Conservatism in South Korea

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The logo of the Saenuri Party. Saenuri Party is the current South Korean largest conservative party.

Starting from the dictatorship of Pak Junghee with military coups d'état and the scandals facing the conservative government, including accusations of government interference in the presidential election, Conservatism in South Korea is chiefly associated with the Saenuri Party (named the Grand National Party prior to 2012). Within the party, groups such as the New Right promote conservatism. The conservative Park Geun-hye government is the current government of the Sixth Republic of South Korea.

South Korean conservatism has been influenced from the military dictatorships of Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan. In domestic policy, South Korean conservatism has a strong elitist streak and promotes rapid modernization and social stability.[1]

Values[edit]

Conservatism in South Korea is fervently anti-communist. South Koreans oppose relations with North Korea and support upholding the National Security Act. Some conservative citizen groups such as the Korean Council for Restoration National Identity and American and Korean Friendship National Council protested at UNESCO headquarters in Paris in May 2011 to prevent inscribing the records of the Gwangju Democratization Movement in the Memory of the World Register, and to petition for reconsidering identifying North Korean Special Forces as the perpetrators of the GDM.[2]

Jeong Tae-heon, a professor of Korean history at Korea University has expressed concerns that disputes over the term "liberal democracy" reflect a strong conservative bias reacting against North Korea's political ideologies, similar to political views seen in 1950.[3]

It has been alleged that the South Korean right has promoted McCarthyism-like red scares among the South Korean public.[4][clarification needed]

Media[edit]

The Chojoongdong media cartel wields the largest political influence in the South Korean political scene through newspaper and other print publications.

Timeline[edit]

Conservative presidents[edit]

  • Rhee Syng-man (Liberal Party, 1948-1960)
  • Park Chung-hee (Military junta/Democratic Republican Party, 1961-1979)
  • Chun Doo-hwan (Military junta/Democratic Justice Party, 1979-1988)
  • Roh Tae-woo (Democratic Justice Party/Democratic Liberal Party, 1988-1993)
  • Kim Young-sam (Democratic Liberal Party/New Korea Party/Grand National Party, 1993-1998)
  • Lee Myung-bak (Grand National Party/Saenuri Party, 2008-2013)
  • Park Geun-hye (Saenuri Party, 2013–present)

Major conservative parties election results of South Korea[edit]

Election Candidate Total votes Share of votes Outcome Party Name
1948 Rhee Syng-man 180 (electoral vote) 91.8% Elected Green tickY NARKKI
Kim Gu 13 (electoral vote) 6.7% Defeated Red XN Korean Independence Party
1952 Rhee Syng-man 5,238,769 74.6% Elected Green tickY Liberal Party
1956 Rhee Syng-man 5,046,437 70.0% Elected Green tickY Liberal Party
March 1960 Rhee Syng-man 9,633,376 100.0% Elected Green tickY Liberal Party
August 1960 no candidate N/A
1963 Park Chung-hee 4,702,640 46.6% Elected Green tickY Democratic Republican Party
1967 Park Chung-hee 5,688,666 51.4% Elected Green tickY Democratic Republican Party
1971 Park Chung-hee 6,342,828 53.2% Elected Green tickY Democratic Republican Party
1972 Park Chung-hee 2,357 (electoral vote) 99.91 Elected Green tickY Democratic Republican Party
1978 Park Chung-hee 2,578 (electoral vote) 99.96% Elected Green tickY Democratic Republican Party
1981 Chun Doo-hwan 4,755 (electoral vote) 90.2% Elected Green tickY Democratic Justice Party
1987 Roh Tae-woo 8,282,738 36.6% Elected Green tickY Democratic Justice Party
Kim Young-sam 6,337,581 28.0% Defeated Red XN Reunification Democratic Party
Kim Jong-pil 1,823,067 8.1% Defeated Red XN New Democratic Republican Party
1992 Kim Young-sam 9,977,332 42.0% Elected Green tickY Democratic Liberal Party
Chung Ju-yung 3,880,067 16.3% Defeated Red XN United People's Party
1997 Lee Hoi-chang 9,935,718 38.7% Defeated Red XN Grand National Party
2002 Lee Hoi-chang 11,443,297 46.5% Defeated Red XN Grand National Party
2007 Lee Myung-bak 11,492,389 48.7% Elected Green tickY Grand National Party
2012 Park Geun-hye 15,773,128 51.6% Elected Green tickY Saenuri Party

Legislative elections[edit]

