Unification movement

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Unification Chuch
Abbreviation UC
Classification New religious movement
Region Worldwide
Founder Sun Myung Moon
Origin 1954
Seoul, South Korea
Unification movement
Hangul 통일교
Hanja 統一
Revised Romanization Tong-il Gyo
McCune–Reischauer T'ongil Kyo

The Unification movement or Unificationism, commonly called the Unification Church (UC), is a worldwide Christian new religious movement. Its members are colloquially called "Moonies". It was officially founded under the name Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (HSA-UWC) in Seoul, South Korea, in 1954, by Sun Myung Moon, a Korean religious leader also known for his business ventures and engagement in social and political causes.[1][2][3][4]

The movement is a spiritually-based movement of legally independent organizations.[5] It is sometimes known as the Unification Church, however its members point out that Moon repeatedly proclaimed the "end of religion" and his desire to not have a "church" so that hence movement is a more apt way of describing the theology, organizations, and individuals associated with him.[6][7][8][9][1] The movement has had strong criticism and has attracted numerous controversies, including that of being a dangerous cult.[10][11] Its involvement in politics has also been criticized.[12] The beliefs of the Unification movement, expressed in the book Divine Principle, have been criticized by both Jewish and Christian scholars.[13]

Terminology[edit]

Moonie is a colloquial term sometimes used to refer to members of the Unification movement. This is derived from the name of the UC's founder Sun Myung Moon,[14] and was first used in 1974 by the American media.[15] Unification Church members have used the word Moonie, including Moon himself,[16] President of the Unification Theological Seminary David Kim,[17] and Bo Hi Pak, Moon's aide and president of Little Angels Children's Folk Ballet of Korea.[18] In the 1980s and 1990s the Unification Church of the United States undertook an extensive public relations campaign against the use of the word by the news media.[19] In 1989 the Chicago Tribune was picketed after referring to members as "Moonies".[20][21] Minister and civil rights leader James Bevel handed out fliers at the protest which said: "Are the Moonies our new niggers?"[21] On an October 6, 1994 broadcast of Nightline, host Ted Koppel stated: "On last night's program ...I used the term 'Moonies'. This is a label which members of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church find demeaning and offensive, and I'd like to apologize for its use."[22] In other contexts it is still sometimes used and not always considered pejorative.[23][24]

History[edit]

Origins in Korea[edit]

Unification movement founder Sun Myung Moon giving a public speech in the Las Vegas Valley in 2010

Unification movement members believe that Jesus appeared to Mun Yong-myong when he was 16 years old on Easter morning of 1935 (April 17) and asked him to accomplish the work left unfinished because of his crucifixion. After a period of prayer and consideration, he accepted the mission, and later changed his name to Mun Son-myong (Sun Myung Moon).[25]

Moon's teachings, called the Divine Principle, were first published as Wonli Wonbon (원리 원본, "Original Text of the Divine Principle") in 1945. The earliest manuscript was lost in North Korea during the Korean War. A second, expanded version, Wonli Hesol (원리 해설), or Explanation of the Divine Principle, was published in 1957. Its most propagated text, Exposition of the Divine Principle, was published in 1966.

Moon preached in northern Korea after the end of World War II and in 1946 was imprisoned by the communist regime in North Korea. He was released from prison by the advance of United Nations forces during the Korean War, and moved south along with many other North Koreans. He built his first church from mud and cardboard boxes as a refugee in Busan.[26]

Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity[edit]

Moon founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (HSA-UWC) in Seoul on May 1, 1954. It expanded rapidly in South Korea and by the end of 1955 had 30 centers throughout the nation.[1] In his autobiography, Moon wrote that his early followers:

"...hung out a sign that read 'Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity.' We chose this name to signify that we belonged to no denomination, and we certainly had no plans to create a new one... 'Unification Church' became our commonly known name later, but it was given to us by others."[27]

The HSA-UWC expanded throughout the world with most members living in South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, and other nations in East Asia.[28][1]

In 1958, Moon sent missionaries to Japan, and in 1959, to America. Missionary work took place in Washington, DC, New York, and California. It found success in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the HSA-UWC expanded in Oakland, Berkeley, and San Francisco. By 1971, the HSA-UWC in the US had about 500 members. By 1973, it had some presence in all 50 states and a few thousand members.[26] In the 1970s, American HSA-UWC members were noted for their enthusiasm and dedication, which often included raising money for UC projects on so-called "mobile fundraising teams".[29][30]

The HSA-UWC also sent missionaries to Europe. They entered Czechoslovakia in 1968 and remained underground until the 1990s.[31] Unification Church activity in South America began in the 1970s with missionary work. Later, the HSA-UWC made large investments in civic organizations and business projects, including an international newspaper.[32]

Starting in the 1990s, the HSA-UWC expanded in Russia and other former communist nations. Hak Ja Han, Moon's wife made a radio broadcast to the nation from the State Kremlin Palace.[33] As of 1994, the HSA-UWC had about 5,000 members in Russia.[34] About 500 Russian students had been sent to USA to participate in 40-day workshops.[35]

Moon moved to the United States in 1971, although he remained a citizen of the Republic of Korea. In the 1970s, he gave a series of public speeches in the United States, including one in Madison Square Garden in New York City in 1974; two in 1976 in Yankee Stadium in New York City; and one on the grounds of the Washington Monument in Washington, DC, where he spoke on "God's Hope for America" to 300,000 people. In 1975, the HSA-UWC held one of the largest peaceful gatherings in history, with 1.2 million people in Yeouido, South Korea.[36]

Starting in the 1980s Moon instructed HSA-UWC members to take part in a program called "Home Church" in which they reached out to neighbors and community members through public service.[37] In 1982, the first large scale Blessing ceremony held outside of Korea took place in Madison Square Garden in New York City with 2075 couples. In 1988, Moon matched 2,500 Korean members with Japanese members for a Blessing ceremony held in Korea, partly in order to promote unity between the two nations.[38][39] In 1991 Moon announced that Um members should return to their hometowns and undertake apostolic work there. Massimo Introvigne, who studied the Unification Church and other new religious movements, said that this confirmed that full-time membership is no longer considered crucial to Um members.[26]

Family Federation for World Peace and Unification[edit]

On May 1, 1994 (the 40th anniversary of the founding of the HSA-UWC), Moon declared that the era of the Unification Church had ended and inaugurated a new organization: the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (FFWPU) would include Unification Church members and members of other religious organizations working toward common goals, especially on issues of sexual morality and reconciliation between people of different religions, nations, and races. The FFWPU co-sponsored Blessing ceremonies in which thousands of non–Unification Church married couples were given the marriage blessing previously given only to Unification Church members.[40][41]

In 2000 the FFWPU co-sponsored the Million Family March, a rally in Washington D.C. to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony, along with the Nation of Islam.[42]Louis Farrakhan was the main speaker at the event which was held on October 16, 2000; the fifth anniversary of the Million Man March, which was also organized by Farrakhan.[43] FFWPU leader Dan Fefferman wrote to his colleagues acknowledging that Farrakhan’s and Moon’s views differed on multiple issues but shared a view of a "God-centered family".[44]

In 2003, Korean FFWPU members started a political party in South Korea, "The Party for God, Peace, Unification, and Home." An inauguration declaration stated the new party would focus on preparing for Korean reunification by educating the public about God and peace. A FFWPU official said that similar political parties would be started in Japan and the United States.[45] Since 2003, the FFWPU-related Universal Peace Federation's Middle East Peace Initiative has been organizing group tours of Israel and Palestine to promote understanding, respect, and reconciliation among Jews, Muslims, and Christians.[46][47]

Timeline[edit]

1920s[edit]

On February 25, 1920, Moon was born Mun Yong-myeong in modern-day Sangsa-ri (上思里), Deogun-myon, Jeongju-gun, North P'yŏng'an Province, at a time when Korea was under Japanese rule. Moon's birthday was recorded as January 6 by the traditional lunar calendar (February 25, 1920, according to the Gregorian Calendar).[48][49]

1930s[edit]

Around 1930 Moon's family, who followed traditional Confucianist beliefs, converted to Christianity and joined the Presbyterian Church, where he later taught Sunday school.[50]

Unification Church members believe that Jesus appeared to Mun Yong-myong (his birth name) when Moon was 15 on April 17, 1935, and asked him to accomplish the work left unfinished after his crucifixion. After a period of prayer and consideration, Moon accepted the mission, later changing his name to Mun Son-myong (Moon Sun-myung or Sun Myung Moon).[51]

1940s[edit]

In November 1943, Moon married Sun Kil Choi.[52]

In 1943, Hak Ja Han, Moon's future wife, was born in North Korea.[53][54]

After World War II and the Japanese occupation ended in 1945, Moon began preaching his message.[50]

In 1946, Moon traveled alone to Pyongyang in Communist-ruled North Korea.[55] Moon was arrested on allegations of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp.[56]

1950s[edit]

In 1950, after serving 34 months of his sentence, Moon was released from North Korea during the Korean War when United Nations troops advanced on the camp and the guards fled.[26]

In 1953, Moon divorced Choi.[52] It is also reported that he had a child with a different woman in 1954.[57][58][59]

Moon built his first church as a refugee in Pusan before formally founding "The Holy Spirit(ual) Association for the Unification of World Christianity" in Seoul on May 1, 1954. The church expanded rapidly in South Korea and by the end of 1955 had 30 church centers throughout the nation.[26]

He published the foundation book of the church, Wolli Hesol, or Explanation of the Divine Principle, in 1957.[26]

In 1958, Moon sent missionaries to Japan, and in 1959, to the United States.[26]

1960s[edit]

Moon married his second wife, Hak Ja Han, on April 11, 1960, soon after she turned 17 years old, in a ceremony called the Holy Marriage. Han, called Mother or True Mother by followers, and her husband together are referred to as the True Parents by members of the Unification Church. Han gave birth to 14 children; her second daughter died in infancy. The family is known in the church as the True Family and the children as the True Children.[60]

In 1961 Moon established the Unification Church wedding or marriage rededication ceremony, known as the "Blessing." It is given to married (or engaged) couples. The first Blessing ceremony was held for 36 couples in Seoul, South Korea by the Moons shortly after their own marriage in 1960. All the couples were members of the church. Rev. Moon matched all of the couples except 12 who were already married to each other before joining the church.[61][62]

In 1962, Moon and other church members founded the Little Angels Children’s Folk Ballet of Korea, a children's dance troop which presents traditional Korean folk dances. He said that this was to project a positive image of South Korea to the world.[63]

In the early 1960s John Lofland lived with Unification Church missionary Young Oon Kim and a small group of American members and studied their activities in trying to promote their beliefs and win new members. Lofland noted that most of their efforts were ineffective and that most of the people who joined did so because of personal relationships with other members, often family relationships. Lofland published his findings in 1964 as a doctoral thesis entitled "The World Savers: A Field Study of Cult Processes", and in 1966 in book form by Prentice-Hall as Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith. .[64][65][66][67]

Moon also sent missionaries to Europe. The church entered Czechoslovakia in 1968 and remained underground until the 1990s.[31]

1970s[edit]

By 1971, the Unification Church of the United States had about 500 members. By 1973, the church had some presence in all 50 states and a few thousand members.[26]

In the 1970s the Unification church, along with some other new religious movements, became a target of the anti-cult movement. On the basis of theories that have not gained acceptance in mainline social science,[68] "anti-cult" activists accused the church of having "brainwashed" its members.[69] At the same time, members of the Unification Church reported that they were kidnapped and forcibly "deprogrammed" by those who wanted to pull them out of the Unification Church.[70]

In 1972, Moon held the first International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences.[25][71] The first conference had 20 participants, while the largest conference in Seoul in 1982, had 808 participants from over 100 countries.[72][73]

In 1974, Moon asked church members in the United States to support President Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal when Nixon was being pressured to resign his office. On February 1, 1974 Nixon publicly thanked them for their support and officially received Moon. This brought the church into widespread public and media attention.[74]

In the 1970s, Moon gave a series of public speeches in the United States, including one in Madison Square Garden in New York City in 1974 and two in 1976: in Yankee Stadium in New York City, and on the grounds of the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C., where Moon spoke on "God's Hope for America" to 300,000 people. In 1975, the Unification Church held one of the largest peaceful gatherings in history, with 1.2 million people in Yoido, South Korea.[75]

In 1975, Moon sent out missionaries to 120 countries. Unification Church activity in South America began in the 1970s with missionary work. Later, the church made large investments in civic organizations and business projects, including an international newspaper.[32]

In 1975, Moon founded the International Relief and Friendship Foundation,[76] a charitable fund that co-sponsors UN and UNESCO programs[77][78] to implement the Millennium Development Goals in the Middle East, Haiti, and Africa.[79][80][81][82]

In 1975 Moon founded the Unification Theological Seminary, in Barrytown, New York. Its purpose has been described as training leaders and theologians within the Unification Church and partly in order to improve relations of the Unification Church with religious institutions. Professors from other denominations, including a Methodist minister, a Presbyterian, and a Roman Catholic priest, as well as a rabbi, were hired to teach.[83][84][85][86][87]

In 1976 News World Communications was founded in New York City by Moon. Its first two newspapers, The News World (later renamed the New York City Tribune) and the Spanish-language Noticias del Mundo, were published in New York from 1976 until the early 1990s.[88][89]

In 1976 the American Jewish Committee released a report which stated that Divine Principle contained "pejorative language, stereotyped imagery, and accusations of collective sin and guilt."[90][91] This was disputed by Mose Durst, the president of the Unification Church of the United States and himself a convert from Judaism.[92][93][94]

In 1977 representatives from the American Jewish Committee, the National Council of Churches, and the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York held a press conference to say that the Divine Principle contains antisemitic references and heresy.[95] In response Durst, Peter Ross, and Andrew Wilson expressed regret over some members' misunderstanding of Judaism and urged better relations with the Jewish community.[96][97][93]

In 1977 Frederick Sontag, a professor of philosophy at Pomona College and a minister in the United Church of Christ.,[98] spent 10 months visiting church members in North America, Europe, and Asia as well as interviewing Moon at his home in New York State. He reported his findings and observations in Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, published by Abingdon Press. The book also provides an overview of Unification Church beliefs.[99] In an interview with UPI Sontag compared the Unification Church with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and said that he expected its practices to conform more to mainstream American society as its members become more mature. He added that he did not want to be considered an apologist for the UC but a close look at its theology is important: "They raise some incredibly interesting issues."[100]

1980s[edit]

In 1980 Moon asked church members to found CAUSA International, an anti-communist educational organization based in New York.[101][102]

In 1982 the first large scale Blessing ceremony held outside of Korea took place in Madison Square Garden in New York City with 2075 couples. In 1988, Moon matched 2,500 Korean members with Japanese members for a Blessing ceremony held in Korea, partly in order to promote unity between the two nations.[38][39]

In 1982, Moon sponsored the US$50 million movie Inchon about the Korean War. However it was not a commercial success.[103][104][105][106]

In 1982 News World Communications founded The Washington Times in Washington D.C.

