial modification
 Armenia September 21, 1991 2015 Armenian constitutional referendum creates a parliamentary republic 321 BC Establishment of the Kingdom of Armenia.[4] December 5, 1936 Establishment of the Armenian SSR
September 21, 1991 Independence recognized by the Soviet Union
 Azerbaijan October 18, 1991 Declaration of independence from the Soviet Union May 28, 1918 Establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.[4] April 28, 1920 Establishment of the Azerbaijan SSR
 Colombia August 4, 1886 Creation of the Republic of Colombia July 20, 1810 Independence declared from Spain November 3, 1903 Separation of Panama from Colombia
August 7, 1819 Independence recognized by Spain
1830 Dissolution of Gran Colombia
 Cyprus August 16, 1960 Constitution of Cyprus establishes consocial government. Consociationalism de facto suspended in 1963.[33][34][35] August 16, 1960 Independence from United Kingdom July 23, 1974 Establishment of the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus
November 15, 1983 (disputed) Northern Cyprus declares independence. The government has de facto control of the northern part of the island, but is only recognised by Turkey
 Egypt July 23, 1952 Egyptian Revolution of 1952 February 28, 1922 Unilateral recognition of independence by the United Kingdom but continued British military occupation April 25, 1982 Withdrawal of last Israeli troops and settlers from Sinai as agreed upon in the peace treaty with Israel
January 18, 2014 New Egyptian constitution enters force following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état June 18, 1956 Withdrawal of last British troops from the Suez Canal Zone
September 28, 1961 De facto disestablishment of the United Arab Republic following a military coup in Damascus
 Georgia April 9, 1991 Independence from the Soviet Union declared 1008 Establishment of the Kingdom of Georgia July 23, 1992 Abkhazia unilaterally declared independence
May 26, 1918 Establishment of Democratic Republic of Georgia[4] November 28, 1991 South Ossetia unilaterally declared independence
 Indonesia August 18, 1945 Ratification of the Constitution of Indonesia by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence August 17, 1945 Indonesian Declaration of Independence from Netherlands May 20, 2002 Independence of East Timor, formerly administered as a province of Indonesia
December 27, 1949 Independence from the Netherlands recognized
 Kazakhstan August 30, 1995 Constitution of Kazakhstan December 16, 1991 Independence declared from the Soviet Union[4] December 5, 1936 Establishment of the Kazakh SSR
March 30, 1993 (disputed) Baikonur Cosmodrome and surrounding areas leased to Russia.[note 16]
 Panama     November 3, 1903 Separation of Panama from Colombia, independence from Spain October 1, 1979 Panama Canal Zone
 Russia December 25, 1993 1993 Russian constitutional referendum replaces the Supreme Soviet with the Federal Assembly and increases presidential power. 882 Formation of the Kievan Rus' March 18, 2014 (disputed) Annexation of Crimea by Russia
June 12, 1990 Russian SFSR declares sovereignty over its own territory[4]
 Turkey October 29, 1923 Turkey transitions into a republic from empire. 1299 The foundation of the Turkish State of the Ottoman Empire. June 29, 1939 Turkey annexes the once Syrian province of Hatay.

Sortable list[edit]

In this list, "date of last subordination" refers to the last date of control by an external government. The list shows large groupings associated with the dates of independence from decolonization (e.g. 41 current states gained control of sovereignty from United Kingdom and France between 1956 and 1966) or dissolution of a political union (e.g. 18 current states gained control of sovereignty from Soviet Union and Yugoslavia between 1990 and 1992). In other cases, a sovereign state submitted to foreign military occupation or political subjugation for a period of time and later regained its independence (e.g. 6 current states gained control of sovereignty from Nazi Germany between 1944 and 1945).

Dates refer to de facto rule or occupation of the major territory, whether or not legitimized by international recognition.

In a union such as Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, or the Kalmar Union, one of the constituents can be considered the dominant power – generally where the seat of government was located. The United Kingdom is a particularly complicated case. If England is viewed as the dominant member, then history can be traced from Roman conquest, Saxon invasions, 10th century unification, and the 1066 Norman Conquest before the union of England and Scotland in 1707. However, if viewed from a Scottish perspective, an unbroken history of sovereignty can be traced from unification in 843 through the 1707 union with England (with a brief annexation by England from 1657 to 1660). Some Scots view the 1707 union as a ceding of sovereignty to England.[37]

Country Continent First acquisition
of sovereignty
Date of last
subordination
Previous governing power Historical Notes
 Afghanistan Asia 256 BC 1796 Afsharid Empire 2004–Present: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

2002–2004: Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan
1992–2002: Islamic State of Afghanistan
1978–1992: Democratic Republic of Afghanistan
1973–1978: Republic of Afghanistan
1926–1973: Kingdom of Afghanistan
1823–1926: Emirate of Afghanistan
1796–1823: Durrani Empire (also called Sadozai Kingdom)
1738–1796: Part of the Afsharid Empire
1709—1738: Hotak Emirate
1506–1709: Part of the Khanate of Bukhara
1405–1506: Center of the Timurid Emirate
1369–1405: Part of the Timurid Emirate
1231–1369: Part of the Mongol Empire
1163–1231: Part of the Khwarazmian Kingdom
1003–1163: Ghaznavid Sultanate
873–1003: Saffarid Emirate
821–873: Part of Tahirid Emirate
750–821: Part of Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of Umayyad Caliphate
500–661: Part of Sasanian Empire
320–500 AD: Kidarite Kingdom
30–320 AD: Kushan Empire
150 BC—30 AD: Part of Indo-Parthian Kingdom and the Indo-Scythians
256–150 BC: Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
549—256 BC: Part of Empire of Alexander the Great
549–330 BC: Part of Achaemenid Empire
678–549 BC: Part of Median Kingdom/Empire
Since 48,000 BC humans have been known to be living in the region, starting as Part of Indus Valley Civilisation and Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex

 Albania Europe Nov 28, 1912 Nov 1944[38] Germany 1992–present: Republic of Albania

1944–92: People's Socialist Republic of Albania
1928–44: Albanian Kingdom (de facto protectorate of Italy 1928-1939; occupied by Italy 1939-43; occupied by Germany 1943-44)
1925–1928: Albanian Republic (de facto protectorate of Italy)
1914–1925: Principality of Albania (via Albanian Declaration of Independence)
1912–1914: Provisional Government of Albania
1479–1912: Part of  Ottoman Empire as Sanjak of Scutari
1444–1479: League of Lezhë (military alliance of Albanian feudal lords)
1190–1444: Various Albanian principalities (including the Principality of Albania)
1255-1368: Kingdom of Albania, Dependency of the Angevin Kingdom of Sicily/Naples
1190-1255: Principality of Arbanon, oldest of the Albanian principalities, also autonomous principality of the  Byzantine Empire and later of the Despotate of Epirus
324-1190: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as the province of Macedonia
148 BC-324 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire as the province of Macedonia
Since 40,000 BC humans have been settled in the Kryegjata Valley, near the antique site of Apollonia,[39] including Illyria.

 Algeria Africa 202 BC July 3, 1962[40]  France 1962–present: Algeria People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (via Évian Accords)

1830–1962: Part of the French Empire (as the integral territory)
1556–1830: part of the  Ottoman Empire (as the Regency of Algiers)
1235–1554: Kingdom of Tlemcen
1121–1269: Part of the Almohad Caliphate
1014–1152: Hammadid Sultanate
1014–1148: Part of the Zirid Emirate
973–1014: Center of the Zirid Emirate
909–973: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate
800–909: Part of the Aghlabid Emirate
778–909: Rustamid Imamate
750–778: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
590–698: Part of the Exarchate of Africa
484–703: Kingdom of the Aurès
439–534: Part of the Vandal Kingdom
435–439: Center of the Vandal Kingdom
395-435: Part of the Western Roman Empire as province
40 BC–395 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire as province
202 BC – 40 BC: Kingdom of Numidia
814–202 BC: Part of the Carthaginian Empire
2500–539 BC: Part of Phoenicia
10,000–2500 BC: Inhabited by Caspians
20,000–10,000 BC: Inhabited by Iberomaurusians
80,000-20,000 BC: Inhabited by Aterians
Since 1.8 Million BC, humans have been seattled in Algeria as demonstrated by the discovery of Oldowan stone tools found at Ain Hanech in 1992.[41]

 Andorra Europe Sep 7, 1278[42][43] Nov 1944[44] France 1278–present: Principality of Andorra (via Paréage of Andorra; occupied by France 1812–13, 1870, 1914, 1936, 1939, 1944)
 Angola Africa Nov 11, 1975[45] Nov 11, 1975  Portugal 1992–present: Republic of Angola
1975–1992: People's Republic of Angola (via the Alvor Agreement)
1972-1975: State of Angola (part of the Portuguese Empire)
1951-1972: Overseas Province of Angola (part of the Portuguese Empire)
1575–1951: State of West Africa (part of the Portuguese Empire)
The territory of Angola has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era, hosting a wide variety of ethnic groups, tribes and kingdoms (like the kingdoms of Kongo, Ndongo and Matamba).
 Antigua and Barbuda The Americas Nov 1, 1981[46] Nov 1, 1981  United Kingdom 1981–present:  Antigua and Barbuda

1632–1981: Part of the  British Empire as its West Indies (interrupted by  France in 1666)
Since 3100 BC, humans have been settled starting with the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

 Argentina The Americas May 25, 1810 July 9, 1816[47] Spain 1861–present: Argentina Argentine Republic (a Federal state)

1831–1861:  Argentine Confederation
1810–1831: United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (via the 1810 May Revolution; on 9 July 1816, the Congress of Tucumán issued the formal Declaration of Independence)
1776–1810: Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1542–1776: Viceroyalty of Peru (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1528–1542: Governorate of New Andalusia, part of the Spanish Empire
11,000 BC-1528 AD: Inhabited by Native Argentines, including the Inca Empire, Chonan peoples and Guaycuru peoples.

 Armenia Transcontinental - Asia/Europe 2492 BC[citation needed] Sep 23, 1991[48] Soviet Union 1991–present: Armenia Republic of Armenia

1920–1991:  Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, federated state of the  Soviet Union
1918–1920: Armenia First Republic of Armenia
April–May 1918: Part of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic
November 1917-April 1918: Part of the Russian Empire Transcaucasian Commissariat
1829–1917: Part of the  Russian Empire as Caucasus Viceroyalty
1502-1829: Part of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire
1468-1502: Part of the Timurid Empire
1374-1468: Part o the Kara Koyunlu
1335-1374: Part of the Jalairid Sultanate
1236-1335: Part of the Mongol Empire as its territory
1201-1360: Zakarid Principality of Armenia
1071-1194: Part of the Seljuk Empire
987-1170: Kingdom of Syunik
883-1045:Bragatid Kingdom of Armenia
654-884: Arminiya, Province (largely autonomous vassal principalities) of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates
428-654: Divided between the  Byzantine Empire on the west, and the east by the  Sasanian Empire .
321 BC–AD 428: Kingdom of Armenia
549 BC–331 BC: Part of Achaemenid Empire
860 BC–590 BC: Kingdom of Ararat
1114 BC–860 BC: Nairi Confederation
1300 BC–1190 BC: Kingdom of Arme-Shupria
1500 BC–1290 BC: Hayasa-Azzi Confederation
2492 BC: Traditional foundation
Since 6000 BC humans have been settled starting with the Shulaveri-Shomu and Kura–Araxes eras.

