The Phantom of the Opera (1986 musical)
|The Phantom of the Opera|
|Music||Andrew Lloyd Webber|
|Basis||Le Fantôme de l'Opéra
by Gaston Leroux
|Premiere||9 October 1986: Her Majesty's Theatre, London|
The Phantom of the Opera is a musical with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics by Charles Hart and Richard Stilgoe. Lloyd Webber and Stilgoe also wrote the musical's book together. Based on the French novel Le Fantôme de l'Opéra by Gaston Leroux, its central plot revolves around a beautiful soprano, Christine Daaé, who becomes the obsession of a mysterious, disfigured musical genius living in the subterranean labyrinth beneath the Opera Garnier.
The musical opened in London's West End in 1986, and on Broadway in 1988. It won the 1986 Olivier Award and the 1988 Tony Award for Best Musical, and Michael Crawford (in the title role) won the Olivier and Tony Awards for Best Actor in a Musical. It is the longest running show in Broadway history by a wide margin, and celebrated its 10,000th Broadway performance on 11 February 2012, the first production ever to do so. It is the second longest-running West End musical, after Les Misérables, and the third longest-running West End show overall, after The Mousetrap.
With total estimated worldwide gross receipts of over $5.6 billion and total Broadway gross of $845 million, Phantom was the most financially successful entertainment event until The Lion King passed it in 2014. By 2011, it had been seen by over 130 million people in 145 cities across 27 countries, and continues to play in London and New York.
- 1 Development
- 2 Synopsis
- 3 Casting
- 4 Musical numbers
- 5 Orchestra
- 6 Recordings
- 7 Allegations of plagiarism
- 8 Other productions
- 9 Copyright release
- 10 Awards and nominations
- 11 Sequel
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 External links
In 1984, Lloyd Webber contacted Cameron Mackintosh, the co-producer of Cats and Song and Dance, to propose a new musical. He was aiming for a romantic piece, and suggested Gaston Leroux's book The Phantom of the Opera as a basis. They screened both the 1925 Lon Chaney and the 1943 Claude Rains motion picture versions, but neither saw an effective way to make the leap from film to stage. Later, in New York, Lloyd Webber found a second-hand copy of the original, long-out-of-print Leroux novel, which supplied the necessary inspiration to develop a musical: "I was actually writing something else at the time, and I realised that the reason I was hung up was because I was trying to write a major romantic story, and I had been trying to do that ever since I started my career. Then with the Phantom, it was there!"
Lloyd Webber first approached Jim Steinman to write the lyrics because of his "dark obsessive side", but he declined in order to fulfill his commitments on a Bonnie Tyler album. Alan Jay Lerner was then recruited, but he became seriously ill after joining the project and was forced to withdraw; none of his contributions (mostly involving the song "Masquerade") are credited in the show. Richard Stilgoe, the lyricist for Starlight Express, wrote most of the original lyrics for the production. Charles Hart, a young and then-relatively unknown lyricist, later rewrote many of the lyrics, along with original lyrics for "Think of Me". Some of Stilgoe's original contributions are still present in the final version, however.
Inspired in part by an earlier musical version of the same story by Ken Hill, Lloyd Webber's score is sometimes operatic in style but maintains the form and structure of a musical throughout. The full-fledged operatic passages are reserved principally for subsidiary characters such as Andre and Firmin, Carlotta, and Piangi. They are also used to provide the content of the fictional "operas" that are taking place within the show itself, viz., Hannibal, Il Muto, and the Phantom's masterwork, Don Juan Triumphant. "Here, Lloyd Webber pastiched various styles from the grand operas of Meyerbeer through to Mozart and even Gilbert and Sullivan." These pieces are often presented as musical fragments, interrupted by dialogue or action sequences in order to clearly define the musical's "show within a show" format. The musical extracts from the Phantom's opera, "Don Juan Triumphant", during the latter stages of the show, are dissonant and modern—"suggesting, perhaps, that the Phantom is ahead of his time artistically".
Design, direction, and choreography
Maria Björnson designed the sets and over 200 costumes, including the elaborate gowns in the "Masquerade" sequence. Her set designs, including the chandelier, subterranean gondola, and sweeping staircase, earned her multiple awards. Hal Prince, director of Cabaret, Candide, Follies, and Lloyd Webber's Evita, directed the production, while Gillian Lynne, associate director and choreographer of Cats, provided the integral musical staging and choreography.