In 1982, Moon was convicted in the United States of filing false federal income tax returns and conspiracy: see United States v. Sun Myung Moon. He served 13 months of the sentence at the Federal Correctional Institution, Danbury.[107][108] The case was protested as a case of selective prosecution and a threat to religious freedom by, among others, Jerry Falwell, head of Moral Majority, Joseph Lowery, head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Harvey Cox a Professor of Divinity at Harvard, and Eugene McCarthy, United States Senator and former Democratic Party presidential candidate.[109][110]

In 1984 British sociologist Eileen Barker published The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing?, based on her seven-year study of Unification Church members in the United Kingdom and the United States.[111] She rejected the then popular "brainwashing" theory as an explanation for conversion to the Unification Church.[112] The book was given the Distinguished Book Award for 1985 by the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion.[113]

In August 1985, seven years before the fall of Soviet Union, the Professors World Peace Academy, an organization founded by Moon, sponsored a conference in Geneva to debate the theme "The situation in the world after the fall of the communist empire." The conference was chaired by professors Morton Kaplan and Aleksandras Štromas.[114]

In 1987, church member and documentary filmmaker Lee Shapiro was killed in Afghanistan during the Soviet–Afghan War.[115][116]

In 1987, scholars with American Psychological Association rejected the hypotheses of those who accused the Unification Church of brainwashing and coercive persuasion, stating that their "conclusions...cannot be said to be scientific in any meaningful sense".[117]

In 1989, Moon founded Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma Korean football team.[118]

1990s[edit]

In April 1990 Moon visited the Soviet Union and met with President Mikhail Gorbachev. Moon expressed support for the political and economic transformations under way in the Soviet Union. At the same time the Unification Church was expanding into formerly communist nations.[119]

In 1990, Unification Church founded its $8m Universal Ballet project, with Soviet-born Oleg Vinogradov as its art director and Julia Moon as its prima ballerina. At the opening ceremony, letters of congratulation from President Bush and John Frohnmayer, chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts, were read.[120]

In 1991 Moon met with Kim Il Sung, the North Korean President, to discuss ways to achieve peace on the Korean peninsula, as well as on international relations, tourism, etc.[121]

In 1991 Moon announced that church members should return to their hometowns and undertake apostolic work there. Massimo Introvigne, who studied the Unification Church and other new religious movements, said that this confirmed that full-time membership is no longer considered crucial to church members.[26]

In 1992 Moon gave the wedding blessing for the 30,000 couples at the Seoul Olympic Stadium.[122] Three years later he did it again for 360,000 couples here.[123]

In 1992 Han founded the Women's Federation for World Peace (WFWP), an organization whose stated purpose is to encourage women to work more actively in promoting peace in their communities and greater society. It has members in 143 countries.[124][125][126]

As of December 1994, Unification Church had invested $150 million in Uruguay. Members own the country's largest hotel, one of its leading banks, the second-largest newspaper and two of the largest printing plants.[127]

In 1994, Moon was officially invited to the funeral of Kim Il Sung, in spite of the absence of diplomatic relations between North Korea and South Korea.[128]

In 1996 the News World Communications founded Tiempos Del Mundo, a newspaper in Spanish circulating in 16 countries of Latin America.[129]

In 1998 Irving Louis Horowitz, sociologist, questioned the relationship between the Unification Church and scholars whom it paid to conduct research on its behalf.[130]

In 1998, Unification Movement forgave a $90 million loan to the University of Bridgeport and donated an additional $15 million.[131]

In 1998, the Unification Movement launched operations in North Korea with the approval of the Government of South Korea, which had prohibited business relationships between North and South before;[132] and built a church there.[133]

2000s[edit]

In 2000 the Unification Church co-sponsored the Million Family March, a rally in Washington D.C. to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony, along with the Nation of Islam.[42] Louis Farrakhan was the main speaker at the event which was held on October 16, 2000; the fifth anniversary of the Million Man March, which was also organized by Farrakhan.[43]

Since 2000, Unification Church's Pyeonghwa Motors has invested more than $300 million to the automobile industry of North Korea.[134] In 2000, "an event of historical importance" occurred, according to a live broadcast for the state-owned Korea Broadcasting System, as 78 North Korean girls and boys arrived at the Unification Church's cross-cultural "ice-breaker" event, where guests such as the minister of unification, Park Jae-Kyu, and the minister of culture, Park Jie Won were present.[135]

In 2000 News World Communications bought the news agency United Press International.[136]

In 2001, the Roman Catholic Church archbishop Emmanuel Milingo was wed by Moon with a Unification Church member in a Blessing ceremony. This was opposed by Catholic authorities, including Pope John Paul II.[137]

In 2003, on notification by the Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, about 500 Christians, Muslims, Jews and other international and interfaith tourists joined the Unification Church Middle East Peace Initiative "to such a degree that the Old Gates were opened by the Israeli police near the Wailing Wall, and by the Muslim leadership at Al Aqsa, without incident", as the official UN-report says.[138]

In 2003, Unification Church held the Interreligious Peace Sports Festival between the people of various faiths, which is, according to the UNESCO official data, "an annual sporting event designed to build and promote friendship and peace among people from different cultural and religious backgrounds using the powerful medium of sports competition". The college team of Sun Moon University, which some described as the best in South Korea won the tournament.[139][140]

In 2003 Moon sponsored the first Peace Cup international club football tournament.[141][142][143] The Los Angeles Galaxy, which competes in Major League Soccer, played in South Korea in the Peace Cup.[144] During the event Pelé, widely regarded as the best soccer player of all time and former Brazilian Sports Minister, met with Moon.[145]

In 2003, Korean Unification Church members started a political party in South Korea. It was named "The Party for God, Peace, Unification, and Home." In an inauguration declaration, the new party said it would focus on preparing for the reunification of the South and North Korea by educating the public about God and peace.[45]

In 2004, at a ceremony on March 23 in the Dirksen Senate Office Building, in Washington, D.C., Moon crowned himself with what was called the "Crown of Peace."[146][147] Lawmakers who attended included Senator Mark Dayton (D-Minn.), Representatives Roscoe Bartlett (R-Md.) and Elijah Cummings (D-Md.), as well as former Representative Walter Fauntroy (D-D.C.) . Key organizers of the event included George Augustus Stallings, Jr., a former Roman Catholic priest who had been married by Moon, and Michael Jenkins, the president of the Unification Church of the United States at that time.[146] Rep. Danny K. Davis played an active role in the ceremony.[147]

In April 2008, Moon appointed his youngest son Hyung Jin Moon to be the new leader of the Unification Church and the worldwide Unification Movement, saying, "I hope everyone helps him so that he may fulfill his duty as the successor of the True Parents."[148]

On July 19, 2008, Moon, Han, and fourteen others were slightly injured when their Sikorsky S-92 helicopter crashed during an emergency landing and burst into flames in Gapyeong.[149][150]

In 2009, Moon presided over a Blessing ceremony for 40,000 people on the campus of the Sunmoon University; the ceremony was supported by Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Korea.[151]

In 2009 Moon visited England with his family while his son Hyung Jin Moon was greeted by parliamentarians and gave a speech in the British Parliament.[152]

In 2009, Moon's autobiography, As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen (Korean: 평화를 사랑하는 세계인으로),[153] was published by Gimm-Young Publishers in South Korea. The book became a bestseller in Korea and Japan.[154][155][156][157]

In 2009 during the preparation of North Korea national football team to World Cup 2010, Moon brought his Clube Atlético Sorocaba to Pyeongyang and organized a friendly match between them, which was reportedly described as a "gift" to North Koreans.[158]

2010s[edit]

In 2010, Forbes reported that Moon and Han were living in South Korea while their children took more responsibility for the day-to-day leadership of the Unification Church and its affiliated organizations.[159]

In 2011, construction of $18 million Yeosu Expo Hotel was completed; the hotel located at Moon-owned The Ocean Resort in Yeosu, the venue of the Expo 2012.[160] The opening ceremony was attended by the governor of the relevant province.[160][161] Another one, The Ocean Hotel, was completed in February 2012, and its opening ceremony was also attended by the governor and the president of Expo 2012 organizing committee.[162] According to his followers, "Rev. Moon believes that fish can provide food for the entire world "[163] and "Rev. Moon is just very interested in the ocean. He feels It's the last frontier on this Earth, and one that is extremely necessary in putting this Earth back into Its orbit". The seavilization-themed Yeosu Expo 2012 is titled "The Living Ocean and Coast: Diversity of Resources and Sustainable Activities".[164]

In December 2011 in Pyongyang, to mark the 20th anniversary of Sun Myung Moon's visit to the North Korea, de jure President Kim Yong Nam hosted the younger son of Sun Myung Moon's in the official residence.[165][166] The church donated 600 tons of flour to North Korean children of Jeongju Province, the birthplace of Sun Myung Moon.[167][168] Also, after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, it donated $1.7 million to the Japanese Red Cross.[169][170]

On August 15, 2012, Moon was reported to be gravely ill and was put on a respirator at the intensive care unit of St. Mary’s Hospital at The Catholic University of Korea in Seoul. He was admitted on August 14, 2012, after suffering from pneumonia earlier in the month.[171] He died there on September 2.[172]

Moon was posthumously awarded North Korea's National Reunification Prize in 2012[173] and a meritorious award by K-League.[174][175] On the first anniversary of Moon's death, North Korean leader Kim Jong-un expressed condolences to Han and the family saying: "Kim Jong-un prayed for the repose of Moon, who worked hard for national concord, prosperity and reunification and world peace."[176]

In 2014 the FFWPU sponsored a 43-day bus tour of the United States for its members which included visits to each of Moon's original holy grounds.[177] In 2015 it opened a conference center in Las Vegas, Nevada.[178] In 2016 a study sponsored by the Unification Theological Seminary found that American members were divided in their choices in the 2016 United States presidential election, with the largest bloc supporting Senator Bernie Sanders.[179]

Beliefs[edit]

The Unification Church is among the minority of new religious movements who have introduced their own unique religious texts.[180] The Divine Principle or Exposition of the Divine Principle (Hangul원리강론; RRWeolli Gangnon) is the main theological textbook of the Unification Church. It was co-written by Moon and early disciple Hyo Won'eu and first published in 1966. A translation entitled Divine Principle was published in English in 1973.

The Divine Principle lays out the core of UC theology, and is held by its believers to have the status of holy scripture. Following the format of systematic theology, it includes (1) God's purpose in creating human beings, (2) the fall of man, and (3) restoration – the process through history by which God is working to remove the ill effects of the fall and restore humanity back to the relationship and position that God originally intended.[181]

View of Jesus[edit]

Jesus has a great importance in the teachings of the Unification movement, although its view of him differs from that of Nicene Christianity. Central to Unification teachings is the concept that fallen humanity can be restored to God only through Jesus the Messiah, who comes as a new Adam to become the new head of the human race, replacing the sinful parents, through whom mankind can be reborn into God's family. According to the Divine Principle, Jesus of Nazareth is this Christ.[182]

In 1980 Unification theologian Young Oon Kim wrote:

Unification theology teaches that Jesus came to establish the kingdom of heaven on earth. As St. Paul wrote, Jesus was to be the new Adam restoring the lost garden of Eden. For this purpose he chose twelve apostles, symbolizing the original twelve tribes of Israel, and sent out seventy disciples, symbolizing all the nations of the world. Like John the Baptist, Jesus proclaimed that the long-awaited kingdom of heaven was at hand (Matt. 4:17). Jesus was appointed God's earthly representative in order to subjugate Satan, cleanse men of original sin and free them from the power of evil. Christ's mission involved liberation from sin and raising mankind to the perfection stage. His purpose was to bring about the kingdom of heaven in our world with the help of men filled with divine truth and love. Jesus' goal was to restore the garden of Eden, a place of joy and beauty in which true families of perfected parents would dwell with God in a full relationship of reciprocal love.[183]

The Unification movement view of Jesus has been criticized by mainstream Christian authors and theologians. In their influential book The Kingdom of the Cults (first published in 1965), Walter Ralston Martin and Ravi K. Zacharias disagreed with the Divine Principle on the issues of the divinity of Christ, the virgin birth of Jesus, the Unification Church's belief that Jesus should have married, the necessity of the crucifixion of Jesus, and a literal resurrection of Jesus as well as a literal Second Coming. They add: "Moon makes all men equal in 'divinity' to Jesus, thereby striking a blow at the uniqueness of Christ." [184]

The Divine Principle responds to this criticism by saying:

There is no greater value than that of a person who has realized the ideal of creation. This is the value of Jesus, who surely attained the highest imaginable value. The conventional Christian belief in Jesus' divinity is well founded because, as a perfect human being, Jesus is totally one with God. To assert that Jesus is none other than a man who has completed the purpose of creation does not degrade the value of Jesus in the least.[185]

Unificationist theologian Young Oon Kim wrote and some members of the Unification movement believe that Zechariah was the father of Jesus based on the work of, English Christian theologian in the liberal Protestant tradition, Leslie Weatherhead.[186][182][187][188]

Indemnity[edit]

Indemnity, in the context of Unification theology, is a part of the process by which human beings and the world are restored to God's ideal.[189][190][191][192] The concept of indemnity is explained at the start of the second half of the Divine Principle (the main text of Unification Church beliefs), "Introduction to Restoration":

