Zimbabwean Ndebele language
|Native to||Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa|
|Region||Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South in Zimbabwe; North-East District in Botswana|
|2 million (2012)|
Official language in
|The Ndebele Language|
|People||amaNdebele (prev. Matebele)|
The Zimbabwean Ndebele language, also called Northern Ndebele, isiNdebele, Sindebele, or Ndebele is an African language belonging to the Nguni group of Bantu languages, and spoken by the Ndebele or Matabele people of Zimbabwe.
isiNdebele is related to the Zulu language spoken in South Africa. This is because the Ndebele people of Zimbabwe descend from followers of the Zulu leader Mzilikazi, who left KwaZulu in the early nineteenth century during the Mfecane.
The Zimbabwean Ndebele and Transvaal Ndebele languages are not variants of the same language; though they both fall in the Nguni group of Bantu languages, Zimbabwean Ndebele is essentially a dialect of Zulu, and the Transvaal Ndebele language falls within a different subgroup. The shared name is due to contact between Mzilikazi's people and the original Ndebele, through whose territory they crossed during the Mfecane.
There are seven vowel phonemes, written with the letters a, e, i, o, u.
- a is pronounced [a], approximately like a in father; e.g. abantwana (children)
- e is pronounced [ɛ] or [e], sometimes like e in bed; e.g. emoyeni (in the air)
- i is pronounced [i], like ee in see; e.g. siza (help)
- o is pronounced [ɔ] or [o], sometimes approximately like o in bone; e.g. okhokho (ancestors)
- u is pronounced [u], like oo in soon; e.g. umuntu (person)
In Ndebele there are three click consonants c, q and x.
c is made by placing the tip of the tongue against the front upper teeth and gums, the centre of the tongue is depressed and the tip of the tongue is drawn backwards. The resulting sound is similar to the sound used in English to express annoyance. Some examples are cina (end), cela (ask)
The q sound is made by raising the back of the tongue to touch the soft palate and touching the gums with the sides and tip of the tongue. The centre of the tongue is depressed and the tip drawn quickly away from the gum. The resulting sound is like the "pop" heard when quickly removing the cork from a bottle. Some examples are qalisa (start), qeda (finish)
The x sound is made by placing the tongue so that the back of the tongue touches the soft palate and the sides and tip of the tongue touch the gums. One side of the tongue is quickly withdrawn from the gums. Some examples are xoxa (discuss), ixoxo (frog).
- Transvaal Ndebele language
- Provinces of Zimbabwe
- Matabeleland North
- Matabeleland South
- Zimbabwean Ndebele at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "North Ndebele". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
- Skhosana, Philemon Buti (2009). "3". The Linguistic Relationship between Southern and Northern Ndebele (PDF).
- Shenk, J.R. A New Ndebele Grammar
|Zimbabwean Ndebele language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|