 Australia Australia Jan 1, 1901 Oct 9, 1942 United Kingdom 1901–present: Australia Commonwealth of Australia, a Federal state (via Constitution of Australia[49])

1788–1901: Part of the  British Empire
Possibly 70,000 BC-1788 AD: Inhabited by Indigenous Australians

 Austria Europe 1806 May 15, 1955[50] World War II Allies (Allied-occupied Austria) 1955–present: Republic of Austria, a Federal state (via Austrian State Treaty)
1945–55: Allied-occupied Austria
1938–45: Annexed by Nazi Germany
1934–38: Federal State of Austria (client state of Italy)
1919–34: First Republic of Austria (via Treaty of Saint Germain)
1918–19: Republic of German-Austria (via Proclamation of Charles I)
1867–1918: Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, a dual monarchy with Hungary (via Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867)
1866: Austrian Empire
1815–1866: Austrian Empire (In union with other 38 states in the German Confederation)
1806–1815: Austrian Empire
1804–1806: Austrian Empire (State of the Holy Roman Empire)
1457–1804: Archduchy of Austria (State of the Holy Roman Empire)
1156–1457: Duchy of Austria (state of the Holy Roman Empire)
 Azerbaijan Transcontinental - Asia/Europe May 28, 1918 Aug 30, 1991 Soviet Union 1995–present: Republic of Azerbaijan (independence from Soviet Union declared 1991; constitution adopted 1995)

1920-1995: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, federated state of the  Soviet Union

1918-1920: Azerbaijan Democratic Republic
1824-1918: Part of Russian Empire
1796–1824: Part of Qajar Empire
1747–1796: Part of Afsharid Empire
(1760–1794): Part of Zand Empire
1736–1747: Part of Afsharid Empire
(1722–1729): Part of Hotaki Emirate
1501–1736: Part of Safavid Empire
1468–1508: Part of Agh Qoyunlu
1405–1507: Part of Timurid Empire
1406–1468: Part of Qara Qoyunlu
1370–1405: Part of Timurid Empire
1337–1376: Part of Sarbadars
1336–1432: Part of Jalayirid Sultanate
1335–1393: Part of Muzaffarid Dynasty
1335–1357: Part of Chobanid Dynasty
1256–1335: Part of Ilkhanate
1077–1231: Part of Khwarazmian Kingdom
1037–1194: Part of Great Seljuq Empire
963–1186: Part of Ghaznavid Sultanate
875–999: Part of Samanid Emirate
936–1055: Part of Buyid Empire
934–936: Part of Buyid Emirate
867–1002: Part of Saffarid Emirate
928–1043: Part of Ziyarid Kingdom
750–1258: Part of Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of Umayyad Caliphate
(642–759/760): Part of Dabuyid dynasty
224–651: Part of Sassanid Empire
247 BC – 224 AD: Part of Parthian Empire
312–63 BC: Part of Seleucid Empire
550–330 BC: Part of Achaemenid Empire
(652–625 BC): Part of Scythian Kingdom
678–550 BC: Part of Median Empire
850–616 BC: Inhabited by Mannaeans
2700–539 BC: Inhabited by Elamites
3200–2700 BC: Inhabited by Proto-Elamites

 Bahamas The Americas July 10, 1973[51] July 10, 1973  United Kingdom 1973–present: Commonwealth of the Bahamas (Self-government gained from the United Kingdom in 1964; independence gained on 10 July 1973)
1718-1973: Part of the British Empire as its West Indies
1492-1718: Part of the Spanish Empire
500 to 800-1492: Inhabited by the Lucayans (a Taino people)
 Bahrain Asia Dec 16, 1971 Dec 16, 1971  United Kingdom 1971–present: Kingdom of Bahrain

1861–1971: Protectorate of the British Empire by way of the Perpetual Truce of Peace and Friendship
1783–1861: In union with other states in the Bani Utbah Confederation
1717–1783: Ruled by Oman after a successful invasion
1602–1717: Part of Persia under the Safavid dynasty
1521–1602: Part of the Portuguese Empire
Mid-1400s–1521: Ruled by the Jabrid dynasty
1253-mid–1400s: Ruled by the Usfurid dynasty
1076–1235: Ruled by the Uyunid Emirate
976–1076: Ruled as part of the Abbasid Caliphate
899–976: Ruled by the Qarmatian Republic
3rd century AD–899: Ruled by the Sassanids of Persia
130 BC–3rd century BC: Ruled by the Parthians
6th century BC–3rd century BC: Part of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenids
4th millennium BC–6th century BC: Dilmun civilization

 Bangladesh Asia 590 Dec 16, 1971  Pakistan 1972–present: Bangladesh People's Republic of Bangladesh

1971–1972: Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh
1955–1971: East Pakistan (Part of Pakistan)
1947–1955: East Bengal (Part of Pakistan)
1858–1947: Part of the  British Empire as Bengal Presidency, part of British India
1757–1858: Part of the  British Empire as Bengal Presidency, part of the Company Raj
1717–1880: Ruled by the Nawabs, nominally subordinate to the Mughal Empire until 1757, and to the British Empire after 1757 (Lost ruling power after the Battle of Plassey in 1757)
1576–1757: Part of the Mughal Empire as Bengal Subah
1352–1576: Bengal Sultanate
1235–1352: Part of the Delhi Sultanate
1204-1297: Deva dynasty
c.1070-1204: Sena Kingdom
c.750–c.1070: Pala Empire
c.650–c.750: Bengal was divided between various kingdoms, like Vanga and Samatata (Both ruled by the Khadga dynasty)
590–626: Gauda Kingdom
350–655: Part of Kamarupa under the Varman dynasty
358-590: Part of the Gupta Empire
26 BC-358 AD: Bengal was divided between various kingdoms.
73 BC-26 BC: Part of the Kanva Kingdom
185 BC–73 BC: Part of the Shunga Empire
232 BC–800 AD: Part of Samatata
319-185 BC: Part of the Maurya Empire
340-319 BC: Part of the Kingdom of Magadha
600-340 BC: Ancient Bengal was divided between various kingdoms.
700-200 BC: Inhabited by the Pundravardhana culture
Since 100,000 BC humans have been settled on Bangladesh, although the prehistoric evidences are weak.[52]

 Barbados The Americas Nov 30, 1966 Nov 30, 1966  United Kingdom 1966–present: Barbados

1625-1966: Part of the British Empire as its West Indies
Claimed by Spain and Portugal in the 16th century.
c.1200-c.1500 AD: Inhabited by the Kalinago
c.800–c.1200 AD: Inhabited by the Saladoids
Archeological evidence suggests humans may have first settled or visited the island circa 1600 BC.

 Belarus Europe 987 Aug 25, 1991 Soviet Union 1990–present: Republic of Belarus

1943–1990: Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, a federated state of the Soviet Union (USSR)
1941–1943: Occupation by Nazi Germany
1922–1941: Byelorussian SSR, a federated state of the Soviet Union (USSR)
1920–1922: Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
1919–1919: Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
1918-1919: Belarusian People's Republic
1917-1918: Part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
1795–1917: Part of the Russian Empire
1569–1795: Part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1397-1569: Part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania
1307–1397: Principality of Polotsk, part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania
987-1307: Principality of Polotsk (independent principality)

 Belgium Europe Oct 4, 1830 1945 Germany 1830–present: Kingdom of Belgium (a Federal state)
1813–1830: Part of the Netherlands
1795–1813: Ruled by France
1713–1795: Austrian Netherlands (collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held by the Habsburg Monarchy)
1581–1714: Spanish Netherlands (collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown)
 Belize The Americas Sep 21, 1981[53] Sep 21, 1981  United Kingdom 1981–present: Belize

1716–1973: Part of the British Empire

 Benin Africa 1600 (approx.) Aug 1, 1960  France 1990–present: Republic of Benin
1975–1990: People's Republic of Benin

1958–1975: Republic of Dahomey (French self-governing colony)
1904–1958: French Dahomey (as part of French West Africa)
1894–1904: Kingdom of Dahomey (French Protectorate)
c.1600-1894: Kingdom of Dahomey (African kingdom)

 Bhutan Asia 1634 1634 (none) Autonomous since at least the 10th century.[54] Unified 1634, after the Battle of Five Lamas. Early history is sketchy, but may have been part of Kamarupa kingdom, and may have been occupied by Tibetan-Mongol forces ca. 10th century.[55]
 Bolivia The Americas Aug 6, 1825 Aug 6, 1825 Spain 2009–present: Plurinational State of Bolivia

1839-2009: Republic of Bolivia
1836-1839: In union with North Peru and South Peru in the Peru–Bolivian Confederation
1825-1839: Republic of Bolivia
1821-1825: Center of the Viceroyalty of Peru (viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire)
1810-1821: Part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire)
1776-1810: Part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire)
1542-1776: Part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (viceroyalty of the Spanish Empire)
1528-1542: Governorate of New Toledo(governorate of the Crown of Castille)
1471–1542: Part of the Inca Empire
1000-1500: Mollo culture
550-c.1000: Tiwanaku state
The region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years when the Native Bolivians, including Aymara, arrived.

 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 1377 Mar 3, 1992 Yugoslavia 1997–present: Bosnia and Herzegovina (a Federal state)

1992–1997: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
1945–1992: Federated state of Yugoslavia
1941-1945 Part of Independent State of Croatia (Nazi Germany invasion)
1918–1941: Part of Kingdom of Yugoslavia
1878–1918: Part of Austria-Hungary Empire
1463–1878: Part of Ottoman Empire
1377–1463: Kingdom of Bosnia
1154-1377: Banate of Bosnia (subject to Kingdom of Hungary)

 Botswana Africa Sep 30, 1966[56] Sep 30, 1966  United Kingdom 1966–present : Republic of Botswana

1885-1966: Part of the British Empire as Bechuanaland Protectorate
600 AD: Bantu-speaking peoples first moved into the country from the north
The territory of Botswana has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era. The original inhabitants of southern Africa were the San and Khoi peoples.

 Brazil The Americas Sep 7, 1822[57] Sep 7, 1822 United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves 1985—Present: Brazil Federative Republic of Brazil (Sixth Brazilian Republic) (a Federal state)

1964—1985: Brazil Brazilian Military Dictatorship (Fifth Brazilian Republic)
1946—1964: Brazil United States of Brazil (Fourth Brazilian Republic)
1930—1946: Brazil Brazilian Vargas Era (Second and Third Brazilian Republics)
1889—1930: Brazil Republic of the United States of Brazil (First Brazilian Republic)
1822—1889:  Empire of Brazil
1815—1822: Kingdom of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves (Portuguese Empire)
1772-1775: State of Maranhão and Piauí, part of the Portuguese Empire
1772-1775: State of Grão-Pará and Rio Negro, part of the Portuguese Empire
1751-1772: State of Grão-Pará and Maranhão, part of the Portuguese Empire
1621-1751: State of Maranhão, part of the Portuguese Empire
1621-1815: State of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire
1613-1621: Governorate General of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire
1607-1613: Divided in Governorate General of Bahia and Governorate General of Rio de Janeiro, part of the Portuguese Empire
1578-1607: Governorate General of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire
1572-1578: Divided in Governorate General of Bahia and Governorate General of Rio de Janeiro, part of the Portuguese Empire
1549-1572: Governorate General of Brazil, part of the Portuguese Empire
1534-1549: Captaincy Colonies of Brazil, private and autonomous colonies of the Portuguese Empire
9000 BC—1500 AD: Inhabited by Native Brazilians, including Tupi people, Gê peoples, Kalina people and Arawaks.

 Brunei Asia 1368 Jan 1, 1984  United Kingdom 1984–present: Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace

1945-1984: Part of the British Empire
1942-1945: Occupied by Japan
1888-1942: Part of the British Empire
1368-1888: Sultanate of Brunei
1294-1368: Part of the Majapahit Kingdom
1276-1294: Part of the Kingdom of Singhasari
c.1000 AD-1276 AD: Part of the Kingdom of Srivijaya

 Bulgaria Europe 681[58] Oct 5, 1908 Ottoman Empire 1990–present: Bulgaria Republic of Bulgaria

1946-1990: Bulgaria People's Republic of Bulgaria
1908-1946: Kingdom of Bulgaria Tsardom of Bulgaria (reunified with Eastern Rumelia where was a part of the  Ottoman Empire)
1878-1908: Bulgaria Principality of Bulgaria
1396-1878: Part of the  Ottoman Empire
1185-1396: Second Bulgarian Empire
1018-1185: Part of the  Byzantine Empire
681-1018: First Bulgarian Empire
632-668: Old Great Bulgaria
324-681: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as the province of Thracia
46-324 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire as the province of Thracia
480 BC–46 AD: Odrysian kingdom
Since c.1.4 million BC humans have been settled starting with Lower Paleolithic.[59]

 Burkina Faso Africa Aug 5, 1960[60] Aug 5, 1960  France 1984–present: Burkina Faso

1960-1984:Republic of Upper Volta (independent)
1958-1960: Republic of Upper Volta, self-governing colony within the French Empire
1896-1958: Part of the French West Africa, federation of colonies of the French Empire
11th century–1896: Burkina Faso is divided in several Mossi Kingdoms

 Burundi Africa 1680 (approx.) July 1, 1962  Belgium 1966–present: Republic of Burundi

1962-1966: Kingdom of Burundi (independent)
1890-1962: Kingdom of Burundi, part of Ruanda-Urundi (Part of the Belgian Empire)
1890-1919: Kingdom of Burundi, part of German East Africa (Part of the German Empire)
c.1680-1890: Kingdom of Burundi

 Cambodia Asia 50 / 68 Nov 9, 1953[61]  France 1993–present: Kingdom of Cambodia

1992-1993: United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia
1989-1992: State of Cambodia
1979-1989: People's Republic of Kampuchea
1975-1979: Democratic Kampuchea
1970-1975: Khmer Republic
1954-1970: Kingdom of Cambodia
1945-1953:French protectorate of Cambodia
1945: Japanese occupation of Cambodia
1863-1945: French protectorate of Cambodia, a French protectorate within French Indochina — a collection of Southeast Asian protectorates within the French Empire.
1431-1863: Kingdom of Cambodia
802-1431: Khmer Empire founded 802 according to Sdok Kok Thom Inscription
706/717-802: Separation in Land Chenla and Water Chenla
550-c.706/717: Kingdom of Chenla
c.50/68 AD–550 AD: Kingdom of Funan

 Cameroon Africa Jan 1, 1960 Oct 1, 1961  United Kingdom Republic of Cameroon

French Cameroons gained independence in 1960; added British Southern Cameroons in 1961.
1922–1961: British Cameroon, part of the British Empire
1918-1960: French Cameroon, part of the French Empire
1884–1916: German Cameroon, part of the German Empire
The territory of Cameroon has been inhabited since the Neolithic Era, hosting a wide variety of ethnic groups, tribes, fondoms and kingdoms (such as the kingdoms of Kotoko, Mandara and Bamum).