What, then, is the meaning of restoration through indemnity? When someone has lost his original position or state, he must make some condition to be restored to it. The making of such conditions of restitution is called indemnity. .... God's work to restore people to their true, unfallen state by having them fulfill indemnity conditions is called the providence of restoration through indemnity.[193]

The Divine Principle goes on to explain three types of indemnity conditions. Equal conditions of indemnity pay back the full value of what was lost. The biblical verse "life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth" (Exod.21:23-24) is quoted as an example of an equal indemnity condition. Lesser conditions of indemnity provide a benefit greater than the price that is paid. Faith, baptism, and the eucharist are mentioned as examples of lesser indemnity conditions. Greater conditions of indemnity come about when a person fails in a lesser condition. In that case a greater price must be paid to make up for the earlier failure. Abraham's attempted sacrifice of his son Isaac (Gen. 22:1-18) and the Israelites' 40 years of wandering in the wilderness under Moses (Num.14:34) are mentioned as examples of greater indemnity conditions.[193] The Divine Principle then explains that an indemnity condition must reverse the course by which the mistake or loss came about. Indemnity, at its core, is required of humans because God is pure, and purity cannot relate directly with impurity. Indemnification is the vehicle that allows a "just and righteous" God to work through mankind. Jesus' statement that God had forsaken him (Matt.27:46) and Christianity's history of martyrdom are mentioned as examples of this.[193] The Divine Principle then states that human beings, not God or the angels, are the ones responsible for making indemnity conditions.[194][193][195]

In 2005 scholars Daske and Ashcraft explained the concept of indemnity:

To restart the process toward perfection, God has sent messiahs to earth who could restore the true state of humanity's relationship with God. Before that can happen, however, humans must perform good deeds that cancel the bad effects of sin. Unificationists call this 'indemnity'. Showing love and devotion to one's fellow humans, especially within families, helps pay this indemnity.[196]

Other Christian commentators have criticized the concept of indemnity as being contrary to the Christian doctrine of sola fide. Radio and television evangelist Bob Larson said, "Moon's doctrine of sinless perfection by 'indemnity', which can apply even to deceased ancestors, is a denial of the salvation by grace offering through Jesus Christ." Christian historian Ruth Tucker said: "In simple language indemnity is salvation by works."[83][195] Donald Tingle and Richard Fordyce, ministers with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) who debated two Unification Church theologians in 1977, wrote: "In short, indemnity is anything you want to make it, since you establish the conditions. The zeal and enthusiasm of the Unification Church members is not so much based on love for God as it is compulsion to indemnify one's own sins."[197]

Blessing ceremony[edit]

Rev. and Mrs. Moon preside over a mass blessing ceremony in 2010

The Unification movement is well known for its wedding or wedding vow renewal ceremony. It is given to engaged or married couples. Through it, members believe, the couple is removed from the lineage of sinful humanity and engrafted into God's sinless lineage. The Blessing ceremony was first held in 1961 for 36 couples in Seoul, South Korea by the Moons shortly after their own marriage in 1960. All the couples were members of the church. Rev. Moon matched all of the couples except 12 who were already married to each other before joining the church.[198] Moon's practice of matching couples was very unusual in both Christian tradition and in modern Western culture and attracted much attention and controversy.[199]

Later Blessing ceremonies were larger in scale but followed the same pattern. All participants were HSA-UWC members and Moon matched most of the couples. In 1982 the first large scale Blessing (of 2,000 couples) outside of Korea took place in Madison Square Garden, New York City.[200] In 1988, Moon matched 2,500 Korean members with Japanese members for a Blessing ceremony held in Korea, partly in order to promote unity between the two nations.[201] In 1992 Sun Myung Moon gave the wedding blessing for 30,000 couples at the Seoul Olympic Stadium[202] and for 13,000 at the Yankee Stadium.[203] In 2013, four months after the death of Sun Myung Moon, the church held a Blessing ceremony for 3500 couples in South Korea, while another 24,000 followers took part in other countries via video link. This ceremony was presided over by Hak Ja Han.[204]

Political activism[edit]

In the 1940s Moon cooperated with Communist Party members in the Korean independence movement against Imperial Japan. However, after the Korean War (1950–1953) he became an outspoken anti-communist.[205] In 1964 he founded the Korean Culture and Freedom Foundation, a public diplomacy agency which promoted the interests of South Korea and sponsored Radio Free Asia. Former U.S. Presidents Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Richard Nixon were honorary presidents or directors at various times.[206]

In 1972 Moon predicted the decline of communism, based on the teachings of the Divine Principle: "After 7,000 biblical years—6,000 years of restoration history plus the millennium, the time of completion—communism will fall in its 70th year. Here is the meaning of the year 1978. Communism, begun in 1917, could maintain itself approximately 60 years and reach its peak. So 1978 is the border line and afterward communism will decline; in the 70th year it will be altogether ruined. This is true. Therefore, now is the time for people who are studying communism to abandon it."[207] In 1973 he called for an "automatic theocracy" to replace communism and solve "every political and economic situation in every field."[208]

In 1974, Moon asked church members in the United States to support President Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal when Nixon was being pressured to resign his office. Church members prayed and fasted in support of Nixon for three days in front of the United States Capitol, under the motto: "Forgive, Love and Unite." On February 1, 1974 Nixon publicly thanked them for their support and officially received Moon. This brought the church into widespread public and media attention.[209] In 1976 church president Neil Albert Salonen met with Senator Bob Dole to defend the Unification Church against charges made by its critics, including parents of some members.[210]

In 1976 Moon established News World Communications, an international news media conglomerate which publishes The Washington Times newspaper in Washington D.C. and newspapers in South Korea, Japan, and South America partly in order to promote political conservatism. According to the Washington Post: "...the Times was established by Moon to combat communism and be a conservative alternative to what he perceived as the liberal bias of The Washington Post."[211] Bo Hi Pak, called Moon's "right-hand man", was the founding president and the founding chairman of the board.[212] Moon asked Richard L. Rubenstein, a controversial rabbi and college professor who had written on the Holocaust, to join its board of directors.[213] The Washington Times has often been noted for its generally pro-Israel editorial policies.[214] In 2002, during the 20th anniversary party for the Times, Moon said, "The Washington Times will become the instrument in spreading the truth about God to the world."[211]

In 1977 the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, of the United States House of Representatives, found that the South Korean intelligence agency, the KCIA, had used the Unification Church to gain political influence with the United States and that some Unification Church members had worked as volunteers in Congressional offices. Together they founded the Korean Cultural Freedom Foundation, a nonprofit organization which acted as a public diplomacy campaign for the Republic of Korea.[215] The committee also investigated possible KCIA influence on the Unification Church's campaign in support of Nixon.[216]

In 1980 church members founded CAUSA International, an anti-communist educational organization based in New York City.[101] In the 1980s it was active in 21 countries. In the United States it sponsored educational conferences for evangelical and fundamentalist Christian leaders[102] as well as seminars and conferences for Senate staffers, Hispanic Americans and conservative activists.[217] In 1986 CAUSA International sponsored the documentary film Nicaragua Was Our Home about the Miskito Indians of Nicaragua and their persecution at the hands of the Nicaraguan government. It was filmed and produced by church member Lee Shapiro, who later died while filming with anti-Soviet forces during the Soviet–Afghan War.[218][219][220][221]

In 1980 church members in Washington, D.C. disrupted a protest rally against the United States military draft.[222] In 1981 the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court ruled that the Unification Church was not entitled to property tax exemptions on its New York City properties since its primary purpose was political, not religious.[223] In 1982 this ruling was overturned by the New York State Supreme Court itself, which ruled that the church should be considered a religious organization for tax purposes.[224]

In 1983 some American church members joined a public protest against the Soviet Union over its shooting down of Korean Airlines Flight 007.[225] In 1984 the church founded the Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy, a Washington D.C. think tank that underwrites conservative-oriented research and seminars at Stanford University, the University of Chicago, and other institutions.[226] In the same year, church member Dan Fefferman founded the International Coalition for Religious Freedom in Virginia, which is active in protesting what it considers to be threats to religious freedom by governmental agencies.[227] In August 1985, seven years before the fall of Soviet Union, the Professors World Peace Academy, an organization founded by Moon, sponsored a conference in Geneva to debate the theme "The situation in the world after the fall of the communist empire."[114]

In April 1990, Moon visited the Soviet Union and met with President Mikhail Gorbachev. Moon expressed support for the political and economic transformations under way in the Soviet Union. At the same time the Unification Church was expanding into formerly communist nations.[119] In 1991, he met with Kim Il Sung, the North Korean President, to discuss ways to achieve peace on the Korean peninsula, as well as on international relations, tourism, and other topics.[121] In 1994, Moon was officially invited to the funeral of Kim Il Sung, in spite of the absence of diplomatic relations between North Korea and South Korea.[228]

In 1994 the New York Times recognized the church's political influence, saying it was "a theocratic powerhouse that is pouring foreign fortunes into conservative causes in the United States."[229] In 1998 the Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram criticized Moon's "ultra-right leanings" and suggested a personal relationship with conservative Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[230]

In 1995, the former U.S. President George H. W. Bush and his wife, Barbara Bush, spoke at a Unification Church event in the Tokyo Dome.[231] "If as president I could have done one thing to have helped the country more," Mr. Bush told the gathering, "it would have been to do a better job in finding a way, either through speaking out or through raising a moral standard, to strengthen the American family."[232] Hak Ja Han, the main speaker, credited her husband with bringing about Communism's fall and declared that he must save America from "the destruction of the family and moral decay."[233]

In 2000 Moon founded the World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations (WANGO), which describes itself as "a global organization whose mission is to serve its member organizations, strengthen and encourage the non-governmental sector as a whole, increase public understanding of the non-governmental community, and provide the mechanism and support needed for NGOs to connect, partner, and multiply their contributions to solve humanity's basic problems." However it has been criticized for promoting conservatism in contrast to some of the ideals of the United Nations.[234][235][236]

In 2003, Korean Unification Church members started a political party in South Korea. It was named "The Party for God, Peace, Unification, and Home." In an inauguration declaration, the new party said it would focus on preparing for the reunification of the South and North Korea by educating the public about God and peace. A church official said that similar political parties would be started in Japan and the United States.[45]

Moon was a member of the Honorary Committee of the Unification Ministry of the Republic of Korea.[237] The church member Jae-jung Lee had been once a unification minister of the Republic of Korea.[238] Another, Ek Nath Dhakal, is a member of the Nepalese Constituent Assembly,[239] and a first Minister for Co-operatives and Poverty Alleviation Ministry of the Government of Nepal.[240] In 2016 a study sponsored by the Unification Theological Seminary found that American church members were divided in their choices in the 2016 United States presidential election, with the largest bloc supporting Senator Bernie Sanders.[179]

North Korea[edit]

The Unification movement has had a complex relationship with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). The North Korean government imprisoned and exiled founder Sun Myung Moon, along with other religious figures. The movement opposed the North's alliance with communism, but later promoted economic cooperation between North and South.[241]

In the 1940s Moon cooperated with Communist Party members in the Korean independence movement against Imperial Japan.[205] After the defeat of Japan (in the Second World War) in 1945, Korea was divided between Soviet and American occupation forces. In 1948 the Republic of Korea was established in the south and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, usually referred to as South Korea and North Korea.[242] The government of North Korea followed Stalinist policies and sought to discourage free religious activities.[243]

In 1946, Moon was living in Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea.[55] Pyongyang was the center of Christian activity in Korea until 1945. From the late forties 166 priests and other religious figures were killed or disappeared in concentration camps, including Francis Hong Yong-ho, bishop of Pyongyang[244] and all monks of Tokwon abbey.[245] No Catholic priest survived the persecution, all churches were destroyed and the government never allowed any foreign priest to set up in North Korea.[246] Moon was arrested by the North Korean authorities on allegations of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp.[56] In 1950, during the Korean War, he escaped and fled to Pusan, South Korea.[57]

In 1954, Moon formally founded the Unification Church as the "Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity" in Seoul.[56][247] Moon's teachings were strongly anti-communist and viewed the Cold War between democracy and communism as the final conflict between God and Satan, with divided Korea as its primary front line.[248]

Soon after its founding the Unification movement began supporting anti-communist organizations, including the World League for Freedom and Democracy founded in 1966 in Taipei, Republic of China (Taiwan), by Chiang Kai-shek,[249] and the Korean Culture and Freedom Foundation, an international public diplomacy organization which also sponsored Radio Free Asia.[206] In 1975 Moon spoke at a government sponsored rally against potential North Korean military aggression on Yeouido Island in Seoul to an audience of around 1 million.[250]

In 1976 the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, a committee of the United States House of Representatives, conducted an investigation into South Korea–United States relations including Unification movement support of South Korean interests during the regime of Park Chung-hee.[251][252]

In the 1980s the Unification movement's other anticommunist activities included: CAUSA International, an anti-communist educational organization based in New York City and active in Latin America;[101] the Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy, a Washington D.C. think tank that underwrites conservative-oriented research and seminars at Stanford University, the University of Chicago, and other institutions;[226] and The Washington Times newspaper, which promoted the policies of Ronald Reagan.[211] Bo Hi Pak, who had been an officer in the South Korean army during the Korean War, was the founding president and the founding chairman of the board of The Washington Times.[212]

In the late 1980s, when the Soviet Union was embarking on political and economic reform, it began demanding payment from North Korea for past and current aid — amounts North Korea could not repay.[253] With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, trade between the two countries ceased altogether and the North Korean economy collapsed. Without Soviet aid, the flow of inputs to the North Korea agricultural sector ended, and the government proved too inflexible to respond.[254] As a result, food production decreased precipitously.[255][256] By 1994 the North Korean famine was underway.[257] Estimates of the death toll vary widely. Out of a total population of approximately 22 million, somewhere between 240,000 and 3,500,000 people died from starvation or hunger-related illnesses, with the deaths peaking in 1997.[258][259] Initial assistance to North Korea started as early as 1990, with small-scale support from religious groups in South Korea and assistance from UNICEF.[260] In August 1995, North Korea made an official request for humanitarian aid and the international community responded accordingly, including South Korea, the United States, Japan, and China.[261]