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Status Election leader Party Name
1948
55 / 200
1,755,543 26.1 new 55 seats; Minority in government Rhee Syng-man NARRKI
1950
24 / 210
677,173 9.7 new 24 seats; Minority in government Yun Chi-young Korea Nationalist Party
14 / 210
473,153 6.8 Decrease41 seats; Minority in government Rhee Syng-man National Association
1954
114 / 203
2,756,061 36.8 new 114 seats; Majority in government Rhee Syng-man Liberal Party
3 / 210
192,109 2.6 Decrease11 seats; Minority in government National Association
3 / 203
72,923 1.0 Decrease21 seats; Minority in government Yun Chi-young Korea Nationalist Party
1958
126 / 233
3,607,092 42.1 Increase12 seats; Majority in government Rhee Syng-man Liberal Party
1960
2 / 233
249,960 2.8 Decrease124 seats; Majority in opposition Rhee Syng-man Liberal Party
1963
110 / 175
3,112,985 33.5% new 110 seats; Majority in government Park Chung-hee Democratic Republican Party
1967
129 / 175
5,494,922 50.6% Increase19 seats; Majority in government Park Chung-hee Democratic Republican Party
1971
113 / 204
5,460,581 48.8% Decrease16 seats; Majority in government Park Chung-hee Democratic Republican Party
1973
146 / 219
4,251,754 38.7% Decrease40 seats; Majority in government Park Chung-hee Democratic Republican Party
1978
145 / 231
4,695,995 31.7% Increase2 seats; Majority in government Park Chung-hee Democratic Republican Party
1981
151 / 276
5,776,624 35.6% new 151 seats; Majority in government Chun Doo-hwan Democratic Justice Party
1985
148 / 276
7,040,811 34.0% Decrease3 seats; Majority in government Chun Doo-hwan Democratic Justice Party
1988
125 / 299
6,675,494 34.0% Decrease23 seats; Minority in government Roh Tae-woo Democratic Justice Party
59 / 299
4,680,175 23.8% new 59 seats; Minority in opposition Kim Young-sam Reunification Democratic Party
35 / 299
3,062,506 15.6% new 35 seats; Minority in opposition Kim Jong-pil New Democratic Republican Party
1992
149 / 299
7,923,719 38.5% new 149 seats; Minority in government Roh Tae-woo Democratic Liberal Party
31 / 299
3,574,419 17.4% new 31 seats; Minority in opposition Chung Ju-yung United People's Party
1996
139 / 299
6,783,730 34.5% new 139 seats; Minority in government (1996-1998) Kim Young-sam New Korea Party
in opposition (1998-2000)
50 / 299
3,178,474 16.2% new 50 seats; Minority in government Kim Jong-pil United Liberal Democrats
2000
133 / 273
7,365,359 39.0% new 133 seats; Minority in opposition Lee Hoi-chang Grand National Party
17 / 273
1,859,331 9.8% Decrease35 seats; Minority in government (2000-2001) Kim Jong-pil United Liberal Democrats
in opposition (2001-2004)
2004
121 / 299
7,613,660 35.8% Decrease24 seats; Minority in opposition Park Geun-hye Grand National Party
4 / 299
600,462 2.8% Decrease6 seats; Minority in opposition Kim Jong-pil United Liberal Democrats
2008
153 / 299
6,421,654 37.5% Increase32 seats; Majority in government Kang Jae-seop Grand National Party
18 / 299
1,173,463 6.8% new 18 seats; Minority in government Lee Hoi-chang Liberty Forward Party
14 / 299
2,258,750 13.2% new 14 seats; Minority in government Suh Chung-won Pro-Park Coalition
2012
152 / 300
9,130,651 42.8% new 152 seats; Majority in government Park Geun-hye Saenuri Party
5 / 300
690,754 3.2% Decrease13 seats; Minority in government Sim Dae-pyung Liberty Forward Party
2016
122 / 300
7,960,272 42.8% Decrease30 seats; Minority in government Kim Moo-sung Saenuri Party

Local elections[edit]

Election Metropolitan mayor/Governor Provincial legislature Municipal mayor Municipal legislature Party Name
1995
5 / 15
284 / 875
70 / 230
Democratic Liberal Party
4 / 15
82 / 875
23 / 230
United Liberal Democrats
1998
6 / 16
224 / 616
74 / 232
Grand National Party
4 / 16
82 / 616
29 / 232
United Liberal Democrats
2002
11 / 16
467 / 682
136 / 227
Grand National Party
1 / 16
33 / 682
16 / 227
United Liberal Democrats
2006
12 / 16
557 / 733
155 / 230
1,621 / 2,888
Grand National Party
2010
6 / 16
288 / 761
82 / 228
1,247 / 2,888
Grand National Party
1 / 16
41 / 761
13 / 228
117 / 2,888
Liberty Forward Party
0 / 16
3 / 761
0 / 228
19 / 2,888
Pro-Park Coalition
2014
8 / 17
416 / 789
117 / 226
1,413 / 2,898
Saenuri Party

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 한국 보수주의를 묻는다. Historical Criticism (in Korean) (95). Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  2. ^ Bae, Myeong-jae (11 May 2011). 보수단체 "광주학살은 北 특수부대 소행". The Kyunghyang Shinmun (in Korean). Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  3. ^ Park, Jang-jun (13 November 2011). 한국의 보수는 1950년에 머물러 있다. Media Today (in Korean). Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  4. ^ Kang, Hyun-kyung (2 April 2012). "Is red scare right-wing conspiracy?". The Korea Times. Retrieved 6 May 2012. 

External links[edit]