 Canada The Americas July 1, 1867 Dec 11, 1931 United Kingdom Since 8000 BC humans has been settled from Native Canadians with tribes, chiefdoms and confederations until 1607 AD when the British Empire took over of the eastern coast creating British America for more than 200 years. Later, the Canadian colony was renamed as the Province of Quebec after Seven Years' War that was conquered French Canada,[62] and then in 1791 Canada was spited between two provinces: The Upper Canada and Lower Canada, and in 1841 the provinces merged to make the United Province of Canada. By the 1st of July 1867,  Canada has been established as federation with a Dominion status, and Statute of Westminster in 1931.[63]
 Cape Verde Africa July 5, 1975 July 5, 1975[64]  Portugal Republic of Cabo Verde

1460-1975: Part of the Portuguese Empire

 Central African Republic Africa Aug 13, 1960 Aug 13, 1960  France Central African Republic

1903-1960: Ubangi-Shari, part of the French Equatorial Africa, federation of colonial possessions of the French Empire
The territory of Central African Republic has been inhabited since the Neolithic Era, hosting a wide variety of ethnic groups

 Chad Africa Aug 11, 1960 Aug 11, 1960  France 1960–present: Republic of Chad

1900–1960: French Chad, part of the French Equatorial Africa, federation of colonial possessions of the French Empire
1501–1912: Wadai Sultanate
1480/1522–1897: Sultanate of Bagirmi
c. 700–1900: Kanem–Bornu Empire
The territory of Chad has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era.

 Chile The Americas Sep 18, 1810 Feb 12, 1818 Spain 1990–Present: Chile Republic of Chile (Democracy Restored)

1973-1990: Chile Chilean Military Dictatorship
1925-1973: Chile Chilean Presidential Republic
1891-1925: Chile Parliamentary Chile
1861-1891: Chile Liberal Chile
1830-1861: Chile Conservative Chile
1818-1830: Chile Republic of Chile
1814-1823: Chile Patria Nueva
1810-1814: Chile Patria Vieja
1798-1818: Captaincy General of Chile, with self-administration without vice-royal dependence, part of the Spanish Empire
1533–1798: Captaincy General of Chile, under supervision of the Viceroyalty of Peru, part of the Spanish Empire
1438–1533: Part of the Inca Empire
Between 18,500 and 14,000 BC—1541 AD: Inhabited by Chilean Natives, including Aymara, Mapuche, and Rapa Nui

 China, People's Republic of
 China, Republic of
Asia 2070 BC Oct 1, 1949
Oct 25, 1945
 China
 Japan (only ruled Taiwan)

1949–present:  People's Republic of China
1916–present: Republic of China (Taiwan)
1915-1916: Empire of China
1912-1915: Republic of China
1895–1945: Japanese Taiwan
1895: Flag of Formosa 1895.svg Republic of Formosa
1644–1912:  Qing dynasty
1624–1662: Dutch Formosa / Spanish Formosa
1368–1644: Ming dynasty
1271–1368: Yuan dynasty
960–1279: Song dynasty
907–1125: Divided in Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms / Liao dynasty
618–907: Tang dynasty
581–618: Sui dynasty
420–589: Divided in Northern and Southern dynasties
265–420: Jin dynasty
220–280: Divided in Three Kingdoms
206 BC–220 AD: Han dynasty
221–206 BC: Qin dynasty (first imperial dynasty)
c. 1046–256 BC: Zhou dynasty
c. 1600–c. 1046 BC: Shang dynasty
c. 2070–c. 1600 BC: Xia dynasty (first royal dynasty)
c. 8500–c. 2070 BC: Neolithic
Since as earliest as 2 Million BC, humans have been settled starting with the Renzidong

Note: Although the Mongol's Yuan dynasty and the Manchu's Qing dynasty were considered foreign by many Han Chinese in their times, current Chinese official position considers these two dynasties as Chinese, as they were established by Chinese ethnic minorities and had their capitals in present-day Beijing. The PRC government considers itself the successor of the Republic of China (1912–49) which legally inherited the whole China from the Qing Empire.

 Colombia The Americas July 20, 1810 Aug 7, 1819 Spain 1886–present: Colombia Republic of Colombia

1863–1886: United States of Colombia
1858–1863: Granadine Confederation
1831–1858: Republic of New Granada
1819–1831: Gran Colombia
1810–1816: United Provinces of New Granada
1717–1819: Part of  Spanish Empire as the Viceroyalty of New Granada
1538–1717: Part of  Spanish Empire as the New Kingdom of Granada
Since 10,000 BC humans has been settled from Native Colombians with tribes, chiefdoms and confederations (like the Muisca Confederation).

 Comoros Africa July 6, 1975 July 6, 1975  France 2001–present:Union of the Comores (a Federal state)

1975-2001: Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros
1886-1975: part of the French Empire
c.1000 BC: when the archipelago was first inhabited. The Comoros have been inhabited by various groups throughout this time.

 Congo, Democratic Republic of the Africa 1885 June 30, 1960  Belgium

1997–present:  Democratic Republic of the Congo
1971-1997: Zaire Republic of Zaire
1964-1971: Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa)
1960-1964: Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville)
1908-1960: Part of the Belgian Empire as  Belgian Congo
1885-1908: Part of the Belgian Empire as the  Congo Free State (as sovereign entity, a private domain of King Leopold II of Belgium)
1390-1914: Part of the Kingdom of Kongo
Since 80,000 BC humans has been settled from with tribes, chiefdoms and confederations.

 Congo, Republic of the Africa Aug 15, 1960 Aug 15, 1960  France

1992–present:  Republic of the Congo
1969-1992:  People's Republic of the Congo
1960-1969: Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville)
1910-1960: Part of the French Empire as French Equatorial Africa
1882-1910: Part of the French Empire as Middle Congo
1390-1914: Part of the Kingdom of Kongo
Since 80,000 BC humans has been settled from with tribes, chiefdoms and confederations.

 Costa Rica The Americas Sep 15, 1821 1838 Federal Republic of Central America 1948–present: Costa Rica Republic of Costa Rica (Second)

1848-1948: Costa Rica First Costa Rican Republic
1838-1847: Costa Rica Free State of Costa Rica
1823–1838: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
September 24, 1821 – 1823: Part of the First Mexican Empire as Province of Costa Rica
September 15–24, 1821: Republic of Costa Rica
1524–1821: Part of the Spanish Empire with a viceroyalty of New Spain as a Kingdom of Guatemala
Since about 10,000 to 7,000 BC humans have been settled by Native Costa Ricans, including Chibchans and Nahuatl.

 Côte d'Ivoire Africa Aug 7, 1960 Aug 7, 1960  France 1960–present Republic of Côte d'Ivoire

1886–1962: Part of the French Empire as French Ivory Coast, part of the Western Africa
1740-1843: Kingdom of Sanwi
1710–1898: Kong Empire
1460-1895: Gyaaman
Possibly since the Upper Paleolithic humans have been settled before 1460.

 Croatia Europe May 21, 879[65] Oct 8, 1991 Yugoslavia 1991–present: Croatia Republic of Croatia

1945–1991: Federated state of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as  SR Croatia
1941–1945: Occupied by Nazi Germany as the  Croatia, a Fascist puppet.
1918–1941: Part of the  Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)
1868–1918: Part of the  Austria-Hungary as the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
1527–1868: Kingdom of Croatia (in the union with Kingdom of Hungary within Habsburg Monarchy, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary)
1102–1526: Kingdom of Croatia (in the union with Kingdom of Hungary)
925–1102: Kingdom of Croatia
681-925 AD: Divided between the Pannonian and Dalmatian
324-681: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as the province of Dalmatia
32 BC-324 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire as the province of Dalmatia and Illyricum
Since 128,000 BC humans has been settled from Pre-Croats with tribes, chiefdoms and confederations.

 Cuba The Americas May 20, 1902 May 20, 1902  United States A colony of Spain from 1607 until 1898, then occupied but not annexed by United States 1899–1902.

The territory that is now Cuba was inhabited by the Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonization in the 15th century.

 Cyprus Europe 669 BC Aug 16, 1960  United Kingdom 1960–present: Cyprus Republic of Cyprus

1878-1960: Part of the British Empire as crown colony
1571-1878: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1489-1571: Part of the  Republic of Venice
1192-1489: Kingdom of Cyprus
965-1192: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as Province
750-965: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
668-750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
31 BC-668 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire
305-31 BC: Part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom
321-305 BC: Part of the Macedonian Empire
545-321 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire
626-545 BC: Part of the Neo-Babylonian Empire
669-626 BC: Independent island
911-669 BC: Part of the Neo-Assyrian Empire
Since around the 10th millennium BC humans have been settled on the island dates.[66]
Note: Cyprus has been divided between two ethnicities as one sovereign state: Cyprus Greek Cyprus and Turkish Cyprus from 1983.

 Czechia Europe 870 Jan 1, 1993 Czechoslovakia 1993–present: Czech Republic

1945-1993: Part of the Czechoslovakia (interrupted by Warsaw Pact armies in 1968)
1945: Occupied by WWII Allies in 1945
1939-1945: Occupied by Germany
1918-1919: Part of the Czechoslovakia
1867-1918: Part of Austria-Hungary
1806-1867: Part of the Austrian Empire
1198–1806: Kingdom of Bohemia, State of the Holy Roman Empire
1002-1198: Duchy of Bohemia, State of the Holy Roman Empire
935-1002: Unified with Moravia and Silesia under Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, who acceded to the throne in 935.
870-935: Duchy of Bohemia first independent from Great Moravia

 Denmark Europe 714[67] May 5, 1945 Germany 2014: Denmark submits a claim for the North Pole to the UN

2009: Greenlandic Self-Governance after a referendum
1973– : Unsettled dispute with Canada over sovereignty of Hans Ø
1973: Denmark becomes member of the EEC
1948: Faroe Islands granted home rule
1940-1945: German occupation
1920: Northern Schleswig (Sønderjylland) re-united with Denmark
1918: Independence of Iceland
1917: Denmarks last tropical colony, sold to United States
1864: Schleswig, Holstein & Lauenburg is lost to Prussia
1863– : House of Glücksburg
1849: New constitution with elected parliament
1814: Norway becomes independent with new constitution. Greenland, Iceland & Faroe Islands remain under Danish rule
1721: Denmark-Norway re-establish claim to Greenland
1679: Denmark forced to leave Gotland for good
1665: Kongeloven, Denmarks first constitution
1658: The sovereignty over Skåneland is transferred to Sweden
1620: First overseas colony
1536: Reformation in Denmark
1534–1536: War of succession
1448: Christian I first king of House of Oldenburg
1397–1523: Kalmar Union
1380–1814: Personal union between Denmark and Norway
1375–1412: Queen Margaret
1332–1340: Interregnum, Denmark controlled by German counts
1241: Code of Jutland "Jyske Lov"
1219–1223/27: Dominant Baltic power under the reign of Valdemar II
1154–1182: Valdemar the Great
1131–1157: Civil war
1086: Murder of Canute the Saint the first Danish royal saint
1047– : Unbroken line of Danish monarchs ruling the kingdom, al descending from titular Queen Estrid Svendsdatter
1042–1047: Norwegian rule
Coat of arms of Norway.svg
1010s–1040s: Anglo-Danish kingdom under the kings Sweyn, Cnut & Harthacnut
970s–1035: In periods the Danish kings Harald, Sweyn & Cnut (& perhaps Harald II ?) exercises supremacy over Norway
Country re-united under Gorm the Old & Harald Bluetooth
The decades from the 890s to the 930s are only sparse documented in written sources. The country possibly divided into smaller parts ruled by various families
Second half of 9th century, an increasing number of Viking raids on Western Europe, many originating from Denmark
826: Harald first Danish king to be bapticed
814–854: Horik I king (in periods ruling jointly with others)
812: Civil war
c. 800–810: King Gudfred
c. 714: Ongendus king
Danish kingship documented from the 8th century, though the institution possibly established prior to that

 Djibouti Africa June 27, 1977 June 27, 1977  France 1977–present: Republic of Djibouti

1894–1977: Part of the French Colonial Empire as French Somaliland
1862-1883: Ruled by Afar and Somali sultans
1577-1862: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1415-1577:Part of the Sultanate of Adal
1285-1415: Part of the Sultanate of Ifat

 Dominica The Americas Nov 3, 1978 Nov 3, 1978  United Kingdom 1978–present: Commonwealth of Dominica

1763-1978: Part of the British Empire as its West Indies
c.1690-1763: Part of the French Empire
The island was originally inhabited by the Kalinago.