In 1991 Moon travelled to North Korea to meet with its president, Kim Il-sung.[121] In 1992 Kim gave his first and only interview with the Western news media to Washington Times reporter Josette Sheeran (who later became Executive Director of the United Nations World Food Programme).[262] In 1994, Moon was officially invited to Kim's funeral, in spite of the absence of diplomatic relations between North Korea and South Korea.[128]

In 1998, Unification movement-related businesses launched operations in North Korea with the approval of the government of South Korea, which had prohibited business relationships between North and South before.[132] In 2000, the church-associated business group Tongil Group founded Pyeonghwa Motors in the North Korean port of Nampo, in cooperation with the North Korean government. It was the first automobile factory in North Korea.[134]

During the presidency of George W. Bush, Dong Moon Joo, a Unification movement member and then president of The Washington Times, undertook unofficial diplomatic missions to North Korea in an effort to improve its relationship with the United States.[263] Joo was born in North Korea and is a citizen of the United States.[264]

In 2003, Korean Unification movement members started a political party in South Korea. It was named "The Party for God, Peace, Unification and Home". In its inauguration declaration, the new party said it would focus on preparing for Korean reunification by educating the public about God and peace.[45] Moon was a member of the Honorary Committee of the Unification Ministry of the Republic of Korea.[265] Church member Jae-jung Lee was a Unification Minister of the Republic of Korea.[238]

In 2010 in Pyongyang, to mark the 20th anniversary of Moon's visit to Kim Il-sung, de jure President Kim Yong-nam hosted Moon's son Hyung Jin Moon, then the president of the Unification Church, in his official residence.[266][267] At that time, Hyung Jin Moon donated 600 tons of flour to the children of Jeongju, the birthplace of Sun Myung Moon.[167][268]

In 2012 Moon was posthumously awarded North Korea's National Reunification Prize.[173] On the first anniversary of Moon's death, North Korean president Kim Jong-un expressed condolences to Han and the family saying: "Kim Jong-un prayed for the repose of Moon, who worked hard for national concord, prosperity and reunification and world peace."[176] In 2017 the Unification Church sponsored group the International Association of Parliamentarians for Peace (IAPP), headed by former Prime Minister of Nepal Madhav Kumar Nepal and former Minister of Peace and Reconstruction Ek Nath Dhakal, visited Pyongyang and had constructive talks with the North Korean Workers Party.[269]

Relations and differences with other religions[edit]

Judaism[edit]

The relationship between the Unification movement and Judaism has been marked by controversy. In 1976 the American Jewish Committee released a report by Rabbi A. James Rudin which stated that Divine Principle contained "pejorative language, stereotyped imagery, and accusations of collective sin and guilt."[90] In a news conference presented by the AJC and representatives of Catholic and Protestant churches, panelists stated that the text "contained over 125 anti-Jewish references." They noted Moon's public then-recent condemnation of "antisemitic and anti-Christian attitudes", and called upon him to make a "comprehensive and systematic removal" of antisemitic and anti-Christian references in the Divine Principle as a demonstration of good faith.[91]

In 1977 the HSA-UWC issued a rebuttal to the report, stating that it was neither comprehensive nor reconciliatory, but rather had a "hateful tone" and was filled with "sweeping denunciations." It denied that the Divine Principle teaches antisemitism and gave detailed responses to 17 specific allegations contained in the AJC's report, stating that allegations were distortions of teaching and obscuration of real passage content or that the passages were accurate summaries of Jewish scripture or New Testament passages.[94]

In 1984 Mose Durst, then the president of the Unification Church of the United States and himself a convert from Judaism,[92] said that the Jewish community had been "hateful" in its response to the growth of the Unification Church, and placed blame both on the community's "insecurity" and on Unification Church members' "youthful zeal and ignorance." Rudin, then the national interreligious affairs director of the American Jewish Committee, said that Durst's remarks were inaccurate and unfair and that "hateful is a harsh word to use."[93] In the same year Durst wrote in his autobiography: "Our relations with the Jewish community have been the most painful to me personally. I say this with a heavy heart, since I was raised in the Jewish faith and am proud of my heritage."[270]

In 1989 church leaders Peter Ross and Andrew Wilson issued "Guidelines for Members of The Unification Church in Relations with the Jewish People" which stated: "In the past there have been serious misunderstandings between Judaism and the Unification Church. In order to clarify these difficulties and guide Unification Church members in their relations with Jews, the Unification Church suggests the following guidelines."[96]

Mainstream Christianity[edit]

The relationship between the Unification movement and mainstream Christianity has been marked by conflict and disagreement, as well as by cooperation at times. The movement's teachings are based on the Bible, but include new interpretations not found in mainstream Christian tradition.[271][272] Mainstream Christianity is usually defined as those Christian churches which follow the Nicene Creed and includes the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and most Protestant churches.[273][274]

From its beginning the Unification movement has claimed to be Christian and has tried to promote its teachings to mainstream Christian churches and organizations. The Unification Church in South Korea was labeled as heretical by Protestant churches in South Korea, including Moon’s own Presbyterian Church. In the United States the church was rejected by ecumenical organizations as being non-Christian. The main objections against it were theological, especially because of the Unification Church’s addition of material to the Bible and for its rejection of a literal Second Coming of Jesus.[275] Protestant commentators have also criticized Unification Church teachings as being contrary to the Protestant doctrine of salvation by faith alone.[13][276]

The Divine Principle includes new interpretations of the Bible not found in mainstream Christian traditions.[271] From its beginning, the Unification Church claimed to be Christian and promoted its teachings to mainstream Christian churches and organizations. The Unification Church in Korea was labeled as heretical by Protestant churches in South Korea, including Moon’s own Presbyterian Church. In the United States, the church was rejected by ecumenical organizations as being non-Christian. The main objections were theological, especially because of the Unification Church’s addition of material to the Bible.[275]

Protestant Christian commentators have also criticized Unification Church teachings as contrary to the Protestant doctrine of sola fide.[13][277] In their influential book The Kingdom of the Cults (first published in 1965), Walter Ralston Martin and Ravi K. Zacharias disagreed with the Divine Principle on the issues of Christology, the virgin birth of Jesus, the Unification Church's belief that Jesus should have married, the necessity of the crucifixion of Jesus, and a literal resurrection of Jesus as well as a literal Second Coming.[278]

In 1974 Moon founded the Unification Theological Seminary, in Barrytown, New York, partly in order to improve relations of the Unification Church with other churches. Professors from other denominations, including a Methodist minister, a Presbyterian, and a Roman Catholic priest, as well as a rabbi, were hired to teach religious studies to the students, who were being trained as leaders in the Unification Church.[279][280][281][282][283]

In 1977, church member Jonathan Wells, who later became well known as the author of the popular Intelligent Design book Icons of Evolution, defended Unification theology against what he said were unfair criticisms by the National Council of Churches.[284] That same year Frederick Sontag, a professor of philosophy at Pomona College and a minister in the United Church of Christ,[98] published Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church which gave an overview of the church and urged Christians to take it more seriously.[99][100][285]

In 1982, Moon was imprisoned in the United States after being found guilty by a jury of willfully filing false Federal income tax returns and conspiracy. (See: United States vs. Sun Myung Moon) Unification Church members launched a public-relations campaign. Booklets, letters and videotapes were mailed to approximately 300,000 Christian leaders in the United States. Many of them signed petitions protesting the government's case.[286] Among the American Christian leaders who spoke out in defense of Moon were conservative Jerry Falwell, head of Moral Majority, and liberal Joseph Lowery, head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.[272] The American Baptist Churches in the U.S.A, the National Council of Churches, the National Black Catholic Clergy Caucus, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference filed briefs in support of Moon.[287]

In the 1980s the Unification movement sent thousands of American ministers from other churches on trips to Japan and South Korea to inform them about Unification Church teachings. At least one minister was dismissed by his congregation for taking part.[288] In 1994 the church had about 5,000 members in Russia and came under criticism from the Russian Orthodox Church.[34] In 1997, the Russian government passed a law requiring the Unification Church and other non-Russian religions to register their congregations and submit to tight controls.[289]

In 1995 the Unification movement related organization the Women's Federation for World Peace indirectly contributed $3.5 million to help Baptist Liberty University which at that time was in financial difficulty. This was reported in the United States news media as an example of closer relationships between the Unification Church and conservative Christian congregations.[290]

In 2001, the Unification movement came into conflict with the Roman Catholic Church when Catholic archbishop Emmanuel Milingo and Maria Sung, a 43-year-old Korean acupuncturist, married in a Unification Church Blessing ceremony, presided over by Rev. and Mrs. Moon. Following his marriage the Archbishop was called to the Vatican by Pope John Paul II, where he was asked not to see his wife anymore, and to move to a Capuchin monastery.[291] Sung went on a hunger strike to protest their separation. This attracted much media attention.[292] Milingo is now an advocate of the removal of the requirement for celibacy by priests in the Catholic Church. He is the founder of Married Priests Now!.[293] Archbishop George Augustus Stallings, Jr., also a former Catholic priest, who had founded his own Imani Temple African-American Catholic Congregation, is also a supporter of the organization.[294]

In 2003 Moon began his "tear down",[295] or "take down the cross"[296] campaign. The campaign was begun in the belief that the cross is a reminder of Jesus' pain and has been a source of division between people of different faiths. The campaign included a burial ceremony for the cross and a crown to be put in its place. The American Clergy Leadership Conference (ACLC), an interfaith group founded by Moon, spearheaded the effort, calling the cross a symbol of oppression and superiority.[297]

Islam[edit]

The relationship between the Unification movement and Islam has often been noted, both by scholars and the news media. The Divine Principle lists the Muslim world as one of the world’s four major divisions (the others being East Asia, Hindu, and Christendom).[298] In 1997, Louis Farrakhan, the leader of the Nation of Islam, a Black Muslim organization, served as a coofficiator at a Blessing Ceremony presided over by Moon and Han.[299] In 2000 the Church and the Nation of Islam co-sponsored the Million Family March, a rally in Washington, D.C., to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony.[42][43]

Unification movement support for Islamist anti-communists came to public attention in 1987 when church member Lee Shapiro was killed in Afghanistan during the Soviet–Afghan War while filming a documentary.[115][116] The resistance group they were traveling with reported that they had been ambushed by military forces of the Soviet Union or the Afghan government. However, the details have been questioned, partly because of the poor reputation of the group's leader, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.[300][301]

In 1997, the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (which is critical of United States and Israeli policies), praised the Unification movement owned newspaper, The Washington Times and the Times' sister publication The Middle East Times (along with The Christian Science Monitor owned by the Church of Christ, Scientist) for their objective and informative coverage of Islam and the Middle East, while criticizing the Times generally pro-Israel editorial policy. The Report suggested that these newspapers, being owned by religious organizations, were less influenced by pro-Israel pressure groups in the United States.[214]

In 1997, Louis Farrakhan, the leader of The Nation of Islam, served as a "co-officiator" at a blessing ceremony presided over by Sun Myung Moon]] and Hak Ja Han.[302] In 2000 the FFWPU co-sponsored the Million Family March, a rally in Washington D.C. to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony, along with the Nation of Islam.[42] Farrakhan was the main speaker at the event which was held on October 16, 2000; the fifth anniversary of the Million Man March, which was also organized by Farrakhan.[43] Unification Church leader Dan Fefferman wrote to his colleagues acknowledging that Farrakhan’s and Moon’s views differed on multiple issues but shared a view of a "God-centered family".[44] In 2007 Rev and Mrs Moon sent greetings to Farrakhan while he was recovering from cancer, saying: "We send love and greetings to Minister Farrakhan and Mother Khadijah."[303]

In the 1990s and 2000s the Unification movement made public statements claiming communications with the spirits of religious leaders including Muhammad and also Confucius, the Buddha, Jesus, and Augustine, as well as political leaders such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Leon Trotsky, Mao Zedong, and many more. This was reported to have distanced the movement from Islam as well as from mainstream Christianity.[304][305] From 2001 to 2009 the Unification movement owned the American Life TV Network (now known as Youtoo TV),[306] which in 2007 broadcast George Clooney's documentary, A Journey to Darfur, which was harshly critical of Islamists in Darfur, the Republic of Sudan.[307][308][309] It released the film on DVD in 2008 and announced that proceeds from its sale would be donated to the International Rescue Committee.[310] In his 2009 autobiography Moon praised Islam and expressed the hope that there would be more understanding between different religious communities.[205] In 2011 representatives of the Unification Church took part in an international seminar held in Taiwan by the Muslim World League. The purpose of the seminar was said to be to encourage inter-faith dialogue and discourage terrorism.[311]

Interfaith activities[edit]

In 2009 the FFWPU held an interfaith event in the Congress of the Republic of Peru.[312] Former President of the Congress Marcial Ayaipoma[313] and other notable politicians were called "Ambassadors for Peace" of the Unification Church.[314][315][316][317] In 2010, the church built a large interfaith temple in Seoul.[318] Author Deepak Chopra was the keynote at an interfaith event of the Unification Church cohosted with the United Nations at the Headquarters of the United Nations.[319] In 2011, an interfaith event was held in the National Assembly of Thailand, the President of the National Assembly of Thailand attended the event.[320] In 2012, the Unification Church-affiliated Universal Peace Federation held an interfaith dialogue in Italy that was cosponsored by United Nations.[321] That year, Unification movement affiliated Universal Peace Federation held an interfaith program for representatives of 12 various religions and confessions in the hall of the United Nations General Assembly. The President of the United Nations General Assembly,[322] the Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations,[323][324] the Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations[325] and other UN officials spoke.[326]

Leadership[edit]

The Unification movement includes several groups,[327] all of which claim legitimacy and the spiritual authority of Moon, but diverge theologically and doctrinally.[328] The most prominent of these is the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification[329] led by Moon’s widow Hak Ja Han, who following Moon’s death announced her distinct messianic status; and the Family Peace Association,[330] founded by Moon's son, Hyun Jin Moon. The future of the movement and its theological and institutional legacy is uncertain.[331][332][333][334]

Hak Ja Han[edit]

In 1992, Hak Ja Han established the Women's Federation for World Peace (WFWP) with the support of many church members,[125][126][124] and traveled the world speaking at conventions on its behalf.[335] The WFWP's purpose is to encourage women to work more actively in promoting peace in their communities and greater society,[124] and it includes 143 member countries.[126]