First preview at Sydmonton
A preview of the first act was staged at Sydmonton (Lloyd Webber's home) in 1985, starring Colm Wilkinson (later the star of the Toronto production) as the Phantom, Sarah Brightman as Kristin (later Christine), and Clive Carter (later a member of the London cast) as Raoul. This very preliminary production used Richard Stilgoe's original unaltered lyrics, and many songs sported names that were later changed, such as "What Has Time Done to Me" ("Think of Me"), and "Papers" ("Notes"). The Phantom's original mask covered the entire face and remained in place throughout the performance, obscuring the actor's vision and muffling his voice. Björnson designed the now-iconic half-mask to replace it, and the unmasking sequence was added. Clips of this preview performance were included on the DVD of the 2004 film production.
Phantom began previews at Her Majesty's Theatre in London's West End on 27 September 1986 under the direction of Hal Prince, then opened on 9 October. It was choreographed by Gillian Lynne and the sets were designed by Maria Björnson, with lighting by Andrew Bridge. Michael Crawford starred in the title role with Sarah Brightman as Christine and Steve Barton as Raoul. The production, still playing at Her Majesty's, celebrated its 10,000th performance on 23 October 2010, with Lloyd Webber and the original Phantom, Michael Crawford, in attendance. It is the second longest-running musical in West End (and world) history behind Les Misérables, and third overall behind The Mousetrap.
A 25th-anniversary stage performance was held in London on 1 and 2 October 2011 at the Royal Albert Hall and was screened live in cinemas worldwide. The production was produced by Cameron Mackintosh, directed by Laurence Connor, musical staging & choreography by Gillian Lynne, set design by Matt Kinley, costume design by Maria Björnson, lighting design by Patrick Woodroffe, and sound design by Mick Potter. The cast included Ramin Karimloo as the Phantom, Sierra Boggess as Christine, Hadley Fraser as Raoul, Wynne Evans as Piangi, Wendy Ferguson as Carlotta, Barry James as Monsieur Firmin, Gareth Snook as Monsieur Andre, Liz Robertson as Madame Giry, and Daisy Maywood as Meg Giry. Lloyd Webber and several original cast members, including Crawford and Brightman, were in attendance. A DVD and Blu-ray of the performance was released in February 2012, and it began airing in March 2012 on PBS's "Great Performances" television series.
In March 2012, a new production directed by Laurence Connor began a UK and Ireland tour to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the show, beginning at the Theatre Royal Plymouth and travelled to Manchester, Bristol, Dublin, Leeds, Edinburgh, Milton Keynes, Cardiff, and Southampton. John Owen-Jones and Earl Carpenter alternated as the Phantom with Katie Hall and Olivia Brereton as Christine and Simon Bailey as Raoul.
Phantom began Broadway previews at the Majestic Theatre on 9 January 1988 and opened on 26 January. Crawford, Brightman, and Barton reprised their respective roles from the West End. The production continues to play at the Majestic, where it became the first Broadway musical in history to surpass 10,000 performances on 11 February 2012. On 26 January 2013, the production celebrated its 25th anniversary with its 10,400th performance. It is, by over 3,500 performances, the longest-running show in Broadway history. By November 2016, Phantom had been staged over 12,000 times over 28 years.
In 2013, the rights to perform "Phantom" were released to non-professional groups. CLOC musical theatre staged the world amateur premiere in May 2013 at the National Theatre in Melbourne, Australia. In June 2013, Windmill Theatre Company staged the production at the Drum Theatre in Dandenong. Also in June 2013, Wellington Musical Theatre debuted the New Zealand premiere starring Chris Crowe and Barbara Graham.
In 1905 Paris, an auction of old theatrical props is taking place at the derelict Opéra Populaire. Among the participants is the elderly Raoul, Vicomte de Chagny, who purchases a papier-mâché music box featuring a monkey figurine playing a set of cymbals. It seems to hold some meaning for him and he eyes it sadly, saying it appears "exactly as she said." The auctioneer describes "a chandelier in pieces" as the next item up for bid, alluding to a connection with a mysterious figure known as "the Phantom of the Opera". When the drop cloth is pulled from the chandelier, the fixture flickers eerily to life and ascends to the ceiling as the auditorium's former grandeur is restored ("Overture").