 Dominican Republic The Americas 1821 ( Republic of Spanish Haiti) Feb 27, 1844 Haiti 1844–present: Dominican Republic

1822-1844: Part of the Republic of Haiti
1821-1822: Republic of Spanish Haiti
1809-1821: Part of the Spanish Empire
1806-1809: Part of the Republic of Haiti
1805: Part of the Empire of Haiti
1795-1805: Part of the French Colonial Empire
1492–1795: Part of the Spanish Empire as Captaincy General of Santo Domingo (alternatively Kingdom of Santo Domingo)
At the time of Columbus' arrival in 1492, the island's territory consisted of five Taíno chiefdoms: Marién, Maguá, Maguana, Jaragua, and Higüey.

 Ecuador The Americas May 24, 1822 May 13, 1830 Gran Colombia 1830–present: Ecuador Republic of Ecuador

1819–1830: Part of the Gran Colombia
1717–1819: Part of the  Spanish Empire as the Real Audiencia of Quito within the Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada
1563–1717: Part of the  Spanish Empire as the Real Audiencia of Quito within the Viceroyalty of Peru
1542–1562: Part of the  Spanish Empire as the Viceroyalty of Peru
1528–1542: Part of the  Spanish Empire as the Governorate of New Castile
1438–1542: Part of the Inca Empire
Since 8000 BC humans has been settled, starting with Native Ecuadorians such as Cotocollao, Tayos, Machalilla, and Manteños

 Egypt Transcontinental - Africa/Asia 3150 BC Feb 28, 1922 United Kingdom 1971–present: Egypt Arab Republic of Egypt

1958-1971:  United Arab Republic (In union with  Syria)
1953-1958: Egypt Arab Republic of Egypt
1922-1953: Kingdom of Egypt
1914-1922: Part of the  British Empire as the Sultanate of Egypt (British protectorate)
1867-1914: Khedivate of Egypt, a de jure Ottoman autonomous state (Occupied by the  British Empire from 1882 to 1922).
1798-1801: Occupied by the First French Empire
1517-1867: Part of the  Ottoman Empire as Eyalet of Egypt
1250-1517: Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) (Baḥrī and Burjī dynasties)
1218–1250: Center of the Ayyubid Sultanate
1174–1218: Part of the Ayyubid Sultanate
1171-1174: Center of the Ayyubid Sultanate
973-1171: Center of the Fatimid Caliphate
969-973: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate
935-969: Ikhshidid State, autonomous state within the Abbasid Caliphate
868-935: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
868-905: Tulunid Emirate
750-868: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
661-750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
641-661: Part of the Rashidun Caliphate
619-629: Part of the Sasanian Empire as Province
324-641: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as province
30 BC-324 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire as province
332-30 BC: Ptolemaic Kingdom (in association with Macedonia)
332-323 BC: Part of the Macedonian Empire
343-332 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire as the 31st Dynasty
404-343 BC: 28th-30th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
525-404 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire as the 27th Dynasty
664-525 BC: 26th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt
1069-664 BC: 21st-25th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
1550-1069 BC: 18th-20th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt as a new kingdom
1650-1550 BC: 13th-17th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
2055-1650 BC: 11th and 12th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt as the middle kingdom
2181-2055 BC: 8th-10th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
2575-2150 BC: 3rd-7th Dynasties of Ancient Egypt as kingdom
3150-2575 BC: 1st-2nd Dynasties of Ancient Egypt (Unified by Pharaoh Menes or probably Narmer, founder of the First Dynasty between Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt).

Since 598,000 BC humans have been settled starting within a 30-metre (100 ft) terrace, with primitive Acheulean and Abbevillian (Chellean).[68]

 El Salvador The Americas Sep 15, 1821 Jan 21, 1922 Federal Republic of Central America

1982–present: El Salvador Republic of El Salvador
1979-1982: El Salvador Revolutionary Junta of El Salvador
1922–1979: El Salvador Republic of El Salvador
1921–1922: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
1915–1921: El Salvador Republic of El Salvador (As an official name from June 7)
1898–1915: Republic of Salvador
1896–1898: Federated state of the Greater Republic of Central America
November 1852 – 1896: Republic of Salvador
October–November 1852: Federated state of the Federation of Central America
1841-1852: Republic of Salvador
1823–1841: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
1821–1823: Part of the First Mexican Empire as Province of Salvador
1525–1821: Part of the Spanish Empire with a viceroyalty of New Spain as a Kingdom of Guatemala
c.1200–1525: Divided between Cuzcatlan (Western part) and Lenca (Eastern part)
Since 8000 BC humans have been settled by Native Salvadorans, including Mayans, Nahuatl, and Pipils.

 Equatorial Guinea Africa Oct 12, 1968 Oct 12, 1968 Spain 1968–present: Republic of Equatorial Guinea

1778-1968: Part of the Spanish Empire
1474-1778: Part of the Portuguese Empire

 Eritrea Africa 1137 May 24, 1993 Ethiopia 1993–present: State of Eritrea

1952-1993: Part of Ethiopia
1941-1952: Occupied by the British Empire
1889-1941: Part of the Italian Empire
1879-1889: Part of the Ethiopian Empire
1555-1879: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1137-1889: Medri Bahri kingdom
c. 100 AD – c. 940 AD: Part of the Kingdom of Aksum
c. 980 BC–c. 400 BC: Part of Dʿmt

 Estonia Europe Feb 24, 1918[69] Aug 20, 1991 Soviet Union 1991–present: Republic of Estonia

1940-1991: Occupation by Germany (1940-1944) and later by the Soviet Union (1944-1991)
1918-1940: Republic of Estonia
1917-1918: Autonomous Governorate of Estonia, autonomous entity of the Russian Republic
1721-1917: Governorate of Estonia, part of the Russian Empire
1561-1721: Duchy of Estonia, dominion of the Swedish Empire
1465-1561: Part of the Livonian Confederation
1346-1435: Part of the State of the Teutonic Order
1219–1346: Duchy of Estonia, a direct dominion (Latin: dominium directum) of the King of Denmark
The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C

 Eswatini Africa Sep 6, 1968 Sep 6, 1968  United Kingdom 2018–present: Kingdom of Eswatini

1968-2018: Kingdom of Swaziland
1902-1968: Part of the British Empire
1745-1902:Kingdom of Swaziland

 Ethiopia Africa 100 May 5, 1941 Italy 1995–present: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (a Federal state)

1991-1995: Transitional Government of Ethiopia
1987-1991:People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
1974-1987: Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia
1941-1974: Ethiopian Empire
[70] 1936-1941: Occupied by Italy
[70] 1734–1936: Sultanate of Aussa
1647-1887: Emirate of Harar
1577–1672: Imamate of Aussa
1415–1577: Adal Sultanate
1285–1415: Part of the Sultanate of Ifat
1270–1936: Ethiopian Empire
c. 900/1137–1270: Zagwe Kingdom
c. 100 AD – c. 940 AD: Kingdom of Aksum
c. 980 BC–c. 400 BC: Kingdom of D'mt

 Fiji Australia 1871 Oct 10, 1970  United Kingdom 1987–present: Republic of Fiji

1970-1987: Dominion of Fiji
1874-1970: Part of the British Empire
1871-1874: Kingdom of Fiji

 Finland Europe Dec 6, 1917 Jan 4, 1918 Russia 1919–present: Republic of Finland

1918-1919: Kingdom of Finland
1809-1917: Grand Duchy of Finland, Governorate-General of the Russian Empire
c.1200s-1809: Part of the Kingdom of Sweden, as an integral region.

 France Europe 481 1944 Germany 1958—Present: France French Republic (Fifth)

1946—1958: France French Fourth Republic
1944—1946: France Provisional Government of the French Republic
1940—1944:  Free France, a government-in-exile of France, and member of the allies during WWII.
1940—1944: France Occupied by Germany in WWII making Vichy France, a Nazi Puppet.
1870-1940: France French Third Republic
1852—1870: France Second French Empire
1848—1852: France French Second Republic
1830—1848: France July Monarchy
1814/5-1830: France Bourbon Restoration
1804—1814/5: France First French Empire
1792—1804: France First French Republic
987—1792: Focusing with West Francia, the Kingdom of France was established.
843—987: with the Treaty of Verdun established West Francia
768—843: Part of the Kingdom of the Franks
481—768: Center of the Kingdom of the Franks
395—480 AD: Gaul, part of the Western Roman Empire
121 BC—395 AD: Gaul, part of the  Roman Empire
French Tribes from 5th century to 121 BC: Gauls and Celtics
First human settlement from 1.8 Million BC

 Gabon Africa Aug 17, 1960 Aug 17, 1960  France 1960–present: Gabonese Republic

1910-1960: Part of the French Equatorial Africa, federation of colonial possessions of the French Empire
1839-1910: Part of the French Empire as a protectorate

 Gambia Africa Feb 18, 1965 Feb 18, 1965  United Kingdom 1970–present: Republic of The Gambia

1965-1970: Gambia (monarchy)
1821-1965: Part of the British Empire
1287-1480: Part of the Mali Empire

 Georgia Transcontinental - Asia/Europe 978 Apr 8, 1991 Soviet Union 1991–Present: Republic of Georgia
1921–1991: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, a federated state of the Soviet Union
1918–1921 : Democratic Republic of Georgia
1801–1918: Part of the Russian Empire
1490–1801 Fragmentized into three independent kingdoms – Kartli, Kakheti, and Imereti and five semi-independent principalities – Odishi, (Mingrelia), Guria, Abkhazia, Svaneti, and Samtskhe
978–1490: Kingdom of Georgia
 Germany Europe Aug 843 Mar 15, 1991 West Germany
East Germany
West Berlin
1990–Present: Germany Federal Republic of Germany (Become fully sovereign reunification on 15 March 1991 after the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany came into effect).

1949-1990: Divided between West Germany Federal Republic of Germany and  German Democratic Republic (Berlin West Berlin was an exclave of West Germany).
1945-1949: Germany occupied between the Allied-occupied Germany Allies (USA, UK and France) and the Soviet Union (The occupation lasted from 1945 until the ratification of Bonn–Paris conventions in 1955).
1933-1945:  Nazi Germany
1918-1933: Weimar Republic Weimar Germany (a federal republic)
1878-1918:  German Empire (Prussia Unified in a federal monarchy with all state kingdoms of Germany, excluding Austria).
1867-1878: Germany North German Confederation, union of 22 German-speaking states .
1815-1866:  German Confederation, union of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, including  Prussia and  Austrian Empire (Interrupted by the German Empire (1848–49)).
1806-1815: Confederation of the Rhine, part of the France First French Empire
962[note 17]-1806:  Holy Roman Empire (federation composed of many kingdoms, principalities, duchies, counties, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, and other domains).
843-962: Kingdom of Germany or East Francia
768-843: Center of the Kingdom of the Franks
481-768: Part of the Kingdom of the Franks
395-480 AD: Germania Superior and Germania Inferior, parts of the Western Roman Empire
83-395 AD: Germania Superior and Germania Inferior, parts of the  Roman Empire
Germanic Tribes from 5th century to 480 AD: Germania
First human settlement from the year 598,000 BC.

 Greece Europe 338 BC 1945  Bulgaria
 Nazi Germany
 Italy
1974–Present: Greece Third Hellenic Republic

1967-1974: Greece: Greek Dictatorship
1944-1973:  Kingdom of Greece
1941-1944: Greece Hellenic State, a government-in-exile during the axis occupation, and member of the allies during WWII.
1935-1941:  Kingdom of Greece
1924-1935: Greece Second Hellenic Republic
1832-1924:  Kingdom of Greece
1822-1832: After the War of Independence Greece declared independent as the Greece First Hellenic Republic
1453-1822: Part of the  Ottoman Empire
1346-1566: Island of Chios and port of Phocaea, Part of the Republic of Genoa (Maona of Chios and Phocaea)
1348-1360: Part of the Serbian Empire
1310-1522: Rhodes, under the Knights Hospitaller
1261-1453: Part of the  Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty
1261-1458: Duchy of Athens
1261-1432: Principality of Achaea
1231-1244: Part of the Second Bulgarian Empire
1205-1669: Crete, part of the Republic of Venice as part of its Stato da Màr.
1205–1337/40: Despotate of Epirus
1204-1261: Part of the Latin Empire
920s-1010s: Part of the First Bulgarian Empire
324-1204: Part of the  Byzantine Empire
148 BC-324 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire
323-148 BC: Ancient Greece (Hellenistic period), Greece was divided in the Kingdom of Macedonia, Kingdom of Epirus, and the Aetolian League, Achaean League, and the city-states of Sparta and Athens.
338-323 BC: League of Corinth, a federation of Greek states created by Philip II of Macedon (father of Alexander the Great)
776-338 BC: Ancient Greece (Archaic and Classical Period): Greece was divided into many states, including Athens, Sparta, Thebes and Macedonia
c.1100-776 BC: Greek Dark Ages
c. 1600-c. 1100 BC: Mycenaean civilization
Since 7000 BC humans have been settled passing the first Greek ages such as the Neolithic era, the Minoan era and the Helladic era.