In 2012 Hak Ja Han took leadership over FFWPU.[336] She had instigated various ritual and theological changes that have been met with protest within the movement, most notably the elevation of her status as a distinct messianic figure through the concept of the "Only Begotten Daughter"[337] and textual changes to the church's main textbook.[338][339] FFWPU members praise Han's leadership and often refer to her as the "co-messiah" and "True Parents", signifying that they believe she is the legitimate successor within the Unification movement who is united with her husband.[340]

Hyun Jin Moon[edit]

Hyun Jin Moon was appointed vice-president of the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification in 1998.[341] Although at the time he was commonly understood to be the successor to Sun Myung Moon, his leadership style and proposed reforms to dismantle the church structure and create a family-based peace movement were met with resistance and accusations of being unorthodox, eventually leading to his replacement in 2008 with his younger brother, Hyung Jin Moon.[342][343]

In 2009 Hyun Jin Moon founded the Global Peace Foundation[344] and is active as its chairman.[345] The Global Peace Foundation is an international non-sectarian, non-partisan, nonprofit organization with a stated mission to promote "an innovative, values-based approach to peacebuilding,[346] guided by the vision that all humanity is 'One Family under God'."[347][348] In 2017 Hyun Jin Moon founded the Family Peace Association to carry on the original mission of the FFWPU to expand certain universal principles and values related to God-centered families to a broader, non-sectarian audience.[349]

Hyung Jin Moon[edit]

In April 2008, Sun Myung Moon appointed his youngest son, Hyung Jin Moon, to be the International President of the FFWPU. Hyung Jin Moon and members of his church believe that a coronation ceremony with his father in 2009 made him heir and successor.[350][351] Under his leadership the name of the FFWP was changed to the Unification Church.[352] He also introduced new practices, like spiritual energy hand movements[353] In 2011 he visited North Korea to express condolences on the death of Kim Jong-il.[354] Most of his changes were dismissed after he was removed in 2015. He later founded the Pennsylvania-based World Peace and Unification Sanctuary,[355][356][357] which the FFWPU considers a "breakaway organization."[355][356]

In Jin Moon[edit]

Sun Myung Moon's daughter In Jin Moon became president of the FFWPU in the United States in 2008.[358][358] After Sun Myung Moon's death both Hyung Jin Moon and In Jin Moon were removed from their positions within FFWPU by their mother Hak Ja Han.[359]

Organisations[edit]

Although Rev. Moon is commonly known as a religious figure, commentators have mentioned his belief in a literal Kingdom of God on earth to be brought about by human effort as a motivation for his establishment of multitudinous groups that are not strictly religious in their purposes.[360][361] Moon was not directly involved with managing the day-to-day activities of the numerous organizations that he indirectly oversaw, yet all of them attribute the inspiration behind their work to his leadership and teachings.[5] Others have said that one purpose of these non-sectarian organizations is to pursue social respectability.[362] These organizations have sometimes been labeled "front groups", an expression which originally referred to Soviet supported organizations during the Cold War.[363]

Multi-faceted organizations[edit]

CARP[edit]

The Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles (CARP) is a collegiate organization founded by Moon and his followers in 1955, which promotes intercultural, interracial, and international cooperation through the Unification world view.[364][365] J. Isamu Yamamoto states in Unification Church: "At times CARP has been very subtle about its association with the Unification Church, however, the link between the two has always been strong, since the purpose of both is to spread Moon's teachings."[366]

Family Peace Association[edit]

The Family Peace Association, founded by Moon's eldest living son, Hyun Jin Moon.[367][331][332][333][334] It has the mission: “To enlighten humanity by uplifting their spiritual consciousness through universal principles and values rooted in God-centered families.”[368][369][370][371] Its founders are Hyun Jin Moon and Junsook Moon.[372][373][374][375][376][377]

Universal Peace Federation[edit]

The Universal Peace Federation is an international organization which promotes religious freedom.[378] Dialogue and Alliance is its journal published from Tarrytown, New York.[379]

Women's Federation for World Peace[edit]

The Women's Federation for World Peace was founded in 1992 by Hak Ja Han. Its stated purpose is to encourage women to work more actively in promoting peace in their communities and greater society. It has members in 143 countries.[124][125][126]

Interfaith organizations[edit]

  • The Assembly of the World's Religions was founded by Sun Myung Moon. The first assembly was held from November 15 to 21, 1985, in MacAfee, New Jersey. The second was from August 15 to 21, 1990 in San Francisco.[380]
  • Inter-Religious Federation for World Peace[381][382]
  • American Clergy Leadership Conference (ACLC)[383][384][385]
  • The Middle East Peace Initiative sponsors projects to promote peace and understanding including visits by international Christians to Israel and Palestine and dialogues between members of the Israeli Knesset and the Palestinian Legislative Council.[386]

Educational organizations[edit]

  • Cheongshim Graduate School of Theology[387]
  • CheongShim International Academy
  • International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences
  • International Educational Foundation.[388]
  • New World Encyclopedia — an Internet encyclopedia that, in part, selects and rewrites certain Wikipedia articles through a focus on Unification values.[389] It "aims to organize and present human knowledge in ways consistent with our natural purposes"[390] and "to promote knowledge that leads to happiness, well-being, and world peace."[391]
  • Paragon House, book publishing.[392]
  • The Professors World Peace Academy was founded in 1973 by Sun Myung Moon,[393] who declared the group's intent to "contribute to the solutions of urgent problems facing our modern civilization and to help resolve the cultural divide between East and West". PWPA now has chapters in over one hundred countries.[394]
  • Sun Hwa Arts School
  • Sun Moon University[395]
  • Sun Myung Moon Institute[396]
  • High School of the Pacific in Kealakekua, Hawaii[397]
  • The Unification Theological Seminary, founded in 1975, is the main seminary of the international Unification Church. It is located in Barrytown, New York and with an Extension Center in midtown Manhattan. Its purpose has been described as training leaders and theologians within the Unification Church.[398] The seminary's professors come from a wide range of faiths, including a rabbi, a Methodist minister, a Presbyterian, and a Catholic priest.[85][86][399]
  • Blessed Teens Academy—Greeley, Colorado [400]
  • New Hope Academy—Landover Hills, Maryland, USA. "Although New Hope Academy was founded in 1990 by members of the Unification movement, it is not a sectarian school. No doctrines are taught; in fact, no classes in religion are offered.However morning services are mandatory,during services discussions about religious doctrines, hymns, and group prayers all take place. We believe it is the job of parents—with the support of their church, temple, or mosque—to impart their personal faith to their child." [401][402]
  • WUF - World University Federation
  • Several UC-related groups are working to promote sexual abstinence until marriage and fidelity in marriage and to prevent child exploitation; they care for victims of Thailand's sex trade as well.[403][404][405] In 1996, members of the Unification Church gathered 3,500 signatures in an anti-pornography campaign.[406]

Organizations in the arts[edit]

Sports organizations[edit]

Political organizations[edit]

Businesses[edit]

Members of the Unification movement owns a number of businesses in various countries. In Eastern Europe Unification movement missionaries are using the church's business ties to win new converts.[442] David Bromley, a sociologist at Virginia Commonwealth University, said: "The corporate section is understood to be the engine that funds the mission of the church. The wealth base is fairly substantial. But if you were to compare it to the LDS Church or the Catholic Church or other churches that have massive landholdings, this doesn't look on a global scale like a massive operation."[443]

  • AmericanLife TV cable television network formerly owned by the Unification movement.[307]
  • Cheongshim Hospital, Korean hospital.[444]
  • Il hwa Company, South Korean based producer of ginseng and related products.[445]
  • Isshin Hospital, Church sponsored hospital in Japan which practices both modern and traditional Asian medicine.[446][447]
  • International Oceanic Enterprises Inc.[448]
  • International Seafood of Alaska [449]
  • Master Marine, shipbuilding and fishing company in Alabama.[450]
  • National Hospitality Corporation.[451]
  • News World Communications is an international news media corporation[452] founded by Moon in 1976. Hyun Jin Moon took over the company as chairman in 2009.[453] It owns United Press International, The World and I, The Segye Ilbo (South Korea), and The Sekai Nippo (Japan).[454][455] Until 2008 it published the Washington, DC–based newsmagazine Insight on the News.[452] Until 2010, it owned The Washington Times, when Sun Myung Moon and a group of former Times editors purchased the Times from News World Communications.[456] The Times is currently owned by diversified conglomerate Operations Holdings, also associated with the Unification Church.
  • News World Media Development, owner of The World & I and former owner of The Washington Times.
  • Operations Holdings, owner of The Washington Times, US Marine Corporation, OH Travel, and Manhattan Center Studios.[457]
  • The Washington Times newspaper in Washington, D.C.
  • Pyeonghwa Motors, founded in 2000, has invested more than $300 million in the automobile industry of the North Korea.[458] Starting in 1992 the church established business ties with communist North Korea and owned an automobile manufacturer (Pyeonghwa Motors), a hotel, and other properties there. In 1998, the Unification Movement launched its operations in North Korea with the approval of the Government of South Korea, which had prohibited business relationships between North and South before.[132][459][460]
  • Tongil Group: A South Korean chaebol (tongil is Korean for "unification") founded in 1963 by Moon as a nonprofit organization which would provide revenue for the UC. Its core focus was manufacturing but in the 1970s and 1980s it expanded by founding or acquiring businesses in pharmaceuticals, tourism, and publishing.[461][462] Among Tongil Group's chief holdings are: The Ilwha Company, which produces ginseng and related products; Ilshin Stone, building materials; and Tongil Heavy Industries, machine parts including hardware for the South Korean military.[159]
  • True World Foods, which runs a major portion of the sushi trade in the United States.[463]
  • USP Rockets LLC, a real estate development firm in the United States.[464]
  • U.S. Property Development Corporation, real estate investment[465]
  • Yongpyong Resort, which hosted the alpine skiing events for the 2018 Winter Olympics and Paralympics.[466][425]

In the United States members of the Unification movement own fishing interests. The biggest are in Gloucester, Massachusetts, Alaska and Alabama. In Kodiak, Alaska the Unification movement "runs a fleet of fishing boats ... [and is] the largest private employer" in Kodiak.[467]

United Nations related non-governmental organizations[edit]

Since 2000, Moon has promoted the creation of an interreligious council at the United Nations as a check and balance to its political-only structure.[468][469] Since then King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia and King Juan Carlos I of Spain hosted officially a program to promote the proposal.[470] Moon's Universal Peace Federation is in special consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council[471][472] and a member of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development,[471][473] a member of the United Nations Division for Palestinian Rights,[474][475] a member of the United Nations Human Rights Council,[476][477][478] a member of the UNHRC,[479][480] a member of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.[481] Three of Moon's non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—Universal Peace Federation, Women's Federation for World Peace and Service for Peace—are in consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council.[482][472][483]

Other organizations[edit]

  • International Relief Friendship Foundation (IRFF) [484][485]
  • Joshua House Children's Centre in Georgetown, Guyana helps homeless and victimized children.[486]
  • Korean War 60th Anniversary Memorial Committee [487]
  • National Committee Against Religious Bigotry and Racism[488]
  • The New Hope East Garden Project, agricultural project in Brazil.[489]
  • Ocean Church[490]
  • Service For Peace[483]
  • Summit Council for World Peace[491]
  • Tongil Foundation[159]
  • World Media Association, sponsors trips for American journalists to Asian countries.[226]
  • World Peace and Unification Sanctuary, a spiritual group led by Sun Myung Moon's and Hak Ja Han's youngest son, Hyung Jin Moon.[355][356][357][492]

Organizations supported by members of the Unification movement[edit]