It is now 1881 and the cast of a new production, Hannibal, are rehearsing onstage when they learn that new owners, Firmin and André, are taking over the Opéra Populaire. Carlotta, the Opéra's resident soprano prima donna, begins to perform an aria for the new managers when a backdrop inexplicably falls from the flies, barely missing her and prompting anxious chorus girls to whisper, "He's here! The Phantom of the Opera!". The managers try to downplay the incident, but Carlotta angrily insists that such things happen all the time and she storms out. Madame Giry, the Opéra's ballet mistress, informs Firmin and André that Christine Daaé, a chorus girl and orphaned daughter of a prominent violinist, has been "well taught" and can sing Carlotta's role. With cancellation of the sold out show being their only other alternative, the managers reluctantly audition Christine and are surprised to discover that she is indeed up to the challenge. As Christine sings the aria during the evening performance, the Opéra's new patron, Raoul, the Vicomte de Chagny, recognizes her as his childhood friend and playmate ("Think of Me").
Backstage after her triumphant début, Christine confesses to her best friend Meg (Madame Giry's daughter) that she knows her mysterious teacher only as an invisible "Angel of Music" ("Angel of Music"). Raoul pays a visit to Christine's dressing room. The two reminisce about the "Angel of Music" stories that her late father used to tell them and Christine confides that the Angel has visited her and taught her to sing ("Little Lotte"). Raoul indulges what he assumes are fantasies and insists on taking Christine to dinner. When Raoul leaves to fetch his hat, Christine hears the jealous Phantom's voice and she entreats him to reveal himself. The Phantom obliges by appearing as a ghostly, partially masked face in her mirror ("The Mirror/Angel of Music (Reprise)"). Believing him to be the Angel of Music sent by her deceased father, Christine is irresistibly drawn through the now-open mirror to the Phantom, who leads her down into the cellars of the Opéra house. The two then board a small boat and cross a subterranean lake to his secret lair ("The Phantom of the Opera"). The Phantom explains that he has chosen Christine to sing his music and serenades her. When he reveals a mirror that reflects an image of her in a wedding dress, the figure in the mirror gestures to Christine and she faints. The Phantom then covers her tenderly with his cloak ("The Music of the Night").
As the Phantom is composing music at his organ, Christine awakens to the sound of the monkey music box ("I Remember"). Overcome with curiosity, she slips behind the Phantom, lifts his mask, and beholds his grotesquely disfigured face. The Phantom rails at her prying gesture, as Christine hides in fear. He then ruefully expresses his longing to look normal, and to be loved by her ("Stranger Than You Dreamt It"). Moved by pity, Christine returns the Phantom's mask to him and the Phantom shepherds her back above ground.
Meanwhile, Joseph Buquet, the Opéra's chief stagehand, regales the chorus girls with tales of the "Opéra Ghost" and his terrible Punjab lasso ("Magical Lasso"). Madame Giry arrives and warns Buquet to exercise restraint or face the Phantom's wrath. In the managers' office, André and Firman read notes from the Phantom aloud and are interrupted by Raoul, who accuses them of sending him a note saying that he should make no attempt to see Christine again. Carlotta and Piangi then burst into the office, demanding to know who sent Carlotta a note saying that her days at the Opera Populaire are numbered. As André and Firmin try to calm the distressed Carlotta, Madame Giry delivers another note from the Phantom: he demands that Christine replace Carlotta in the new opera, Il Muto, lest they face a "disaster beyond imagination" ("Notes..."). Firmin and André dismiss the threat and assure an enraged Carlotta that she will remain their star ("Prima Donna").
The première of Il Muto initially goes well, until the voice of the Phantom suddenly cuts through the performance, enraged that Box 5 was not kept empty for him. As Christine whispers that she knows the Phantom is near, Carlotta reminds her that her role is silent, calling her a "little toad". The Phantom states that it is Carlotta who is the toad and reduces Carlotta's voice to a frog-like croak. Firmin quickly tries to calm the situation by telling the audience that Christine will take over the starring role, moving forward the ballet to keep the audience entertained. Suddenly, the corpse of Joseph Buquet suddenly drops from the rafters, hanging from the Punjab lasso. Firmin and André plead for calm as mayhem erupts and the Phantom's diabolical laughter is heard throughout the auditorium ("Poor Fool, He Makes Me Laugh").