 Ghana Africa Mar 6, 1957 Mar 6, 1957  United Kingdom 1957-Present: Republic of Ghana

1867-1957: British Gold Coast
1658-1850: Danish Gold Coast
1598-1872: Dutch Gold Coast
1650-1663: Swedish Gold Coast
1682-1721: 'Branderberger/Prussian Gold Coast
c.1670-1957: Kingdom of Ashanti
1482-1642: Portuguese Gold Coast
1409-1700: Kingdom of Dagbon, founded by the Dagomba people
c.13th century: Modern day Ghana was divided in many states like Bonoman, Ashanti, Denkyira, Mankessim Kingdom, and Akwamu
c.11th century: Akans were firmly established in the Akan state called
Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were firmly settled by the 5th century CE

 Grenada The Americas Feb 7, 1974 Feb 7, 1974  United Kingdom 1974–present: Grenada

1783-1974: Part of the British Empire, as its West Indies
1779-1783: Part of the French Empire
1763-1779: Part of the British Empire
1650-1763: Part of the French Empire

 Guatemala The Americas Sep 15, 1821 Jan 21, 1922 Federal Republic of Central America 1922–present: Guatemala Republic of Guatemala

1921–1922: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
1840-1921: Republic of Guatemala
1823–1838: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
September 24, 1821 – 1823: Part of the First Mexican Empire as Province of Guatemala
September 15–24, 1821: Republic of Guatemala
1524–1821: Part of the Spanish Empire with a viceroyalty of New Spain as a Kingdom of Guatemala
Since 8000 BC humans have been settled by Native Guatemalans, including Mayans and Nahuatl.

 Guinea Africa Oct 2, 1958 Oct 2, 1958  France 1958–present: Republic of Guinea

1894–1958: French Guinea, part of the French West Africa, part of the French Empire
1878–1898: Wassoulou Empire
1725–1894: Imamate of Futa Jallon

 Guinea-Bissau Africa Sep 24, 1973 Sep 10, 1974  Portugal 1974–present: Republic of Guinea-Bissau

1474–1974: Portuguese Guinea

 Guyana The Americas May 26, 1966 May 26, 1966  United Kingdom 1970–present: Co-operative Republic of Guyana

1966-1970: Guyana (monarchy)
1814–1966: British Guyana, part of the British Empire
1616-1814: Divided in three Dutch colonies: Demerara, Essequibo and Berbice
First human settlement from the year 35,000 BC.

 Haiti The Americas Jan 1, 1804 Jan 1, 1804 France 1859–present: Republic of Haiti

1849–1859: Second Empire of Haiti
1820-1849: Republic of Haiti
1811–1820: Kingdom of Haiti
1806-1811: State of Haiti
1804-1806: First Empire of Haiti
1625-1804: Part of the French Empire as Saint-Domingue
1492–1625: Part of the Spanish Empire

 Honduras The Americas Sep 15, 1821 Jan 21, 1922 Federal Republic of Central America 1922–present: Honduras Republic of Honduras

1921–1922: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
1898–1921: Republic of Honduras (United States has been occupied on the Honduran Land in 1903, 1907, 1911, 1912, 1919, 1924 and 1925).[71]
1896–1898: Federated state of the Greater Republic of Central America
November 1852 – 1896: Honduras Republic of Honduras
October–November 1852: Federated state of the Federation of Central America
1838-1852: Honduras Republic of Honduras
1823–1838: Federated state of the Federal Republic of Central America
September 24, 1821 – 1823: Part of the First Mexican Empire as Province of Honduras
September 15–24, 1821: Honduras Republic of Honduras
1525–1821: Part of the Spanish Empire with a viceroyalty of New Spain as a Kingdom of Guatemala
9000 BC–1525 AD: Inhabited by Native Hondurans, including Mayans, and Toltecs.[72]

 Hungary Europe 895 1918  Austria-Hungary 1989–present: Hungary Third Republic

1949-1989: Hungarian People's Republic
1946-1949: Second Hungarian Republic
1920-1946: Kingdom of Hungary
1919–20: Hungarian Republic
1918-1919: First Hungarian Republic
1867–1918: Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, a dual monarchy with Austria (via Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867)
1000-1867: Kingdom of Hungary
895-1000: Principality of Hungary

 Iceland Europe 930 Dec 1, 1918  Denmark Icelandic Commonwealth formed 930. Ceded to Norway in 1262; Part of the Kingdom of Denmark after 1814; Kingdom of Iceland (1918–1944) with a Personal union with Denmark, Republic of Iceland founded 1944.
 India Asia 2000 BC[citation needed] Aug 15, 1947  United Kingdom 1950–present: India Republic of India (a federal state)

1947-1950: India Dominion of India(a federal state)
1858-1947: Part of the  British Empire as the British Raj Empire of India
1757-1858: Part of the  British Empire as the East India Company
1717-1857: India divided during the Mughal Era: Maratha Empire (later, the "Maratha Confederacy"), Kingdom of Mysore, and the Sikh Kingdom. However, the Mughal Emperor (in Maratha) continued to be the highest manifestation of sovereignty. The Muslim, Hindu (including Maratha), and Sikh leaders took part in ceremonial acknowledgements of the emperor as the sovereign of India.[73]
1555-1717: Mughal Empire
1540-1556: Sur Empire
1526-1556 AD: Mughal Empire
13th century-16th century: Politics in Northern India was dominated by the Delhi Sultanate, and in Southern India by the Vijayanagar Empire. However, there were other regional powers present, like the Chero dynasty, Reddi kingdom, Rajput states, Gajapati Kingdom, Ahom kingdom and the Kingdom of Manipur
1347-1527: Three sultanates declared independent from Delhi Bahmani Sultanate (1347-1527), Malwa Sultanate (1392-1562), and Gujarat Sultanate (1407-1573). Plus the Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646)
1336–1646: Vijayanagara Empire (also called Kingdom of Bisnegar), ruled a major part of the southern Indian subcontinent
1206-1526: Delhi Sultanate, ruled a major part of the northern Indian subcontinent
230 BC–1206 AD: India divided between the 49 middle kingdoms. The well-known kingdoms are Shunga Empire (187 to 78 BC), Gupta Empire (280–550 AD), Satavahana dynasty (1st century BC–2nd century AD), Pala Empire (8th century–12th century), Rashtrakuta Kingdom (753–982), Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty (mid-8th century AD–1036 AD) and the Chola Empire (300s BC–1279 AD).
322–185 BC: Maurya Empire (Political unity in verified historiography was first achieved by Chandragupta Maurya).
5th or 4th century–322 BC: Nanda Empire
c.600-345 BC: Indian Subcontinent was divided in 16 kingdoms called Mahajanapadas
1500-500 BC: Inhabited by Vedic
1700-1500 BC: Inhabited by Cemetery H
c.3300-c.1300 BC: Indus Valley Civilisation, era when the India's local name Bhārat derives from the legendary Bharata (either Dushyanta's son Bharata or Rishabha's son Bharata), held by tradition as the first emperor to unite India in 2000 BC.[citation needed]

Since 2.2 million BC, India has been settled starting with Hominins who were from Africa by the expansion of civilization with the Madrasian and Soanian cultures. [74][75][76]

 Indonesia Asia Aug 17, 1945 Dec 27, 1949 Netherlands 1949–present: Republic of Indonesia

1945–1949: Indonesian Struggle for Independence
1942–1945: Part of Japan in World War II
1816–1942: Part of the Dutch Empire as Dutch East Indies
1812–1816: Part of British India (following Dutch-French defeat in the Napoleonic War)
1802–1812: Part of Batavian Republic (Client State of the Napoleonic France)
1619–1802: Under Administration of the Dutch East India Company, being part of the Dutch Empire
15th–19th century: Various Islamic Kingdoms, most notably Demak (successor state to the Majapahit Empire), Pajang (successor state to Demak), Mataram (successor state to Pajang) and Banten in Java; Malaka, Johor-Riau, Minang and Aceh in Sumatra; Brunei and Banjarmasin in Kalimantan, Makassar in Sulawesi, and Ternate and Tidore in Moluccas
1292–1478: Majapahit Empire, united Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and parts of Philippines under the reign of Hayam Wuruk
4th century–13th century: Various Hindu-Buddhist Kingdoms, most notably Srivijaya in 8th–10th century AD
4th century: First Hindu Kingdom of Kutai in Kalimantan
2nd century: Alleged Indian Kingdom of Salakanagara in Java

 Iran Asia 3200 BC Oct 17, 1941  United Kingdom/ Soviet Union
Anglo-Soviet withdrawal from Tehran
1980–present: Islamic Republic of Iran

1979–1980: Part of Interim Government
1925–1979: Pahlavi Dynasty (Anglo-Soviet occupation 1941-1946)
1796–1925: Qajar Empire
1747–1796: Afsharid Dynasty
(1760–1794): Zand Dynasty
1736–1747: Afsharid Empire
(1722–1729): Part of Hotaki Dynasty
1501–1736: Safavid Empire
1468–1508: Part of Agh Qoyunlu
1405–1507: Part of Timurid Dynasty
1406–1468: Part of Qara Qoyunlu
1370–1405: Part of Timurid Empire
1337–1376: Sarbadars
1336–1432: Part of Jalayirid Dynasty
1335–1393: Muzaffarid Dynasty
1335–1357: Chobanid Dynasty
1256–1335: Ilkhanate Empire
1225–1231: Center of the Khwarazmian Empire
1077–1225: Part of the Khwarazmian Empire
1037–1194: Part of the Great Seljuq Empire
963–1186: Part of the Ghaznavid Empire
875–999: Part of the Samanid Dynasty
934–1055: Buyid Dynasty
867–1002: Part of Saffarid Dynasty
928–1043: Ziyarid Dynasty
750–1258: Part of Abbasid Caliphate
c.1236 661–750: Part of Umayyad Caliphate
(642–759/760): Dabuyid dynasty
224–651: Sassanid Empire
247 BC – 224 AD: Parthian Empire
312–63 BC: Part of Seleucid Empire
330-323 BC: Part of the Empire of Alexander the Great
550–330 BC: Achaemenid Empire
(652–625 BC): Part of Scythian Kingdom
678–550 BC: Median Empire
850–616 BC: Inhabited by Mannaeans
2700–539 BC: Inhabited by Elamites
3200–2700 BC: Inhabited by Proto-Elamites

 Iraq Asia 2300 BC (approx.) Apr 26, 1926 Ottoman Empire 2004–present:  Republic of Iraq (a federal state)

2003–2004: Occupied by United States[77]
1968–2003: Flag of Iraq (1991–2004).svg Iraqi Republic
1958–1968: Flag of Iraq (1959–1963).svg Iraqi Republic
1958: Flag of the Arab Federation.svg Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan
1932–1958: Flag of Iraq (1924–1959).svg Kingdom of Iraq
1920–1932: Flag of Iraq (1924–1959).svg Kingdom of Iraq under British Administration
1534–1923: Part of the Ottoman flag.svg Ottoman Empire
1509-1534: Part of the Safavid Empire
1469-1509: Part of the Aq Qoyunlu
1412-1469: Part of the Qara Qoyunlu
1394-1412: Part of the Timurid Empire
1335-1394: Jalairid Sultanate
1265-1335: Part of the Ilkhanate
1258-1265: Part of the Mongol Empire
1159-1258: Abbasid Caliphate
1005-1159: Part of the Seljuk Empire
945-1005: Part of the Buyd Empire
809-945: Center of the Abbasid Caliphate
796-809: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
750-796: Center of the Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
656-661: Center of the Rashidun Caliphate
637-656: Part of the Rashidun Caliphate
224-637: Part of the Sassanid Empire
142 BC-224 AD: Part of the Parthian Empire
323-100 BC: Seleucid Empire
330-323 BC: Part of the Empire of Alexander the Great
539-330 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire
606-539 BC: Babylonian Empire
620-606 BC: Divided between Babylonian Empire and Assyrian Empire
c.730 BC-620 BC: Assyrian Empire
c.1450-c.730 BC: Divided between Babylonian Empire and Assyrian Empire
c.2000-c.1450 BC: Divided in many states like Assyria, Isin and Babylonia
c.2100 BC: Neo-Sumerian Empire
c.2300 BC: Akkadian Empire
c.4000 BC: Sumer Civilization (the first Civilization in the world)

 Ireland Europe Oct 18, 1171 Dec 11, 1931 United Kingdom 1937–Present:  Ireland (additionally described as the Republic of Ireland) (Constitution of Ireland (1937): name change to "Ireland" (Irish: Éire), the country still was a monarchy in a personal union with Great Britain) (Republic of Ireland Act 1948: Ireland becomes a republic, ending the monarchy).