  • American Conference on Religious Movements, a Rockville, Maryland based group that fights discrimination against new religions. The group is funded by the Church of Scientology, the Hare Krishna organization, as well as by Unificationists, who give it $3,000 a month.[413]
  • American Freedom Coalition (AFC), a group which seeks to unite American conservatives on the state level to work toward common goals. The coalition, while independent, receives support from the Unification Church.[493] American Freedom Journal was a publication of the AFC published by Rev. Robert Grant.[494] The journal was started in 1988 and suspended publication sometime before 1994.[495] Contributors included Pat Buchanan, Ed Meese, Ben Wattenberg and Jeane Kirkpatrick.[496]
  • Christian Heritage Foundation, a private, independent charitable foundation based in Virginia that distributes Bibles and Christian literature to Communist and Third World nations. In 1995 it was given $3.5 million by the Women's Federation for World Peace.[497]
  • Empowerment Network, a pro-faith political action group supported by United States Senator Joe Lieberman.[498]
  • Foundation for Religious Freedom (Also known as the New Cult Awareness Network.), an organization affiliated with the Church of Scientology which states its purpose as "Educating the public as to religious rights, freedoms and responsibilities." [499][500]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Moon's death marks end of an era, Eileen Barker, CNN, 2012-9-3
  2. ^ Introvigne, Massimo (2000-10-15). The Unification Church: Studies in Contemporary Religion. Signature Books. ISBN 1560851457. 
  3. ^ Prophets and Protons: New Religious Movements and Science in Late Twentieth-Century America, Benjamin E. Zeller, NYU Press, Mar 1, 2010, page 13
  4. ^ "CESNUR - From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994-1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes". www.cesnur.org. Retrieved 22 February 2018. 
  5. ^ a b Swatos, Jr, William H. (February 1998). Encyclopedia of religion and society. Walnut Creek, California.: AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7619-8956-1. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  6. ^ Moon, Sun Myung (May 2006). Cheon Seong Gyeong (1st ed.). Sun-jo Hwang; HSA Publications. pp. 1011, 1606. 
  7. ^ Moon, Sun Myung. "The Proclamation of the Complete Testament Age -- View of the Principle of the Providential History of Salvation". tparents.org. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  8. ^ Moon, Sun Myung. "Total Indemnity". www.unification.net. Damian Anderson. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  9. ^ Email Us. "'Moonies' founder dies, aged 92 - The Irish Times - Mon, Sep 03, 2012". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2012-09-04. 
  10. ^ Title: The Making of a Moonie: Choice Or Brainwashing? Modern revivals in sociology; Author: Eileen Barker; Edition: illustrated, reprint, revised; Publisher: Gregg Revivals, 1993
  11. ^ Title; "Moonies" in America: Cult, Church, and Crusade: SAGE Library of Social Research; Authors: David G. Bromley, Anson D. Shupe, Jr.; Editor: David G. Bromley; Publisher: SAGE Publications, 1979
  12. ^ From Slogans to Mantras: Social Protest and Religious Conversion in the Late Vietnam War Era, Stephen A. Kent, Syracuse University Press, 2001, page 168
  13. ^ a b c Daske, D. and Ashcraft, W. 2005, New Religious Movements, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-0702-5 p142
  14. ^ Miller, Timothy (1995). America's Alternative Religions. State University of New York Press. pp. 223, 414. ISBN 0-7914-2398-0. 
  15. ^ PacNews staff (February 17, 2006). "Church leaders unite against Moonies". PacNews. Pacific Island News Agency Service. 
  16. ^ Enroth, Ronald M. (2005). A Guide To New Religious Movements. InterVarsity Press. pp. 69, 72. ISBN 0-8308-2381-6. 
  17. ^ Shupe, Anson D.; Bronislaw Misztal (1998). Religion, Mobilization, and Social Action. Praeger. pp. 197, 213, 215. ISBN 978-0-275-95625-7. 
  18. ^ Ofcom (February 20, 2006). "Complaint by Mr Robin Marsh on behalf of The Family Federation for World Peace and Unification – UK (formerly known as the Unification Church)". Broadcast Bulletin. www.ofcom.org.uk (54). Archived from the original on March 30, 2010. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  19. ^ Gorenfeld, John (2008). Bad Moon Rising. PoliPointPress. p. 96. ISBN 0-9794822-3-2. 
  20. ^ Helvarg, David (2004). The War Against the Greens. Johnson Books. p. 211. ISBN 1-55566-328-1. 
  21. ^ a b Hatch, Walter (February 13, 1989). "Big names lend luster to group's causes - Church leader gains legitimacy among U.S. conservatives". The Seattle Times. Seattle Times Company. p. A1. 
  22. ^ Koppel, Ted (October 6, 1994). "Transcript # 3489". Nightline. ABC News. 
  23. ^ Shupe, Anson D.; Bronislaw Misztal (1998). Religion, Mobilization, and Social Action. Praeger. pp. 197, 213, 215. ISBN 978-0-275-95625-7.
  24. ^ Jenkins, Philip (2000). Mystics and Messiahs: Cults and New Religions in American History. Oxford University Press. pp. 28, 200. ISBN 0-19-512744-7.
  25. ^ a b excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i Introvigne, 2000
  27. ^ Moon, Sun Myung (2010). As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen (May 2010 ed.). USA: The Washington Times Foundation. pp. 119–120. OCLC 751568991. 
  28. ^ Email Us. "'Moonies' founder dies, aged 92 - The Irish Times - Mon, Sep 03, 2012". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2012-09-04. 
  29. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. pages 12 – 16
  30. ^ Moon-struck, Time, October 15, 1973, "The core members—most in their 20s, many of them converts from other spiritual, psychological or political trips—display a dogged devotion that makes even Jehovah's Witnesses look like backsliders. They are enthusiastic capitalists who rise at dawn to hit the streets with wares to exchange for "donations": flowers, votive light candles, even peanuts. Last year, when Master Moon moved his international headquarters to Tarrytown, N.Y., members sold candles across the U.S. for seven weeks to meet the down payment of $300,000 on an $850,000 estate".
  31. ^ a b "Czechs, Now 'Naively' Seeking Direction, See Dangers in Cults", New York Times, February 14, 1996
  32. ^ a b "Unification Church Gains Respect in Latin America", New York Times, November 24, 1996
  33. ^ The Moonies in Moscow: a second coming?, Green Left Weekly, May 28, 1997. "With the dismantling of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moon's anticommunism lost much of its camouflage value. There was, however, the compensating possibility of being able to expand his operations into Russia – both with the bible, and with business. One of Moon's schemes in Russia during the early 1990s was reportedly to rent Red Square for a mass wedding ceremony of the type practised by his sect in many cities around the world, in which scores and perhaps hundreds of couples – selected for one another by UC leaders, and introduced only a few days previously --are married simultaneously. This plan came to nothing. The most that was achieved was that Moon's wife was allowed to broadcast from the stage of the Kremlin Palace of Congresses".
  34. ^ a b A Less Secular Approach, The Saint Petersburg Times, June 7, 2002
  35. ^ Schmemann, Serge (July 28, 1993). "Religion Returns to Russia, With a Vengeance". The New York Times. 
  36. ^ Lifestyle: Conversations with Members of Unification Church – "Quebedeaux, Richard" – Google Книги. Books.google.kg. Retrieved 2012-05-23. 
  37. ^ Patrick Hickey Tahoe Boy: A journey back home John, Maryland, Seven Locks Press (May 15, 2009) ISBN 0-9822293-6-4 ISBN 978-0-9822293-6-1 pages 163-168
  38. ^ a b MARRIAGE BY THE NUMBERS; MOON PRESIDES AS 6,500 COUPLES WED IN S. KOREA Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. Peter Maass Washington Post October 31, 1988
  39. ^ a b "6,000 Couples Are Married in Korea". The New York Times. October 31, 1988. 
  40. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, pages 47-52
  41. ^ Stymied in U.S., Moon's Church Sounds a Retreat, Marc Fisher and Jeff Leen, Washington Post, November 24, 1997
  42. ^ a b c d Million Family March reaches out to all
  43. ^ a b c d Families Arrive in Washington For March Called by Farrakhan, New York Times, October 16, 2000
  44. ^ a b Clarkson, Frederick (October 9, 2000). "Million Moon March". Salon. Salon.com, Inc. Retrieved 2009-11-05. 
  45. ^ a b c d 'Moonies' launch political party in S Korea,The Independent (South Africa), March 10, 2003
  46. ^ Universal peace federation, Middle east peace initiative Archived 2013-01-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  47. ^ Andrea Noble, The Gazette, Bowie resident pushes for peace, Gazette.net, Jan. 8, 2009
  48. ^ From online New World Encyclopedia article.
  49. ^ "Moon is mourned by sister in N Korea. Agence France Press". Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2018-07-18. 
  50. ^ a b "Unification Church: Mass Moonie Marriage in the US". BBC News. Saturday, November 29, 1997.
  51. ^ excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  52. ^ a b The Unification Church: Studies in Contemporary Religion Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine. Massimo Introvigne, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
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  55. ^ a b Richard Greene; K.J. Kwon; Greg Botelho (3 September 2013). "Rev. Moon, religious and political figure, dies in South Korea at 92". CNN. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  56. ^ a b c Brown, Emma (2 September 2012). "Sun Myung Moon dies at 92; Washington Times owner led the Unification Church". The Washington Post. ISSN 0740-5421. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013. self-professed messiah who claimed millions of religious followers in his Unification Church and sought to become a powerful voice in the American conservative movement through business interests 
  57. ^ a b Wakin, Daniel J. (2012-09-02). "Rev. Sun Myung Moon, 92, Unification Church Founder, Dies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  58. ^ Woo, Elaine (2012-09-03). "Sun Myung Moon dies at 92; led controversial Unification Church". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
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  61. ^ Duddy, Neil Interview: Dr. Mose Durst Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine.
  62. ^ Marriage by the numbers; Moon presides as 6,500 couples wed in S. Korea Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. Peter Maass Washington Post October 31, 1988
  63. ^ Sewell, Rhonda B. (February 28, 2003). "Korean Culture Takes the Stage". The Blade. p. D11. The colors, sounds, and heritage of South Korea will come alive tonight as the Little Angels, an all-girls Korean folk ballet company, performs in the Ritz Theatre in Tiffin.... The company was founded in 1962 by the Rev. Sun Myung Moon and his wife, Hak Ja Han, as a way to project a positive image of the country.... 
  64. ^ Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America: African diaspora traditions and other American innovations, Volume 5 of Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, W. Michael Ashcraft, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-275-98717-5, ISBN 978-0-275-98717-6, page 180
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  66. ^ Exploring the climate of doomArchived 2012-04-23 at the Wayback Machine., Rich Lowry, 2009-12-19 'The phrase "doomsday cult" entered our collective vocabulary after John Lofland published his 1966 study, "Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith." Lofland wrote about the Unification Church.'
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  72. ^ ICUS Statement of Purpose
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    "1. The Unification Theological Seminary
    a. The Unification Church has a seminary in Barrytown, New York called The Unification Theological Seminary.
    b. It is used as a theological training center, where members are prepared to be leaders and theologians in the UC.
    c. Moon's seminary, however, has not only attracted a respectable faculty (many of whom are not members of the UC), but it also has graduated many students (who are members of the UC) who have been accepted into doctoral programs at institutions such as Harvard and Yale."
  84. ^ Korean Moon: Waxing or Waning Leo Sandon Jr. Theology Today, July 1978, "The Unification Church purchased the estate and now administers a growing seminary where approximately 110 Moonies engage in a two-year curriculum which includes biblical studies, UC history, philosophy, theology, religious education, and which leads to a Master of Religious Education degree."
  85. ^ a b Dialogue with the Moonies Rodney Sawatsky, Theology Today, April 1978. "Only a minority of their teachers are Unification devotees; a Jew teaches Old Testament, a Christian instructs in church history and a Presbyterian lectures in theology, and so on. Typical sectarian fears of the outsider are not found among Moonies; truth is one or at least must become one, and understanding can be delivered even by the uninitiated."
  86. ^ a b Where have all the Moonies gone? Archived 2012-07-30 at Archive.is K. Gordon Neufeld, First Things, March 2008, "While I was studying theology, church history, and the Bible—taught by an eclectic faculty that included a rabbi, a Jesuit priest, and a Methodist minister—most of my young coreligionists were standing on street corners in San Francisco, Boston, and Miami urging strangers to attend a vaguely described dinner."
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  181. ^ Korean Moon: Waxing of Waning?, Leo Sandon Jr., Theology Today, Vol 35, No 2, July 1978, "The movement's official doctrinal statement, and a part of the revelation, is the Divine Principle. Both an oral tradition and a written one and published in several versions, Divine Principle is the Completed Testament. The Rev. Moon claims to have come not to destroy or abrogate the Old and New Testaments, but to fulfill them-to "complete" them. To his Moonist followers, the Rev. Moon is primarily "true father," probably the Messiah, and only secondarily a theologian. In an effort to systematize Moon's teachings, several members of the Unification Church in Korea have put together a developing theological system in Divine Principle which is impressive in its imaginative nature, coherence, and consistency, if not in its Christian orthodoxy. As the most complete expression of Moonist teachings to date, Divine Principle is the basic text of the Unification Church.4 The two major divisions of the system are the doctrines of Creation and Restoration. There are many subsets to these major divisions, but Creation and Restoration are the foci for the Moonist theological system."
  182. ^ a b Sontag, Fredrick (1977). Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Abingdon. pp. 102–105. ISBN 0-687-40622-6. 
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  188. ^ Another Gospel: Cults, Alternative Religions, and the New Age Movement by Ruth A. Tucker 1989 ISBN 0-310-25937-1 pages 250-251
  189. ^ Daske, D. and Ashcraft, W. 2005, New Religious Movements, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-0702-5 "To restart the process toward perfection, God has sent messiahs to earth who could restore the true state of humanity's relationship with God. Before that can happen, however, humans must perform good deeds that cancel the bad effects of sin. Unificationists call this "indemnity". Showing love and devotion to one's fellow humans, especially within families, helps pay this indemnity." p. 142.
  190. ^ Yamamoto, J. 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Press, ISBN 0-310-70381-6 "The doctrine of indemnity. Indemnity is that which people do to restore themselves to God's kingdom. Young Oon Kim describes it this way: 'We atone for our sins through specific acts of penance.' Kwang-Yol Yoo, a Unification teacher, even goes so far as to say that by following the Divine Principle, "man's perfection must be accomplished by his own effort without God's help." God does most of the work, but people must still do their part in order to achieve God's plan of salvation: 'Five percent is only to say that man's responsibility is extremely small compared to God's.' "p35 "The doctrine of indemnity is not biblical. 'In simple language.' states Ruth Tucker, 'indemnity is salvation by works.' Bob Larson makes a distinction between Moon's doctrine and biblical theology, saying, 'Moon's doctrine of sinless perfection by "indemnity [forgiveness of sin by works on Moon's behalf], which can apply even to deceased ancestors, is a denial of the salvation by grace offering through Jesus Christ.' 'Farewell,' said John Calvin. 'to the dream of those who think up a righteousness flowing together out of faith and works.'" p40
