Discontinued Hugo Awards

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The Hugo Awards are presented every year by the World Science Fiction Society for the best science fiction or fantasy works and achievements of the previous year. The award is named after Hugo Gernsback, the founder of the pioneering science fiction magazine Amazing Stories, and was once officially known as the Science Fiction Achievement Award.[1] The award has been described as "a fine showcase for speculative fiction" and "the best known literary award for science fiction writing".[2][3] In addition to the regular awards that have been given in most years that the awards have been active, several discontinued Hugo Awards have been presented throughout the years, only to be removed after a few years.

When the Hugo awards were begun in 1953, each Worldcon organizing committee decided what awards they would give. Several awards were presented over the next few years which were not repeated in later conventions, unlike the primary categories which are still presented—such as Best Novel. These awards were the Best Cover Artist, Best Interior Illustrator, Excellence in Fact Articles, Best New SF Author or Artist, and #1 Fan Personality Hugos at the initial 1953 awards ceremony, the Best Feature Writer, Best Book Reviewer, and Most Promising New Author awards in 1956, the Outstanding Actifan award in 1958, and the Best New Author of 1958 award in 1959.[4][5][6][7]

In 1961, however, formal rules were set down for which categories would be awarded, which could only be changed by the World Science Fiction Society board.[8] Despite this, the 1964 convention awarded a Hugo Award for the Best SF Book Publisher, which was not on that list.[8] Immediately afterward the guidelines were changed to allow individual conventions to create additional categories, which was codified as up to two categories for that year. These additional awards were officially designated as Hugo Awards, but were not required to be repeated by future conventions.[9] This was later adjusted to only allow one additional category.[10] The Best SF Book Publisher award was repeated in 1965, and the Best All-Time Series award was given in 1966.[11][12] No other additional categories were added by 1974, when the guidelines were changed again to allow up to ten categories which would be chosen by each convention, though they were expected to be similar to those presented in the year before. Despite this change no new awards were added or previous awards removed before the guidelines were changed back to listing specific categories.[13][14]

The next discontinued Hugo award was the Other Forms award, given in 1988.[15] It was followed in 1990 by the Best Original Art Work award, which was listed again as a special award in 1991, though not actually awarded, and instated afterward as an official Hugo Award.[16][17] It was then removed from this status in 1996, and has not been awarded since.[18] The latest discontinued award was the Best Web Site special Hugo award, which was given in 2002 and 2005.[19][20]

Hugo Award nominees and winners are chosen by supporting or attending members of the annual World Science Fiction Convention, or Worldcon, and the presentation evening constitutes its central event. The selection process is defined in the World Science Fiction Society Constitution as instant-runoff voting with five nominees, except in the case of a tie. These five works on the ballot are those most-nominated by members that year, with no limit on the number of works that can be nominated. The 1953 through 1958 awards did not include any recognition of runner-up nominees, but since 1959 all five candidates have been recorded.[21] Initial nominations are made by members in January through March, while voting on the ballot of five nominations is performed roughly in April through July, subject to change depending on when that year's Worldcon is held.[22] Worldcons are generally held near Labor Day, and in a different city around the world each year.[1][23] Members are permitted to vote "no award", if they feel that none of the nominees is deserving of the award that year, and in the case that "no award" takes the majority the Hugo is not given in that category. The only time this has happened in these awards was in the 1959 Best New Author category.[7]

Winners and nominees[edit]

  *   Winners and joint winners   +   No winner selected

Best Cover Artist[edit]

Year Artist Ref.
1953 Bok, HannesHannes Bok and Ed Emshwiller* [4]

Best Interior Illustrator[edit]

Year Artist Ref.
1953 Finlay, VirgilVirgil Finlay* [4]

Excellence in Fact Articles[edit]

Year Author Ref.
1953 Ley, WillyWilly Ley* [4]

Best New SF Author or Artist[edit]

Year Author/Artist Ref.
1953 Farmer, Philip JoséPhilip José Farmer* [4]

#1 Fan Personality[edit]

Year Fan Ref.
1953 Ackerman, Forrest JForrest J Ackerman* [4]