1922-1937:  Irish Free State, monarchic state in a personal union with the United Kingdom (Irish War of Independence: Ireland unilaterally declared itself independent in 1919, war ended with Anglo-Irish Treaty with the Partition of Ireland..
1801-1922: Part of the  United Kingdom as the  Kingdom of Ireland
1707-1801: Kingdom of Ireland (in a personal union with Great Britain)
1659-1707: Kingdom of Ireland (in a personal union with England)
1659-1660: Part of the Commonwealth of England
1653–1659: Part of The Protectorate
1653: Part of the Commonwealth of England
1642–1652: Confederate Ireland (a confederal monarchy that pledged allegiance to the English monarch)
1603-1642: Kingdom of Ireland. After the Tudor conquest of Ireland, the entire country came under the nominal control of the King of Ireland (the monarch of England held the crowns of England and Ireland in a personal union).
1542-1603: Kingdom of Ireland is established. However, most of Ireland was still held by Gaelic Irish dynasties.
1171-1542:  Lordship of Ireland, a papal possession held in fief by the King of England. The kings of England claimed lordship over the whole island, but in reality the king's rule only ever extended to parts of the island. The rest of the island —known as Gaelic Ireland—remained under the control of various Gaelic Irish kingdoms
800-1171: Divided in many states. Some states, like the Kingdom of Dublin, was founded by Nordic invaders
150-800:[78]-: Divided in many states, like the kingdoms of Osraige, Munster and Ulaid.
10,500 BC-853 AD: Inhabited by the Native Irish, including Gaelic and Celtic cultures.

 Israel Asia 1050 BC May 14, 1948  United Kingdom The 12 tribes conquer the holy land under the leadership of Joshua, then Israel goes through "The period of the judges" leading to the Kingdom of Israel unified under King Saul, c. 1020 BC, divided into separate kingdoms of Israel and Judea, which fall to Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires in 722 and 586 BC, respectively. In the 2nd century BC, Judea re-gains independence as Hasmonean kingdom after revolt against the Hellenist Seleucid Empire. Conquered by Pompey of the Roman Empire in 63 BC, and subsequently falls to Byzantine, Umayyad, Abbasid, Crusader, Mamluk, Ottoman Turkish, and British rule, before regaining independence as the State of Israel in 1948.
 Italy Europe Mar 17, 1861 Mar 17, 1861 Sardinia
Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Papal States
United Provinces of Central Italy
1946–present: Italy Italian Republic

1945-1946:  Kingdom of Italy
1943-1945:  Italian Social Republic, a Nazi Puppet.
1861-1943:  Kingdom of Italy (Unified by the Two Sicilies, Sardinia, the Papal States, Lombardy–Venetia, and its Central United Provinces)
1859-1860: United Provinces of Central Italy
1816-1861: Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
1815-1866: Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
1805-1814:  Napoleonic Italy, part of the France First French Empire
1802-1805: Italian Napoleonic Republic, part of the France First French Empire
1720-1861: Kingdom of Sardinia
962-1801: the Italian peninsula divided into many states, among them the medieval Kingdom of Italy (774–1806) within the Holy Roman Empire
855-962: Divided between the Kingdom of Italy, Duchy of Benevento, Duchy of Naples, the Giudicati, Republic of Venice and Byzantine Empire
843–855: Divided between the Middle Francia, Duchy of Benevento, Duchy of Naples, the Giudicati, Republic of Venice and Byzantine Empire
775-843: Divided between the Frankish Kingdom, Duchy of Benevento, Duchy of Naples, the Giudicati, Republic of Venice and Byzantine Empire
754-775: Divided between the Kingdom of the Lombards, the Papal States, Duchy of Benevento and the Byzantine Empire
568–754: Kingdom of the Lombards, later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Latin: Regnum totius Italiae). For most of the kingdom's history, the Byzantine-ruled Exarchate of Ravenna and Duchy of Rome separated the northern Lombard duchies, from the two large southern duchies of Spoleto and Benevento.
553-1071: Part of the  Byzantine Empire. Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian declared war on the Ostrogoths in 535 in an effort to restore the former western provinces of the Roman Empire. The Catepanate of Italy, the last Roman (Byzantine) outpost in Italy was lost in 1071.
493-553: Ostrogothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of Italy (Latin: Regnum Italiae). Zeno negotiated with the invading Ostrogoths, convincing their king Theodoric to depart for Italy as magister militum per Italiam ("commander in chief for Italy") with the aim of deposing Odoacer. The Ostrogoths was never recognised by the eastern emperors as "kings" (rex).
476-493: Kingdom of Italy (Odoacer). Odoacer assumed control of the peninsula as a de jure representative of the de jure Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos. With the death of Nepos in 480, the Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno legally abolished the title and position of Western Roman Emperor and assumed the role of Odoacer's sovereign. In Roman constitutional theory, the Empire was still simply united under one emperor, implying no abandonment of territorial claims.
395-476: Center of the Western Roman Empire
27 BC-395 AD: Center of the  Roman Empire
509-27BC Roman Republic. Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For 700 years, it was a de facto territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empire, and for a long time experienced a privileged status and was not converted into a province.
753 BC–509 BC: Roman Kingdom, founded by an Italic tribe known as the Latins
12th century-100 BC:Various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name, there also the presence of Phoenicians and Carthaginians in insular Italy, Greeks in Southern Italy, and Etruscans and Celts in central and northern Italy respectively.
Since 848,000 BC humans have been settled by the first hominins at Monte Poggiolo.[79]

 Jamaica The Americas Aug 6, 1962 Aug 6, 1962  United Kingdom 1962–present: Jamaica

1707-1962: Part of the British Empire
1655-1707: Part of the English Empire
1509–1655: Part of the Spanish Empire
Originally inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494.

 Japan Asia 400 Apr 28, 1952 Allied occupation of Japan 1952–present:  Japan (after the Treaty of San Francisco ended postwar occupation).

1945-1952: Japan Allied-occupation of Japan with the United States and the United Kingdom in the post-war period.
1868-1945:  Empire of Japan
1603-1868: Tokugawa shogunate
1568-1603: Japanese Azuchi–Momoyama
1336-1568: Ashikaga shogunate
1333-1336: Kenmu Restoration
1185-1333: Kamakura shogunate
794-1185: Heian era
710-794: Nara era
538-710: Asuka era
300-578: Kofun era (Era when all Japanese states merged into one in c. 400 AD).
1000 BC-300 AD: Yayoi era (Era when Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu mythologically).
14,000 - 900 BC: Jōmon era
Since 40,000 BC humans have been seattled crossing through the Korean-Japanese bridge,[80] and Japan made as an island in 12,000 BC warming the planet.[citation needed]

 Jordan Asia 330 BC Aug 2, 1958 Arab Federation 1958–present: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Feb–Aug 1958: Federated state of the Arab Federation, governed from Baghdad, Iraq.
1946-1958: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
1921–1946: Emirate of Transjordan, part of the British Empire
1918-1920: Occupied Enemy Territory Administration
1517-1918: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1250-1517: Part of the Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo)
1174–1250: Part of the Ayyubid Sultanate
1071-1174: Part of the Seljuk Empire
969-1071: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate
750-969: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
661–750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
636-661: Part of the Rashidun Caliphate
625-636: Part of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)
614-625: Part of the Sassanid Empire
286-614: Part of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)
273-286: Part of the Roman Empire
269-273: Part of the Palmyrene Empire
107-269: Part of the Roman Empire
330 BC-107 AD: Nabatean Kingdom
539-330 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire
596-539 BC: Part of the Babylonian Empire
607-596 BC: Ammon, Moab and Edom
c.719-607 BC: Part of the Assyrian Empire
13th century-719 BC: Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon, Moab and Edom.
What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period.

 Kazakhstan Transcontinental - Asia/Europe 1465 Dec 16, 1991 Soviet Union 1991–present: Republic of Kazakhstan
1936-1991: Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, federated state of the Soviet Union
1920-1936: Part of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, federated state of the Soviet Union
1918-1920: Alash Autonomy
1731-1917: Part of the Russian Empire
1465–1731: Kazakh Khanate
1240s–1456: Part of the Golden Horde
1220s-1240s: Part of the Mongol Empire
The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by nomadic groups and empires. In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians have inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as the First Turkic Khaganate etc. have inhabited the country throughout its history.
 Kenya Africa Dec 12, 1963 Dec 12, 1963  United Kingdom 1964–present: Republic of Kenya

1963–1964: Kenya (monarchy)
1920–1963: Colony and Protectorate of Kenya, part of the British Empire
1895–1920: East Africa Protectorate, part of the British Empire
c.1st century AD: The Kenyan coast had served host to communities of ironworkers and communities of Bantu subsistence farmers, hunters and fishers who supported the economy with agriculture, fishing, metal production and trade with foreign countries. These communities formed the earliest city states (like Mombasa and Malindi) in the region which were collectively known as Azania.[81] As city-states settled on the coast, several nomadic tribes inhabited the rest of what is today Kenya.
What is now Kenya has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period.

 Kiribati Australia July 12, 1979 July 12, 1979  United Kingdom 1979–present: Republic of Kiribati

1892–1976: Gilbert and Ellice Islands, part of the British Empire

 North Korea Asia Sep 9, 1948 Sep 9, 1948  Soviet Union 1948–present: North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea

1945-1948: Occupied by the  Soviet Union under the Provisional People's Committee, and later the People's Committee.
1919-1945: Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
1910-1945: Part of the Korea under Japanese rule Empire of Japan
1897-1910:  Korean Empire
1392-1897: Kingdom of Great Joseon
918-1392: Kingdom of Goryeo
901-918: Kingdom of Taebong
892-936: Later Baekje
698-926: Kingdom of Balhae
668-935: Unified Silla
18 BC-660 AD: Kingdom of Baekje
37 BC–668 AD: Kingdom of Goguryeo
108 BC-37 AD: Divides between the kingdoms of Korea
2333-108 BC: Kingdom of Gojoseon (Founded by Dangun according to legend)
Since around 498,000 BC humans have been settled in the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria began roughly half a million years ago.,[82][83] including Jeulmun and Mumun.

 South Korea Asia Aug 15, 1948 Aug 15, 1948  United States 1987–present: South Korea Republic of Korea (Sixth)

1981-1987:  Fifth Republic of Korea
1972-1981:  Fourth Republic of Korea
1963-1972:  Third Republic of Korea
1961-1963:  Supreme Council for National Reconstruction
1960-1961:  Second Republic of Korea
1948-1960:  First Republic of Korea
1945-1948: Occupied by the  United States under the Army Military.
1919-1945: Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
1910-1945: Part of the Korea under Japanese rule Empire of Japan
1897-1910:  Korean Empire
1392-1897: Kingdom of Great Joseon
918-1392: Kingdom of Goryeo
901-918: Kingdom of Taebong
892-936: Later Baekje
668-935: Unified Silla
42-562: Gaya confederacy
18 BC-660 AD: Kingdom of Baekje
37 BC–668 AD: Kingdom of Goguryeo
57 BC-935 AD: Kingdom of Silla
108 BC-37 AD: Divides between the kingdoms of Korea
2333-108 BC: Kingdom of Gojoseon (Founded by Dangun according to legend)
Since around 498,000 BC humans have been settled in the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria began roughly half a million years ago.,[82][83] including Jeulmun and Mumun.