  191. ^ THE POWER OF THE PRINCIPLE: WHENCE IT CAME; WHERE IT WENT Richard Quebedeaux, "Rev. Moon calls such a mode of living, such a lifestyle, "restoration through indemnity." With indemnity viewed as a persistent pattern of behavior, not as a mere doctrine to be affirmed or a rational list of rules, God's ideal for human relationships is "restored" through restitution. Restitution-in the sense of a "natural law"-assuages resentment, because it is the means by which the powerful and enfranchised give the people who feel downtrodden and powerless what they believe is rightly theirs. Indemnity means that 'I'm here for you.'"
  192. ^ Exposition of the Divine Principle 1996 Translation
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  198. ^ "Duddy, Neil Interview: Dr. Mose Durst". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-24. 
  199. ^ The men and women entered a large room, where Moon began matching couples by pointing at them."NY Daily News "In the Unification tradition, romantic liaisons are forbidden until the members are deemed by Mr. Moon to be spiritually ready to be matched at a huge gathering where he points future spouses out to one another. His followers believe that his decisions are based on his ability to discern their suitability and see their future descendants. Many are matched with people of other races and nationalities, in keeping with Mr. Moon's ideal of unifying all races and nations in the Unification Church. Though some couples are matched immediately before the mass wedding ceremonies, which are held every two or three years, most have long engagements during which they are typically posted in different cities or even continents, and get to know one another through letters."NY Times "Many were personally matched by Moon, who taught that romantic love led to sexual promiscuity, mismatched couples and dysfunctional societies. Moon’s preference for cross-cultural marriages also meant that couples often shared no common language."Manchester Guardian "Moon’s death Sept. 2 and funeral Saturday signaled the end of the random pairings that helped make Moon’s Unification Church famous — and infamous — a generation ago." Washington Post "Many of the couples who married at mass weddings were hand-picked by Moon from photos. It led to some strange pairs such as a 71-year-old African Catholic archbishop who wed a 43-year-old Korean acupuncturist. In 1988 Moon entered the Guinness Book of Records when he married 6,516 identically dressed couples at Seoul’s Olympic Stadium. Moonie newly-weds were forbidden to sleep together for 40 days to prove their marriage was on a higher plane. They then had to consummate their marriage in a three-day ritual with the sexual positions stipulated by their leader."Daily Mirror
  200. ^ "NEW YORK DAY BY DAY; Wedding Day for 4,000". The New York Times. July 1, 1982. 
  201. ^ Marriage by the numbers; Moon presides as 6,500 couples wed in S. Korea Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. Peter Maass Washington Post October 31, 1988
  202. ^ Bak Byeong Ryong Unification Church believers around the world three manyeossang joint wedding, MBCNews, 25 August 1992
  203. ^ "'D' Is For Danger – And For Writer Don Delillo". Chicago Tribune. May 22, 1992. 
  204. ^ Brady, Tara (February 17, 2013). "We're going to need a bigger cake... 3,500 Moonies marry in first mass wedding since the death of 'messiah' Sun Myung Moon". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  205. ^ a b c Moon, Sun Myung (2009). As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen. Gimm-Young Publishers. ISBN 0-7166-0299-7. 
  206. ^ a b c d "Korean denies influence peddling". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved 21 March 2012. 
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  210. ^ Dole meeting with Moon aide called cordial, Lawrence Journal-World, February 24, 1976
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  212. ^ a b Pak was founding president of the Washington Times Corporation (1982-1992), and founding chairman of the board. Bo Hi Pak, Appendix B: Brief Chronology of the Life of Dr. Bo Hi Pak, in Messiah: My Testimony to Rev. Sun Myung Moon, Vol I by Bo Hi Pak (2000), Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
  213. ^ "Rabbi Joins the Board of Moonie Newspaper", The Palm Beach Post, May 21, 1978
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  215. ^ a b Spiritual warfare: the politics of the Christian right, Sara Diamond, 1989, Pluto Press, Page 58
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  217. ^ a b Church Spends Millions On Its Image, Washington Post, 1984-09-17. "Another church political arm, Causa International, which preaches a philosophy it calls "God-ism," has been spending millions of dollars on expense-paid seminars and conferences for Senate staffers, Hispanic Americans and conservative activists. It also has contributed $500,000 to finance an anticommunist lobbying campaign headed by John T. (Terry) Dolan, chairman of the National Conservative Political Action Committee (NCPAC)."
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  225. ^ [2] San Francisco Chronicle, September 3, 1983 "For a second day, the Soviet Consulate in Pacific Heights was the scene of emotional protests against the shooting down of a Korean Air Lines jumbo jet. About 300 people held demonstration yesterday morning. Among them were members of the Unification Church, or "Moonies," whose founder is the Rev. Sun Myung Moon, the controversial South Korean who has melded a fierce anti-communism into his ideology. Eldridge Cleaver, the onetime black radical who recently has had ties with the Moonies, spoke at the rally. Many pickets carried signs accusing the Soviet Union of murdering the 269 passengers and crew aboard the airliner. In another development, San Francisco attorney Melvin Belli filed a $109 billion lawsuit against the Soviet Union on behalf of the 269 victims."
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  230. ^ The same old game Archived 2009-02-15 at the Wayback Machine., Al-Ahram, November 12–18, 1998, "The Washington Times is a mouthpiece for the ultra conservative Republican right, unquestioning supporters of Israel's Likud government. The newspaper is owned by Sun Myung Moon, originally a native of North Korea and head of the Unification Church, whose ultra-right leanings make him a ready ally for Netanyahu. Whether or not Netanyahu is personally acquainted with Moon is unclear, though there is no doubt that he has established close friendships with several staff members on The Washington Times, whose editorial policy is rabidly anti-Arab, anti-Muslim and pro-Israel."
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  276. ^ Yamamoto, J. 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Press, ISBN 0-310-70381-6 p40
  277. ^ Yamamoto, J. 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Press, ISBN 0-310-70381-6 p40
  278. ^ Walter Ralston Martin, Ravi K. Zacharias, The Kingdom of the Cults, Bethany House, 2003, ISBN 0764228218 pages 368-370
  279. ^ Yamamoto, J. I., 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-70381-6 (Excerpt: Archived 2012-02-10 at the Wayback Machine.)
    "1. The Unification Theological Seminary
    a. The Unification Church has a seminary in Barrytown, New York called The Unification Theological Seminary.
    b. It is used as a theological training center, where members are prepared to be leaders and theologians in the church.
    c. Since many people regard Moon as a cult leader, there is a false impression that this seminary is academically weak.
    d. Moon’s seminary, however, has not only attracted a respectable faculty (many of whom are not members of his church), but it also has graduated many students (who are members of his church) who have been accepted into doctoral programs at institutions such as Harvard and Yale."
  280. ^ Korean Moon: Waxing or Waning Leo Sandon Jr. Theology Today, July 1978, "The Unification Church purchased the estate and now administers a growing seminary where approximately 110 Moonies engage in a two-year curriculum which includes biblical studies, church history, philosophy, theology, religious education, and which leads to a Master of Religious Education degree."
  281. ^ Dialogue with the Moonies Rodney Sawatsky, Theology Today, April 1978. "Only a minority of their teachers are Unification devotees; a Jew teaches Old Testament, a Christian instructs in church history and a Presbyterian lectures in theology, and so on. Typical sectarian fears of the outsider are not found among Moonies; truth is one or at least must become one, and understanding can be delivered even by the uninitiated."
  282. ^ Where have all the Moonies gone? Archived 2012-07-30 at Archive.is K. Gordon Neufeld, First Things, March 2008, "While I was studying theology, church history, and the Bible—taught by an eclectic faculty that included a rabbi, a Jesuit priest, and a Methodist minister—most of my young coreligionists were standing on street corners in San Francisco, Boston, and Miami urging strangers to attend a vaguely described dinner."
  283. ^ Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent Archived 2008-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. Christian Century May 11, 1977 "In fact Moon’s adherents differ from previous fringe groups in their quite early and expensive pursuit of respectability, as evidenced by the scientific conventions they have sponsored in England and the U.S. and the seminary they have established in Barrytown, New York, whose faculty is composed not of their own group members but rather of respected Christian scholars."
  284. ^ New Hope for Dialogue with National Council of Churches of Christ, Chris Antal, February, 2000
  285. ^ Sontag, Frederick, Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, (Abingdon Press, 1977; Korean translation, Pacific Publishing Company, 1981; Japanese translation, Tuttle-Mori Agency, Inc., 1977; German translation, SINUS-Verlag, Krefeld, 1981) ISBN 0-687-40622-6"
  286. ^ The Unification Church Aims a Major Public Relations Effort at Christian Leaders Christianity Today April 19, 1985.
  287. ^ Raspberry, William, "Did Unpopular Moonie Get a Fair Trial?", Washington Post, April 19, 1984
  288. ^ Clear Lake Journal; Congregation Dismisses Its Minister Over Trip, New York Times, May 25, 1988
  289. ^ Russian unorthodox The Globe and Mail February 8, 2008.
  290. ^ a b Fisher, Marc (November 23, 1997). "A Church in Flux Is Flush With Cash". Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-11-14.  "Also in 1995, the Women's Federation made another donation that illustrates how Moon supports fellow conservatives. It gave a $3.5 million grant to the Christian Heritage Foundation, which later bought a large portion of Liberty University's debt, rescuing the Rev. Jerry Falwell's Lynchburg, Va., religious school from the brink of bankruptcy."
  291. ^ Archbishop rejects Vatican ultimatum
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  293. ^ Archbishop launches married priests movement Archived 2007-12-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  294. ^ Archbishop Milingo: 'Married Priesthood Now'; Healer Missing from Italy Emerges in U.S., Proclaims End to Mandatory Celibacy U.S. Newswire
  295. ^ "Tear down the Cross" Ceremony – Bronx, New York
  296. ^ Quotes from Sun Myung Moon relevant to the May 2003 Pilgrimage to Israel (Take Down the Cross)
  297. ^ Rome and Israel Pilgrim Tour – Burying of the Cross.
  298. ^ Exposition of the Divine Principle 1996 Translation Chapter 3 Eschatology and Human History, accessed September 3, 2010
  299. ^ From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994–1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes Massimo Introvigne, Center for Studies on New Religions "The ceremony in Washington, D.C., included six "co-officiators" from other faiths, including controversial minister Louis Farrakhan from the Nation of Islam. The Blessing ceremony in Seoul on February 7, 1999 also featured seven co-officiators including Orthodox Rabbi Virgil Kranz (Chairman of the American Jewish Assembly), controversial Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo and the General Superintendent of the Church of God in Christ (a large African American Pentecostal denomination), Rev. T.L. Barrett."
  300. ^ Two US journalists reported killed in Afghanistan; details murky, Christian Science Monitor, October 28, 1987 "Two American journalists are believed dead in northwest Afghanistan, diplomatic and resistance forces say here. Filmmaker Lee Shapiro and his soundman, Jim Lindalos, both of New York, were killed Oct. 11, reportedly in a Soviet or Afghan government ambush, according to United States consular officials. However, the resistance group that accompanied the film team has a poor reputation among most informed observers, and doubts have arisen over whether the two Americans did indeed die in an Afghan government or Soviet attack."
  301. ^ Kaplan, Robert, Soldiers of God : With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan, New York : Vintage Departures, 2001, p.170
  302. ^ From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994-1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes Massimo Introvigne, Center for Studies on New Religions "The ceremony in Washington, D.C., included six "co-officiators" from other faiths, including controversial minister Louis Farrakhan from the Nation of Islam. The Blessing ceremony in Seoul on February 7, 1999 also featured seven co-officiators including Orthodox Rabbi Virgil Kranz (Chairman of the American Jewish Assembly), controversial Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo and the General Superintendent of the Church of God in Christ (a large African American Pentecostal denomination), Rev. T.L. Barrett."
  303. ^ Prayers for Minister Farrakhan health, recovery continue Archived 2011-07-11 at the Wayback Machine., Frost Illustrated, January 31, 2007
  304. ^ Unifying or Dividing? Sun Myung Moon and the Origins of the Unification Church George D. Chryssides, University of Wolverhampton, U.K. 2003
  305. ^ Unification Church of America History by Lloyd Pumphrey
  306. ^ John Dempsey (2007-06-01). "American Life TV targets baby boomers". Variety. Retrieved 2007-10-09. 
  307. ^ a b American Life TV targets baby boomers: Channel airing Clooney's Darfur docu Variety, June 1, 2007
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  327. ^ Kim, Jongsuk (2018-05-11). Split of the Unification Movement (Advanced copy ed.). Cheunan City, S. Korea: SARANG Kim of AUNE. ISBN 979-11-959843-3-6. 
  328. ^ Fefferman, Dan. "SCHISM in the Unification Church" (PDF). CESNUR Center for Studies on New Religions. 2016 CESNUR Conference. Retrieved 9 February 2018. 
  329. ^ "FFWPU International Headquarters – Practicing True Love in Resemblance to Heavenly Parent". FFWPU International Headquarters. FFWPU International Headquarters. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
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  332. ^ a b Boorstein, Michelle; Shapira, Ian (23 November 2009). "Succession, division worry church members and beneficiaries". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  333. ^ a b Song, Hongeun. "Unification Church 'I Am The Prince" (June 2011). Shin Dong A. Retrieved 10 February 2018. 
  334. ^ a b Barker, Eileen (April 8, 2016). Revisionism and Diversification in New Religious Movements. Routledge. ISBN 9781317063605. 
  335. ^ Bainbridge, William Sims (1997). The Sociology of Religious Movements. Routledge. pp. 203–205. ISBN 0-415-91202-4. 
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  338. ^ "Bestowing the Heavenly Scriptures » FFWPU USA". familyfed.org. FFWPU. Retrieved 3 March 2018. “The existing Cheon Seong Gyeong had some misquoted and duplicated parts, which True Mother was sad to see.” The new edition corrected this and added speeches of True Father and True Mother from the 2000s. 
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  340. ^ "True Peace" (PDF). #43 (English Version). January 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2018. 
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  342. ^ Introvigne, Massimo. "Unification Movement Schismatic Groups (2012-Present) – WRSP". wrldrels.org. World Religions and Spirituality. Retrieved 28 February 2018. 
  343. ^ Son of Moonies founder takes over as church leader The Guardian, 2008-04-28
  344. ^ Tuan, Chan Cheng (28 August 2012). "Seeking reunification, Korea can learn something from us". New Strait Times. Highbeam. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  345. ^ Founder and Chairman, Global Peace Foundation, Founder and Chairman, Global Peace Foundation Archived 2014-09-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  346. ^ Abcatubig. "Leaders Call for Moral and Innovative Leadership at Global Peace Convention." SunStar. SunStar Manila, 02 Mar. 2017. Web. 27 Mar. 2017. [8]