Sometimes referred to as the "BNF Award". According to an interim report issued by the Philcon II convention committee while voting was still going on, the next most popular candidate to Ackerman at the time was Harlan Ellison. When Ackerman was handed the trophy at Philcon II (by Isaac Asimov), he actually physically declined, saying it should go to Ken Slater, to whom the trophy was later forwarded by the con committee.[24]

Best Feature Writer[edit]

Year Writer Ref.
1956 Ley, WillyWilly Ley* [5]

Best Book Reviewer[edit]

Year Reviewer Ref.
1956 Knight, DamonDamon Knight* [5]

Most Promising New Author[edit]

Year Author Ref.
1956 Silverberg, RobertRobert Silverberg* [5]

Outstanding Actifan[edit]

Year Fan Ref.
1958 Willis, WaltWalt Willis* [6]

Best New Author[edit]

Year Author Ref.
1959 (no award)+ [7]
Aldiss, BrianBrian Aldiss [7]
Ashwell, PaulinePauline Ashwell [7]
Brown, Rosel GeorgeRosel George Brown [7]
Charbonneau, LouisLouis Charbonneau [7]
Reed, KitKit Reed [7]

Best SF Book Publisher[edit]

Year Publisher Ref.
1964 Ace Books* [25]
Pyramid Books [25]
Ballantine Books [25]
Doubleday [25]
1965 Ballantine Books* [11]
Ace Books [11]
Victor Gollancz Ltd [11]
Pyramid Books [11]

Best All-Time Series[edit]

Year Series Author Ref.
1966 Foundation* Asimov, IsaacIsaac Asimov [12]
Barsoom Burroughs, Edgar RiceEdgar Rice Burroughs [12]
Future History Heinlein, Robert A.Robert A. Heinlein [12]
Lensmen Smith, E. E.E. E. Smith [12]
The Lord of the Rings Tolkien, J. R. R.J. R. R. Tolkien [12]

Other Forms[edit]

Year Work Creator(s) Publisher Ref.
1988 Watchmen* Moore, AlanAlan Moore and Dave Gibbons DC Comics [15]
Wild Cards Martin, George R. R.George R. R. Martin Bantam Spectra [15]
I, Robot: The Movie Ellison, HarlanHarlan Ellison Asimov's Science Fiction [15]
The Essential Ellison: A 35-Year Retrospective Ellison, HarlanHarlan Ellison, Terry Dowling, Richard Delap, and Gil Lamont Nemo Press [15]
Cvltvre Made Stvpid Weller, TomTom Weller Houghton Mifflin [15]

Best Original Art Work[edit]

Year Artwork Artist(s) Publisher Ref.
1990 Cover of Rimrunners* Maitz, DonDon Maitz Questar [26]
Cover of Hyperion Ruddell, GaryGary Ruddell Doubleday [26]
Cover of Paradise Whelan, MichaelMichael Whelan Tor Books [26]
Cover of The Renegades of Pern Whelan, MichaelMichael Whelan Del Rey Books [26]
Cover of Quozl Gurney, JamesJames Gurney Ace Books [26]
Cover of The Stress of Her Regard Gurney, JamesJames Gurney Ace Books [26]
1992 Cover of The Summer Queen* Whelan, MichaelMichael Whelan Warner Books [27]
Cover of Stations of the Tide Eggleton, BobBob Eggleton Asimov's Science Fiction [27]
Cover of The White Mists of Power Canty, ThomasThomas Canty Roc Books [27]
Cover of Heavy Time Maitz, DonDon Maitz Questar [27]
Cover of Lunar Descent Eggleton, BobBob Eggleton Ace Books [27]
1993 Dinotopia* Gurney, JamesJames Gurney Turner Publishing Company [28]
Cover of Aristoi Burns, JimJim Burns Tor Books [28]
Portrait of Isaac Asimov Whelan, MichaelMichael Whelan Asimov's Science Fiction [28]
Cover of Bridges Walotsky, RonRon Walotsky Fantasy & Science Fiction [28]
Cover of Illusion Whelan, MichaelMichael Whelan Bantam Spectra [28]
1994 Space Fantasy Commemorative Stamp Booklet* Hickman, StephenStephen Hickman United States Postal Service [29]
Cover of The Little Things Canty, ThomasThomas Canty Fantasy & Science Fiction [29]
Cover of Cold Iron Parkinson, KeithKeith Parkinson Asimov's Science Fiction [29]
1995 Lady Cottington's Pressed Fairy Book* Froud, BrianBrian Froud and Terry Jones Pavilion Books [30]
Cover of Foreigner Whelan, MichaelMichael Whelan DAW Books [30]
Cover of Gun, with Occasional Music Koelsch, MichaelMichael Koelsch Harcourt Brace [30]
1996 Dinotopia: The World Beneath* Gurney, JamesJames Gurney Turner Publishing Company [31]
Cover of Tide of Stars Eggleton, BobBob Eggleton Analog Science Fiction and Fact [31]
Cover of Tea and Hamsters Lippincott, GaryGary Lippincott Fantasy & Science Fiction [31]
Cover of Dankden Eggleton, BobBob Eggleton Fantasy & Science Fiction [31]
Cover of Renascence Krauter, George H.George H. Krauter Analog Science Fiction and Fact [31]