 Kuwait Asia 1752 Feb 1991  Iraq 1991–present: State of Kuwait

1990–1991: Kuwait Governorate, governorate of Iraq
1990: Republic of Kuwait
1963–1990: State of Kuwait
1919-1963: Sheikhdom of Kuwait, part of the British Empire as a protectorate
1889-1919: Sheikhdom of Kuwait, part of the British Empire as a protectorate (not recognized by the Ottomans)
1871-1899: Sheikhdom of Kuwait, de facto part of the Ottoman Empire
1752-1871: Sheikhdom of Kuwait, independent state
1670-1752: Part of the Khalidi Emirate
1613-1670: In 1613, the town of Kuwait was founded in the present-day location of Kuwait City. Part of the Ottoman Empire

 Kyrgyzstan Asia Aug 31, 1991 Aug 31, 1991 Soviet Union 1991–present: Kyrgyz Republic (the name "Republic of Kyrgyzstan" was adopted in 1990, changed to current in 1993)

1936–1991: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic, federated state of the Soviet Union
1922–1936: Part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, federated state of the Soviet Union
1918–1922: Part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
1867–1918:Part of the Russian Empire

 Laos Asia 1354 Oct 22, 1953  France 1975–present: Lao People's Democratic Republic

1953–1975: Kingdom of Laos, independent state
1947–1953: Kingdom of Laos, Part of the French Empire
1945–1947: French Protectorate of Laos a French protectorate within French Indochina — a collection of Southeast Asian protectorates within the French Empire.
1940-1945: Occupied by Japan
1893–1940: French Protectorate of Laos, a French protectorate within French Indochina — a collection of Southeast Asian protectorates within the French Empire.
1707-1893: Divided between the Kingdom of Luang Phrabang (1707–1893), Kingdom of Champasak (1713–1904), Principality of Phuan (1707–1899) and Kingdom of Vientiane (1707–1828) (which lost its sovereignty to the Kingdom of Siam from 1828 until 1893),
1354–1707: Kingdom of Lan Xang

 Latvia Europe Nov 18, 1918[84] May 4, 1990 Soviet Union 1991–present: Republic of Latvia

1940-1991: Occupation by Germany (1940-1944) and later by the Soviet Union (1944-1991)
1918-1940: Republic of Latvia
1918: Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, de jure independent state (was a client state of Germany)
1918: Divided in the Courland Governorate, part of the Russian Republic, and a region occupied by Germany (Ober Ost)
1795-1918: Divided between the Courland Governorate and the Governorate of Livonia, both part of the Russian Empire
1721-1795: Divided between the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Governorate of Livonia, part of the Russian Empire
1629-1721: Divided between the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Swedish Livonia, part of the Swedish Empire
1569–1629: Divided between the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia and the Duchy of Livonia, both part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1561-1569: Divided between the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Duchy of Livonia, part of the Kingdom of Poland
1215-1561: Terra Mariana (later known as Livonian Confederation), a directly subject to the Holy See
1207–1215: Terra Mariana, State of the Holy Roman Empire
The territory of Latvia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C

 Lebanon Asia 1109 Dec 31, 1946  France  Lebanese Republic (1943–present)

1920–1943: Lebanese French flag.svg State of Greater Lebanon (constituent of the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon)
1917–1920: Part of the Flag of the United Kingdom.svgFlag of France.svg Occupied Enemy Territory Administration
1516–1917: Part of the Ottoman flag.svg Ottoman Empire (as the Eyalet of Sidon and later the Beirut Vilayet)
1289-1516: Part of the Mamluk Sultanate
1109-1289: County of Tripoli
1071-1109: Part of the Seljuk Empire
969-1071: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate
935-969: Ikhshidid State, autonomous state within the Abbasid Caliphate
905-935: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
876-905: Part of the Tulunid Emirate
750-876: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
661-750: Part of the Ummayad Caliphate
637-661: Part of the Rashidun Caliphate
626-637: Part of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire)
611-626: Part of the Sassanid Empire
395-611: Part of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire)
273-395: Part of the Roman Empire
270-273: Part of the Palmyrene Empire
63 BC-270: Part of the Roman Republic (and later the Roman Empire)
301 BC-63 BC: Part of the Seleucid Empire
314 BC-301 BC: Part of the kingdom of Antigonus I Monophthalmus
320 BC-314 BC: Part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt
323 BC- 320 BC: Part of the Satrap of Laomedon of Mytilene
332 BC-323 BC: Part of the Empire of Alexander the Great
538 BC-332 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire
605 BC–538 BC: Part of the Babylonian Empire
858 BC-608 BC: Part of the Assyrian Empire
2500 BC-858 BC: Ancient Phoenicia: Lebanon was divided into many states, like Tyre, Sidon, Arwad, Berytus, Byblos

 Lesotho Africa 1822 Oct 4, 1966  United Kingdom 1966–present: Flag of Lesotho (1966–1987).svg Flag of Lesotho (1987–2006).svg  Kingdom of Lesotho (resumed)

1884–1966: Unofficial Basutoland Ensign.svg Basutoland, Part of the British Empire
1822–1884: Kingdom of Lesotho

 Liberia Africa July 26, 1847 July 26, 1847 American Colonization Society 1847-present: Republic of Liberia

1821-1847: Settled but not claimed by United States[85]

 Libya Africa Dec 24, 1951 Dec 24, 1951 Cyrenaica Emirate
 France
 United Kingdom
2011–present:  State of Libya (Sometimes refer to as Libya)

1977–2011: Flag of Libya (1977–2011).svg Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (before 1986 without the word "Great" in the full name of the country)
1969–1977: Flag of Libya (1969–1972).svg Libyan Arab Republic
1951–1969: Flag of Libya.svg Kingdom of Libya
1949–1951: Flag of Cyrenaica.svg Emirate of Cyrenaica
1943–1951: Flag of France.svg French Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames
1942–1951: Flag of the United Kingdom.svg British Military Administration of Libya
1911-1943: Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg Italian Libya, Part of the Italian Empire
1558-1911: Part of the Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Tripolitania). Ottomans conquered Fezzan between 1556 and 1577
1544-1558: Divided between the Banu Sulaym tribe (Cyrenaica) and the Ottoman Empire (Tripolitania)
1404-1544: Divided between the Banu Sulaym tribe (Cyrenaica) and the Sultanate of Tunis (Tripolitania)
1203-1404: Banu Sulaym tribe (coastal areas)
1187-1203: Banu Ghanyia tribe (coastal areas)
1184-1187: Divided between the Banu Sulaym tribe (Cyrenaica) and the Banu Ghanyia tribe (Tripolitania)
1159-1184: Divided between the Banu Sulaym tribe (Cyrenaica) and the Almohad Caliphate (Tripolitania)
1148-1159: Divided between the Banu Sulaym tribe (Cyrenaica) and the Kingdom of Africa (Tripolitania)
1097-1148: Divided between the Banu Sulaym tribe (Cyrenaica) and the Banu Jami tribe (Tripolitania)
1051-1097: Banu Sulaym tribe (coastal areas)
973-1051: Divided between the Fatimid Caliphate (Cyrenaica) and the Zirid Emirate (Tripolitania)
961-973: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate
945-961: Divided between the Abbasid Caliphate (Cyrenaica) and the Fatimid Caliphate (Tripolitania)
969-945: Part of the Fatimid Caliphate (coastal areas)
909-969: Divided between the Abbasid Caliphate (Cyrenaica) and the Fatimid Caliphate (Tripolitania)
906-909: Divided between the Abbasid Caliphate (Cyrenaica) and the Aghlabid Emirate (Tripolitania)
868-906: Divided between the Tulunid Emirate (Cyrenaica) and the Aghlabid Emirate (Tripolitania)
800-868: Divided between the Abbasid Caliphate (Cyrenaica) and the Aghlabid Emirate (Tripolitania)
750-800: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate
694-750: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
683-694: Divided between the Umayyad Caliphate (Cyrenaica) and the Byzantine Empire (Tripolitania)
663-683: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate
648-656: Part of the Rashidun Caliphate
553-648: Part of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire)
439-533: Divided between the Eastern Roman Empire (Cyrenaica) and the Vandal Kingdom (Tripolitania)
395-439: Divided between the Eastern Roman Empire (Cyrenaica) and the Western Roman Empire (Tripolitania)
97 BC-AD 395: Part of the Roman Republic (later the Roman Empire)
107 BC-95 BC: Divided between the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt (Cyrenaica) and the Roman Republic (Tripolitania)
201 BC-107 BC: Part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt (Cyrenaica)
323 BC-201 BC: Divided between the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt (Cyrenaica) and Carthage (Tripolitania)
331 BC-323 BC: Divided between the Empire of Alexander the Great (Cyrenaica) and Carthage (Tripolitania)
525 BC-331 BC: Divided between the Achaemenid Empire (Cyrenaica) and Carthage (Tripolitania)
Phoenicians (Anciente Lebanese) and Ancient Greeks arrived in the country in the 7th century BC and established colonies and cities. The Phoenicians are fixed in Tripolitania, and the Greeks, in Cyrenaica. Fezzan was home to a Beber people known as Garamantes
Archaeological evidence indicates that the coastal plain was inhabited by Neolithic peoples (ancestors to the Bebers) from as early as 8000 BCE.

 Liechtenstein Europe 1806 1806  Holy Roman Empire 1866-present: Principality of Liechtenstein

1815-1866: Principality of Liechtenstein, in union with other 37 states in the German Confederation
1813-1815: Principality of Liechtenstein
1806-1813: Principality of Liechtenstein, in union with other 36 states in the Confederation of Rhine
1719-1806: Principality of Liechtenstein formed in 1719 from Vaduz and Schellenberg, being a State of the Holy Roman Empire.

 Lithuania Europe 1253[86] Mar 11, 1990 Soviet Union 1991–present: Republic of Lithuania

1940-1991: Occupation by Germany (1940-1944) and later by the Soviet Union (1944-1991)
1918-1940: Republic of Lithuania
1918: Lithuania Kingdom of Lithuania
1914-1918: noborder German Occupation
1812–1914: Part of the Russian Imperial Standart 1730.png Russian Empire
1812: Flag of France.svg French Occupation
1795–1812: Part of the Russian Imperial Standart 1730.png Russian Empire
1569–1795: Grand Duchy of Lithuania, federated state of the noborder Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
1253–1569: Alex K Grundwald flags 1410-03.svg Grand Duchy of Lithuania

 Luxembourg Europe 1815 1945 Germany
1890-present: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, independent state with its own dynasty

1866-1890: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, independent state in personal union with Netherlands
1815-1866: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, independent from France in 1815 and in union with other 37 states in the German Confederation, but also in personal union with Netherlands

 Madagascar Africa 1787 June 26, 1960  France 2014-present: Republic of Madagacar (Fourth Republic)

2009-2014: High Transitional Authority
1992-2009: Republic of Madagascar (Third Republic)
1975-1992: Democratic Republic of Madagascar
1960-1975: Malagasy Republic, independent state
1958-1960: Malagasy Republic, an autonomous republic within the French Community
1897-1958: French Madagascar, part of the French Empire
1882-1897: Malagasy Protectorate, part of the French Empire
1840-1882: Most of the island was united by Imerina as the Kingdom of Madagascar
1540-1840: Madagascar was divided in many states, one of this states was the Kingdom of Imerina
By the Middle Ages, over a dozen predominant ethnic identities had emerged on the island, typified by rule under a local chieftain. Among some communities, such as the Sakalava, Merina and Betsimisaraka, leaders seized the opportunity to unite these disparate communities and establish true kingdoms under their rule.
Around the 9th century AD Bantu migrants crossed the Mozambique Channel from East Africa.
Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and 550 AD by Indianized Austronesian peoples, arriving on outrigger canoes from Indonesia.

 Malawi Africa c.1480 July 6, 1964  United Kingdom 1964-present: Republic of Malawi

1963-1964: Nyasaland, part of the British Empire
1953–1963: Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, part of the British Empire
1907-1953: Nyasaland, part of the British Empire
1893–1907: British Central Africa Protectorate, part of the British Empire
1891-1893: Nyasaland Districts Protectorate, part of the British Empire
1480–1891: Kingdom of Maravi
The part of Africa now known as Malawi was settled by migrating Bantu groups around the 10th century.

 Malaysia Asia Aug 31, 1957[7] Aug 31, 1957  United Kingdom The Federation of Malaya gained independence in 1957; in 1963 it added territories of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore, and changed its name to Malaysia.[5] Singapore became independent in 1965.
 Maldives Asia 1140 July 26, 1965  United Kingdom Unified according to legend by King Koimala (1117–1141). Independent sultanate until 1887, when it became a British protectorate.
 Mali Africa 1230 Sep 22, 1960  France Mali Empire ca. 1230. A colony of France 1890–1960, then part of Mali Federation governed from Dakar, Senegal.
 Malta Europe Sep 21, 1964 Sep 21, 1964  United Kingdom 1974–present: Republic of Malta

1964-1974: State of Malta
1813-1964: Crown Colony of Malta
1800-1813: Protectorate of Malta
1798-1800: French occupation of Malta, the insurrection and independent Gozo
1530-1798: Order of Saint John
1130-1530: part of the Kingdom of Sicily
1091-1130: part of the County of Sicily
909-1091: part of the Fatimid Caliphate
870-909: part of the Abbasid Caliphate
395-870: part of the Byzantine Empire
218 BC-395 AD: part of Roman Sicilia
480 BC-218 BC: part of the Carthaginian Empire
800 BC-480 BC: part of the Phoenician Empire

 Marshall Islands Australia Oct 21, 1986 Oct 21, 1986  United States Compact of Free Association
 Mauritania Africa Nov 28, 1960 Nov 28, 1960  France Various Tuareg and Berber tribes.
 Mauritius Africa Mar 12, 1968 Mar 12, 1968  United Kingdom Previously controlled by the Netherlands and France.
 Mexico The Americas Sep 16, 1810 1864 Spain 1867–Present: Mexico United Mexican States

1864–1867: Mexico Second Mexican Empire
1846–1863: Mexico Second Federal Republic of Mexico
1835–1846: Mexico Centralist Republic of Mexico
1824–1835: Mexico First Mexican Republic
1823–1824: Mexico Provisional Government of Mexico
1821–1823: Mexico First Mexican Empire
1521–1821: Part of the Spanish Empire as Kingdom of Mexico in New Spain
Aztec Empire: 1421-1521
Mexica-Tenochtitlan: 100-700 AD
Zapotec Empire: 1300 BC-1521 AD
Olmec: 1300-1100 BC
Since 19,000 BC humans has been settled by the Native Mexicans, including Nahuatl.