  347. ^ "Our Vision." Our Vision. Global Peace Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 May 2015. [9]
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  349. ^ Introvigne, Massimo. "Family Peace Association – WRSP". wrldrels.org. World Religions and Spirituality. Retrieved 28 February 2018. 
  350. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "The Rev. Sun Myung Moon, founder of The Times, dies at 92". 
  351. ^ Unification Church pres sees smaller mass weddings Archived 2009-03-22 at the Wayback Machine., Daily Monitor, 2008-12-30
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  354. ^ Unification Church president on condolence visit to N. Korea, Yonhap News, 2011-12-26.
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  358. ^ a b Unification Church Woos A Second Generation, National Public Radio, June 23, 2010
  359. ^ "Anti-LGBT cult leader calls on followers to purchase assault ifles". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 3 March 2018. 
  360. ^ Swatos, Jr, William H. (February 1998). Encyclopedia of religion and society. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7619-8956-1. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  361. ^ Biermans, J. 1986, The Odyssey of New Religious Movements, Persecution, Struggle, Legitimation: A Case Study of the Unification Church Lewiston, New York and Queenston, Ontario: The Edwin Melton Press ISBN 0-88946-710-2 p173
  362. ^ Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent Archived 2008-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. Christian Century May 11, 1977 "In fact Moon’s adherents differ from previous fringe groups in their quite early and expensive pursuit of respectability, as evidenced by the scientific conventions they have sponsored in England and the U.S. and the seminary they have established in Barrytown, New York, whose faculty is composed not of their own group members but rather of respected Christian scholars."
  363. ^ Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America: African diaspora traditions and other American innovations: Introduction, Eugene V. Gallagher, W. Michael Ashcraft, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, pages 94-95
  364. ^ "In 1955, Reverend Moon established the Collegiate Association for the Research of the Principle (CARP). CARP is now active on many campuses in the United States and has expanded to over eighty nations. This association of students promotes intercultural, interracial, and international cooperation through the Unification world view." [16] Archived 2018-01-05 at the Wayback Machine.
  365. ^ Storey, John Woodrow; Glenn H. Utter (2002). Religion and Politics. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 1-57607-218-5. 
  366. ^ Yamamoto, J.; Alan W Gomes (1995). Unification Church. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. p. 19. ISBN 0-310-70381-6. 
  367. ^ Fefferman, Dan. "SCHISM in the Unification Church" (PDF). CESNUR Center for Studies on New Religions. 2016 CESNUR Conference. Retrieved 9 February 2018. 
  368. ^ "Family Peace Association - GuideStar Profile". www.guidestar.org. Retrieved 2 March 2018. 
  369. ^ "가정평화협회 창설". newsis (in Korean). Retrieved 28 February 2018. 
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  372. ^ 송, 홍근. "문현진 가정평화협회 창설자". shindonga.donga.com (in Korean). Shin Dong A. Retrieved 28 February 2018. 
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  375. ^ "가정평화협회 창설". Segye Times (in Korean). Retrieved 1 March 2018. 
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  377. ^ "가정평화협회 창설, 축사하는 사이드 아킬 시라즈 총재". 중앙일보 (in Korean). 4 December 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2018. 
  378. ^ Religious persecution, Business World, January 9, 2014
  379. ^ R. North, S.J. (Compiled), Elenchus of Biblica 1987, Rome, 1990, p.544.[17]
  380. ^ Introduction and Brief History of the Assembly of the World's Religions
  381. ^ The Reunification of Korea and World Peace, Sun Myung Moon
  382. ^ Inter-Religious Federation for World Peace
  383. ^ The Encyclopedia Of Christianity, Erwin Fahlbusch, et al, p598
  384. ^ False Dawn, Lee Penn, p122
  385. ^ Moonstruck, SF Weekly, 2006-02-22
  386. ^ Ghouse, Mike (21 February 2012). "Commitment to Israel-Palestine, Part 2". Huffington Post. 
  387. ^ Cheongshim Graduate School of Theology
  388. ^ ELISABETH ROSENTHALPublished: 12 September 2000 (12 September 2000). "Group Founded by Sun Myung Moon Preaches Sexual Abstinence in China — New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  389. ^ About, Professors World Peace Academy
  390. ^ "Project Vision," New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved, June 25, 2008.
  391. ^ "About," New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved, April 10, 2015.
  392. ^ McDowell, Edwin (April 2, 1984). "Unification Church Is Starting A Publishing House". The New York Times. 
  393. ^ "The Peace Academy, based in New York, was founded by Moon in 1973. It is financed primarily by his International Cultural Foundation." [18]
  394. ^ History of PWPA, Professors World Peace Academy
  395. ^ Sun Moon University
  396. ^ Robertson, Roland and Garrett, William R., 1991, Religion and Social Order, Paragon House, page 206
  397. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-04. Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
  398. ^ Yamamoto, J. I., 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-70381-6 (Excerpt: Archived 2012-02-10 at the Wayback Machine.)
    "1. The Unification Theological Seminary
    a. The Unification Church has a seminary in Barrytown, New York called The Unification Theological Seminary.
    b. It is used as a theological training center, where members are prepared to be leaders and theologians in the UC.
    c. Since many people regard Moon as a cult leader, there is a false impression that this seminary is academically weak.
    d. Moon's seminary, however, has not only attracted a respectable faculty (many of whom are not members of the UC), but it also has graduated many students (who are members of the UC) who have been accepted into doctoral programs at institutions such as Harvard and Yale."
  399. ^ Divine Principle and the Second Advent Archived 2008-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. Christian Century May 11, 1977 "In fact Moon's adherents differ from previous fringe groups in their quite early and expensive pursuit of respectability, as evidenced by the scientific conventions they have sponsored in England and the U.S. and the seminary they have established in Barrytown, New York, whose faculty is composed not of their own group members but rather of respected Christian scholars."
  400. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-09-17. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
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  403. ^ Rosenthal, Elisabeth (2000-09-12). "Group Founded by Sun Myung Moon Preaches Sexual Abstinence in China". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-22. [permanent dead link]
  404. ^ "Glenallen resident returns from Thailand after helping victims of human trafficking". 7 May 2012. 
  405. ^ Mo. woman helps victims of human trafficking
  406. ^ Gruzen, Tara (February 13, 1996). "College Group Preaches A Lesson On Pure Love At Anti-porn Protest". Chicago Tribune. 
  407. ^ DANCE VIEW; A Wobbly Kirov Is Saved by 'The Firebird', New York Times, July 7, 1995
  408. ^ DANCE; A Small Place Reaches for Ballet's Big Time, New York Times, July 29, 2001
  409. ^ Sewell, Rhonda B. (February 28, 2003). "Korean Culture Takes the Stage". The Blade. p. D11. The colors, sounds, and heritage of South Korea will come alive tonight as the Little Angels, an all-girls Korean folk ballet company, performs in the Ritz Theatre in Tiffin. ... The company was founded in 1962 by the Rev. Sun Myung Moon and his wife, Hak Ja Han, as a way to project a positive image of the country... 
  410. ^ Moon, Sun Myung (2009). As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen. Gimm-Young Publishers. ISBN 0-7166-0299-7.  page 67. "My plan was to have these seventeen children learn how to dance and then send them out into the world. Many foreigners knew about Korea only as a poor country that had fought a terrible war. I wanted to show them the beautiful dances of Korea so that they would realize that the Korean people are a people of culture."
  411. ^ Dunning, Jennifer (December 29, 1973). "Dance: The Little Angels; Korean Folk Ballet Presents 31 Children in Intricate Routines and Songs". The New York Times. p. 53. 
  412. ^ Dunning, Jennifer (February 1, 1993). "Dance in Review". The New York Times. 
  413. ^ a b c A Church in Flux is Flush with Cash Washington Post, November 23, 1997
  414. ^ Kelleher, Terry (September 20, 1982). "'Inchon reflects only the cult of bad moviemaking". The Miami Herald. p. 5C. 
  415. ^ Moon Church Founds Ballet School New York Times, 1990-09-08
  416. ^ Universal Ballet
  417. ^ Interview with Julia Moon exploredance.com
  418. ^ Inside and Outside the Korean Dance Scene Archived 2012-02-15 at the Wayback Machine.
  419. ^ "Reverendo Moon retorna à Grã-Bretanha" (in Portuguese). BBC Brasil. 2005-11-05. Retrieved 2004-11-16. 
  420. ^ Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma at ROKfootball.com
  421. ^ Warming Up for the Kick-off, Wall Street Journal, August 2, 2010
  422. ^ "Jerez se convierte hoy en una de las sedes oficiales de la 'Peace Cup 2009'" (in Spanish). AndaluciaPress. Archived from the original on April 22, 2009. Retrieved 2008-06-14. 
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  427. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image Washington Post September 17, 1984. "In May, a church political group called the Freedom Leadership Foundation paid for four Republican Senate staff members – including aides to Sens. Steve Symms (R-Idaho), Robert W. Kasten Jr. (R-Wis.) and William L. Armstrong (R-Colo.) – to fly to Central America where they met with government leaders and U.S. Embassy officials in Honduras and Guatemala and joined the official U.S. observer delegation to the Salvadoran election."
  428. ^ My Four and One Half Years with The Lord of The Flies, Allen Tate Wood "From March to December of 1970 I was head of the Unification Church's political arm in the United States (The Freedom Leadership Foundation). On Moon's behalf we sought to defuse the Peace Movement and buttress the hawk position by convincing senators and congressmen that there was substantial grass roots support for a hard line stand in Asia. In 1969 we were just scratching the surface. Today Moon's organization is in a position of vastly increased power and prestige. Through the Freedom Leadership Foundation and its descendant CAUSA, Moon has won the gratitude and respect of many congressmen and senators, not to mention former presidents Nixon, Reagan and Bush."
  429. ^ Sun Myung Moon forms new political party to merge divided Koreas Archived 2013-09-01 at the Wayback Machine. Church and State, May 2003
  430. ^ New moons are rising, Asia Times, October 31, 2009
  431. ^ Neil Bush, the Rev. Moon, Paraguay and the U.S. Dept. of Education by Bill Berkowitz, Scoop (New Zealand), 2008-03-29.
  432. ^ The Pittsburgh Press, December 20, 1982, page 11
  433. ^ Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy
  434. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image Washington Post September 17, 1984. "The church also is spending $1.5 million a year on a new local think tank, the Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy, that is underwriting conservative-oriented research and seminars at Stanford University, the University of Chicago, the Institute for Energy Analysis in Oak Ridge, Tenn., and other institutions."
  435. ^ Public TV Tilts Toward Conservatives, Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting "While conservatives dismiss Bill Moyers' world-class documentaries on our constitutional checks and balances as "propaganda," they never mention PBS's airing of unabashed right-wing agitprop films such as Nicaragua Was Our Home (the pro-contra film produced by Rev. Sun Myung Moon's CAUSA, which funded the contras after Congress' ban)..."
  436. ^ Dorsey, Gary (August 26, 1999). "Unification Church group sues state over task force; Investigation of cults called unconstitutional". The Baltimore Sun. p. 2B. 
  437. ^ Argetsinger, Amy (October 14, 1999). "Task Force Finds Few Instances of Campus Cults". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company. p. M4. 
  438. ^ "International Coalition for Religious Freedom". berkleycenter.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 15 February 2018. 
  439. ^ Wetzel, Frank (May 21, 1989). "More sunshine needed on Moon units". The Seattle Times. Seattle Times Company. p. A21. 
  440. ^ Reid, T.R. (August 5, 1977). "House Subcommittee's Report Links Rev. Moon to the KCIA". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company. p. A7. 
  441. ^ Boettcher, Robert; Gordon L. Freedman (1980). Gifts of Deceit. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. pp. 152, 164. ISBN 0-03-044576-0. 
  442. ^ After Cold War, Cold Peace National Catholic Reporter October 1, 1999
  443. ^ A Church in Flux Is Flush With Cash,
  444. ^ Unification Church founder Sun Myung Moon, 15 others injured in helicopter crash Herald Tribune, July 19, 2008
  445. ^ Sons Rise in a Moon Shadow,Forbes, April 12, 2010
  446. ^ Clarke, Peter Bernard, 1999, Bibliography of Japanese new religions, with annotations and an introduction to Japanese new religions at home and abroad, Japan Library
  447. ^ Dept. of Religious Studies, Punjabi University., 1988, Journal of Religious Studies: Volume 16
  448. ^ "Moon's church settles into quiet fishing town". Rome News-Tribune. November 27, 1985. 
  449. ^ Philippines political leader visits Kodiak, Kodiak Mirror, September 14, 2010
  450. ^ "Bayou La Batre residents embrace church they once called a cult"
  451. ^ Moon-Linked Sheraton National Hotel Sold, ARL Now, May 27, 2011
  452. ^ a b "Who Owns What: News World Communications". The Columbia Journalism Review. 2003-11-24. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  453. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "Rev. Sun Myung Moon passes the torch". The Washingtion Times. Retrieved 2016-02-15. 
  454. ^ Sims, Calvin (August 11, 1997). "A Newspaper for Half a Hemisphere?". The New York Times. 
  455. ^ Yahoo! Finance profile
  456. ^ Shapira, Ian (November 3, 2010). "Moon group buys back Washington Times". Washington Post. p. C1. 
  457. ^ "Operations Holdings INC | About Us". www.operationsholdings.com. Retrieved 2016-02-15. 
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  459. ^ Dubai Tycoon Scouts Pyongyang Forbes, September 9, 2006
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  484. ^ International Relief Friendship Foundation
  485. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image Washington Post September 17, 1984."The church-financed International Relief Friendship Foundation recently shipped 1,000 pounds of clothing, nearly seven tons of food and medical supplies to Miskito Indian refugees in the jungles of Honduras, according to Joy Morrow, the foundation's Washington coordinator."
  486. ^ Prince Harry's visit to Guyana children's home founded by Moonies sect defended, Daily Mail, 2016-12-4
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  501. ^ $1 million Moonie mystery
  502. ^ CNA: Married former priests warn against Milingo's group, December 8, 2006
  503. ^ U.S. Newswire: Archbishop Milingo: 'Married Priesthood Now'; Healer Missing from Italy Emerges in U.S., Proclaims End to Mandatory Celibacy Archived 2006-09-12 at the Wayback Machine., July 12, 2006
  504. ^ Thousands rally at million family march – racially and religiously diverse gathering
  505. ^ Judson, George (April 17, 1992). "Making the Hard Choice at Bridgeport U.: Opting to Stay Alive". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. p. B5. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
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  507. ^ Richard Rubenstein: A Brief Biographical Note
  508. ^ Featuring Neil Albert Salonen Archived 2009-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. in The American Chiropractor, July 30, 2005.
  509. ^ Financial agreements with PWPA have been terminated and the University has been financially independent since 2004. The University is a licensed and accredited Connecticut nonstock, non-profit corporation with an unpaid Board of Trustees.
  510. ^ The Words of the Milingo Family, Statement of the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification On the Recent Publication of "The Fish Rescued from the Mud" by Archbishop Emanuel Milingo and Michele Zanzucchi

Annotated bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]