Best Web Site[edit]

Year Website Editor(s) Ref.
2002 Locus Online (www.locusmag.com)* Kelly, Mark R.Mark R. Kelly [19]
Sci Fiction (www.scifi.com) Engler, CraigCraig Engler [19]
SF Site (www.sfsite.com) Turner, RodgerRodger Turner [19]
Strange Horizons (www.strangehorizons.com) Mohanraj, Mary AnneMary Anne Mohanraj [19]
Tangent Online (www.tangentonline.com) Truesdale, DaveDave Truesdale and Tobias S. Buckell [19]
2005 Sci Fiction (www.scifi.com/scifiction)* Datlow, EllenEllen Datlow [20]
Locus Online (www.locusmag.com) Kelly, Mark R.Mark R. Kelly [20]
Emerald City (www.emcit.com) Morgan, CherylCheryl Morgan [20]
Strange Horizons (www.strangehorizons.com) Groppi, Susan MarieSusan Marie Groppi [20]
eFanzines (www.efanzines.com) Burns, BillBill Burns [20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The Locus index to SF Awards: About the Hugo Awards". Locus. Oakland, California: Locus. Archived from the original on 2010-01-03. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  2. ^ Jordison, Sam (2008-08-07). "An International Contest We Can Win". The Guardian. London, England: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2009-07-29. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  3. ^ Cleaver, Emily (2010-04-20). "Hugo Awards Announced". Litro Magazine. London, England: Ocean Media. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "1953 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  5. ^ a b c d "1956 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  6. ^ a b "1958 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "1959 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  8. ^ a b "The Con-committee Chairman's Guide, by George Scithers. Chapter 10 - The Constitution and Bylaws". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  9. ^ "The World Science Fiction Society Constitution and Bylaws 1963". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  10. ^ "The Hugo Awards: Introduction". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-20. 
  11. ^ a b c d e "1965 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f "1966 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  13. ^ "Notes from the 1974 WSFS Business Meeting". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  14. ^ "Minutes of 1980 WSFS Business Meeting". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f "1988 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  16. ^ "Minutes of 1990 WSFS Business Meeting". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  17. ^ "The World Science Fiction Society - 1991 Minutes". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  18. ^ "1996 WSFS Business Meeting Minutes". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f "2002 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f "2005 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  21. ^ "The Hugo Awards: FAQ". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-20. 
  22. ^ "The Hugo Awards: Introduction". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-20. 
  23. ^ "World Science Fiction Society / Worldcon". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2010-04-20. 
  24. ^ Glyer, Mike (2009-02-10). "Ackerman's Hugo". File 770. Archived from the original on 2011-08-25. Retrieved 2011-08-25. 
  25. ^ a b c d "1964 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f "1990 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  27. ^ a b c d e "1992 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  28. ^ a b c d e "1993 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  29. ^ a b c "1994 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  30. ^ a b c "1995 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  31. ^ a b c d e "1996 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on 2011-05-07. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 

External links[edit]