 Micronesia, Federated States of Australia Nov 3, 1986 Nov 3, 1986  United States Compact of Free Association
 Moldova Europe Aug 27, 1991 Aug 27, 1991  Soviet Union
 Monaco Europe 1297 1945 Germany Previously occupied by Italy and France. Subject to Sardinia 1815–1861.
 Mongolia Asia 209 BC Mar 13, 1921 Republic of China Xiongnu Empire formed 209 BC;


Various nomadic Mongol states;
occupied by the Qing Dynasty (1699–1911) and the Republic of China (1919–1921)

 Montenegro Europe 1042 May 21, 2006 (independence referendum)
June 3, 2006
Serbia and Montenegro 2006–present: Montenegro
2003–2006: Part of the union of Serbia and Montenegro
1992–2003: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (with Serbia)
1945–1991: Part of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1943–1945: Occupied by the Nazi Germany
1941–1943: Occupied by the Kingdom of Italy
1918–1941: Part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes)
1910–1918: Kingdom of Montenegro
1852–1910: Principality of Montenegro
1514–1852: Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro
1499–1514: Part of the Ottoman Empire
1356–1499: Principality of Zeta
1217–1356: Part of Kingdom of Serbia
1042-1189: Kingdom of Duklja

625–1042: Duklja (vassal state of the Byzantine Empire)

 Morocco Africa 225 BC Apr 7, 1956 France
Spain
1631–present: Alaouite dynasty
Under French and Spanish protectorate (1912–1956).
 Mozambique Africa June 25, 1975 June 25, 1975  Portugal Portuguese colony from 1498
 Myanmar Asia 849 Jan 4, 1948  United Kingdom Pagan Kingdom founded 849. Occupied by Japan 1942–1945
 Namibia Africa Mar 21, 1990 Mar 21, 1990 South Africa German colony from 1884; governed by South Africa 1915-1990
 Nauru Australia Jan 31, 1968 Jan 31, 1968  Australia/ New Zealand/ United Kingdom Trust Territory of Nauru Previously occupied by Germany 1888, Australia 1914, Japan 1942-45
   Nepal Asia 1768 1768 (none) Autonomous throughout its recorded history, and certainly since its 1768 unification.[87] The ancient Maurya Empire occupied southern Nepal, but not the core Kathmandu valley.[citation needed]
 Netherlands Europe July 26, 1581 1945 Germany

1945–present:  Netherlands (reestablished)
1940-1945: Occupied by  Nazi Germany establishing as Dutch government-in-exile, a member of the allies during WWII.
1839-1940:  Netherlands
1815-1839: United Kingdom of the Netherlands
1813-1815: Sovereign Principality of the United Netherlands
1810-1813: Part of the  First French Empire
1806-1810: Occupied by the  First French Empire as Kingdom of Holland
1795-1806: Occupied by France France as the  Batavian Republic
1581-1795: The  Dutch Republic became an independent confederacy by seven Dutch provinces-seceded from Spanish rule.
1556-1714: Part of the  Spanish Empire
1549-1581: Seventeen Provinces
1482-1549: Habsburg Netherlands
1384-1482: Burgundian Netherlands
1190-1384: Parts of the  Holy Roman Empire as County of Hainaut, Duchy of Luxembourg, County of Artois, Duchy of Guelders, County of Namur, Duchy of Brabant, County of Holland, Bishopric of Utrecht.
959-1190: Lower Lorraine
855-959: Part of Lotharingia
843-855: Part of Middle Francia
600-734: Frisian Kingdom
481-843: Part of Francia
385-481 AD: Part of the Western Roman Empire as Gallia Belgica and Germania Inferior
3rd century: Inhabited by Salian Franks
22 BC-385 AD: Parts of the  Roman Empire as Gallia Belgica and Germania Inferior
55 BC-600 AD: Part of Germania
800-22 BC: Inhabited by the Celts, Gauls, and Germanic peoples.
1800-800 BC: Inhabited by the Elps
2700-1800 BC: Inhabited by the Beakers
Since 38,000 BC humans have been settled since Neanderthals from the North Sea floor off the coast of Zeeland.[88]

Note: From 1839, the  Kingdom of the Netherlands was established as the constitutional monarchy.

 New Zealand Australia Sep 25, 1907 Nov 25, 1947 United Kingdom Dominion status 1907, Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947.[89]
Maori tribesmen (iwi)
 Nicaragua The Americas Sep 15, 1821 Nov 21, 1898 Greater Republic of Central America 1898–Present: Nicaragua Republic of Nicaragua

1896–1898: Greater Republic of Central America (in the union with El Salvador and Honduras)
November 1852 – 1896: Nicaragua Republic of Nicaragua
October–November 1852: Federation of Central America (in the union with El Salvador and Honduras)
1838-1852: Nicaragua Republic of Nicaragua
1823–1838: Federal Republic of Central America (in the union with Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Costa Rica)
September 24, 1821 – 1823: Part of the First Mexican Empire as Province of Nicaragua
September 15–24, 1821: Republic of Nicaragua
1638-1894: Mosquito Coast, part of the  British Empire
1525–1821: Part of the Spanish Empire with a viceroyalty of New Spain as a Kingdom of Guatemala
Since c.2000 BC humans have been settled by Native Nicaraguans, including Chibcha.

 Niger Africa Aug 3, 1960 Aug 3, 1960  France
 Nigeria Africa Oct 1, 1960 Oct 1, 1960  United Kingdom
 North Macedonia Europe Sep 8, 1991 Sep 8, 1991 Yugoslavia 2019–present: North Macedonia Republic of North Macedonia

1991-2019: North Macedonia Republic of Macedonia (the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)
1946–1992: Part of the  Yugoslavia as Socialist Republic of Macedonia
1943–1946: Part of the  Democratic Federal Yugoslavia as Democratic Republic of Macedonia
1929–1943: Part of the  Kingdom of Yugoslavia as Vardar Banovina
1918–1929: Part of the  Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as South Serbia
1882–1918: Part of the Serbia Kingdom of Serbia
1867–1882: Part of the Serbia Principality of Serbia
1365-1867: Part of the  Ottoman Empire as Rumelia Eyalet
1346-1365 Part of the Serbian Empire
1185-1396: Part of the Second Bulgarian Empire
681-1018: Part of the First Bulgarian Empire
324-681: Part of the  Byzantine Empire as the province of Macedonia
148 BC-324 AD: Part of the  Roman Empire as the province of Macedonia
324-148 BC: Part of the Macedonian Empire
479-324 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire
Since 5700 BC humans have been settled passing the Vinča.

 Norway Europe 872 May 8, 1945 Germany Kingdom of Norway (872–1397). Law of Succession (1163). Kalmar Union (Personal union: 1397–1523). Denmark–Norway (Personal union: 1523–1533, Real union: 1537–1814). United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway (Personal union: 1814–1905). Haakon VII elected Norwegian king in a referendum (1905). Occupied by Germany (Reichskommissariat: 1940–45).
 Oman Asia 751 1743 Afsharid Imperial Standard (3 Stripes).svg Persia Previously occupied by Great Seljuq Empire, Ottoman Empire, Portugal (1508–1650), etc.
 Pakistan Asia Aug 14, 1947 Mar 23, 1956  United Kingdom 1956–present: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

1947-1956: Dominion of Pakistan
1849-1947: Part of the  British Empire as British Raj Punjab Province, part of the Empire of India
1799-1849: Sikh Empire
1747-1826: Durrani Empire
1716-1799: Sikh Misl
1591-1707: Mughal Empire
1520–1591: Divided between Arghun dynasty and Tarkhan dynasty
1351–1524: Samma dynasty
13th century-1351: Divided between parts of the Mongol Empire and Delhi Sultanate
879-1215: Ghurid Sultanate
879–1026: Hindu Shahi
854-1011: Part of the Abbasid Caliphate under the Habbari dynasty
819-999: Samanid Empire
Mid-8th-12th Centuries: Pratihara Empire
670-860: Part of the Umayyad Caliphate as Umayyad Sindh
643-661: Rashidun Caliphate
632-724: Brahman dynasty of Sindh
524-632: Rai dynasty
450-560: Hephthalite Empire
240-410 AD: Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom, part of the  Sasanian Empire
30–375 AD: Kushan Empire
19–c.240 AD: Indo-Parthian Kingdom, part of the Parthian Empire
150 BC–400 AD: Parts of the Indo-Scythian Kingdom as Apracharajas and Paratarajas
256 BC–125 BC: Part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
322-200 BC: Part of the Maurya Empire
329-323 BC: Part of the Macedonian Empire
550-330 BC: Part of the Achaemenid Empire
1500-500 BC: Inhabited by Vedic
1700-1500 BC: Inhabited by Cemetery H
c.3300-c.1300 BC: Part of the Indus Valley Civilisation
Since 2 million BC, Pakistan has been settled starting with Proto-humans.[90][91]

 Palau Australia Oct 1, 1994 Oct 1, 1994  United States Previously ruled by Spain, Germany, Japan.
 Palestine Asia Sovereignty disputed by  Israel Nov 15, 1988  Israel On 15 November 1988, the Palestinian Liberation Organization also proclaimed its independence of the State of Palestine and attained its autonomy as the Palestinian National Authority in 1994 in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the territories that are occupied by Israel since 1967.

Parts of West Bank are controlled by Israel, except for the Area A of the Palestinian National Authority. The Gaza Strip has been occupied by Hamas since the 2007 war after Israeli disengagement from Gaza in 2005.

The West Bank was occupied by Jordan from 1948-1967, and the Gaza Strip was occupied by Egypt from 1957-1967.

 Panama The Americas Nov 28, 1821 Nov 3, 1903  Colombia A colony of Spain until 1821, then a dependency of Colombia until 1903. Occupied by United States 1989–90.
 Papua New Guinea Australia Sep 16, 1975 Sep 16, 1975  Australia Papuan, Polynesians, and Melanesians before then.
 Paraguay The Americas May 14, 1811 1876  Empire of Brazil Occupied 1870–1876 by Brazil, in Triple Alliance with Argentina and Uruguay.[92] Colony of Spain before 1811.
 Peru The Americas July 28, 1821 Aug 25, 1839 North Peru
South Peru
1839–Present: Peru Republic of Peru

1836-1839: Peru–Bolivian Confederation
1821-1836: Peru Republic of Peru
1542-1824: Viceroyalty of Peru (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1542-1824: Governorate of New Castile (Part of the Spanish Empire)
1438–1542: Inca Empire
1197-1438: Kingdom of Cuzco
6th-11th Centuries AD: Tiwanaku-Wari Empire
Since 24,000 BC humans has been settled, including Native Peruvians such as Tiwanaku, Moche, Lima, Nasca Chavín and Virú.

 Philippines Asia 1402 July 4, 1946[note 18]  United States 1986–present: Fifth Philippine Republic
1981–1986: Fourth Philippine Republic

1973–1981: Under the Martial Law
1946–1972: Third Philippine Republic
1942–1943: A puppet state of the Japanese Empire (Second Philippine Republic)
1935–1942, 1945–1946: Commonwealth of the Philippines
1899–1899/1901: First Philippine Republic (terminated by USA (as an insurgency))
1898–1935: A territory of The United States
1535–1898: Captaincy General of the Philippines
Pre-1535: The Philippine Islands had a numerous sinified states, Indianized kingdoms and Muslim states. In Luzon, there were the Ivatan people, the Society of Cordillera, the Kingdoms of Pangasinan and Ma-i, Kota Selurong and the Tondo Dynasty. The Confederation of the Madyas and the Rajahnate of Cebu were in Visayas. Lastly, in Mindanao, there were the Sultanate of Maguindanao, Butuan Rajahnate and the Sultanate of Sulu. The Bruneian Empire occupied Palawan_(island) and parts of Mindanao too.

 Poland Europe 966 1945