In the ensuing chaos, Christine escapes with Raoul to the roof and tells him about her subterranean encounter with the Phantom ("Why Have You Brought Me Here?/Raoul, I've Been There"). Raoul is skeptical but promises to love and protect her, and Christine reciprocates his vow ("All I Ask of You"). The heartbroken Phantom, having overheard their entire conversation, angrily vows revenge before returning to the auditorium and sending the chandelier crashing to the stage during the curtain call ("All I Ask of You (Reprise)").
Six months later, in the midst of a masquerade ball, the Phantom makes his first appearance since the chandelier disaster, in costume as the Red Death. He announces that he has written an opera entitled Don Juan Triumphant and demands that it be produced immediately, with Christine (who is now secretly engaged to Raoul) in the lead role, and he warns of dire consequences if his demands are not met ("Masquerade/Why So Silent?"). Noticing an engagement ring on a chain around Christine's neck, the Phantom angrily pulls it from her and vanishes in a blinding flash of light. As the masquerade attendees scatter in fear, Raoul accosts Madame Giry and demands that she reveal what she knows about the Phantom. Giry reluctantly explains that the Phantom is actually a brilliant scholar, magician, architect, inventor, and composer who was born with a terrifyingly deformed face. Feared and reviled by society, he was cruelly exhibited in a cage as part of a travelling fair until he eventually escaped and disappeared. He has since taken refuge beneath the opera house, which has now become his home.
During rehearsals, Raoul - tired of the tyranny with which the Phantom rules the Opera - thinks to use the première of Don Juan Triumphant as a trap to capture the Phantom and put an end to his reign of terror once and for all. Carlotta falsely accuses Christine of being the mastermind and that it is her plan so she can be the star. Christine angrily defends herself, saying she is not the Phantom's accomplice, but his victim. Raoul, knowing of the Phantom's obsession with his fiancée, asserts that the Phantom will be sure to attend the opera's première, and begs Christine to help him lure the Phantom into the trap("Notes/Twisted Every Way"). Torn between her love for Raoul and her fear of the Phantom, Christine visits her father's grave, longing for his guidance but understanding that she must move on ("Wishing You Were Somehow Here Again"). The Phantom appears atop the mausoleum, again under the guise of the Angel of Music ("Wandering Child"), and sings to Christine. Christine, tired and heartbroken, once again accepts her "Angel" as a friend, nearly succumbing to the Phantom's influence, but Raoul arrives to both rescue her and confront The Phantom. The Phantom taunts Raoul, hurling fire balls at him until Christine begs Raoul to leave with her ("Bravo Monsieur"). Furious, the Phantom declares war upon them both and causes flames to spring up around the mausoleum.
With armed policemen having secured the auditorium and watching for the Phantom, Don Juan Triumphant premieres with Christine and Piangi singing the lead roles. During Don Juan's and Aminta's duet, Christine comes to the sudden realization that she is singing not with Piangi, but with the Phantom himself ("The Point of No Return"). Mimicking Raoul's vow of devotion on the rooftop, the Phantom once again expresses love for Christine and forces his ring onto her finger; Christine rips off his mask, exposing his horrifically deformed face to the shocked audience. The opera house is plunged into chaos. Piangi's garroted body is revealed backstage, the cast and audience fly into a state of panic, and the Phantom seizes Christine and flees the theatre. An angry mob, vowing vengeance for the murders of Buquet and Piangi, searches the theatre for the Phantom, while Madame Giry tells Raoul how to find the Phantom's subterranean lair, and warns him to beware his magical lasso.("Down Once More/Track Down This Murderer").
In the lair, Christine is forced to don a wedding dress. Raoul finds the lair and attempts to persuade the Phantom to spare Christine, begging him to show compassion. The Phantom refuses, and captures Raoul with the Punjab lasso. The Phantom tells Christine that he will free Raoul if she agrees to stay with him forever, but if she refuses, Raoul will die. Christine, heartbroken, tells the Phantom that it is his soul that is deformed, not his face. As the Phantom and Raoul both plead to her, Christine mournfully wonders what kind of life the Phantom has known. She tells the Phantom that he is not alone and kisses him, showing him compassion for the first time in his life. The Phantom, having experienced kindness at last, understands that he cannot compel Christine to love him, and sets them both free. Raoul hurries Christine out of the lair, but she returns alone to give the Phantom back his ring. The Phantom tells Christine he loves her, before she tearfully exits with Raoul. The weeping Phantom huddles on his throne and covers himself with his cloak. The mob, led by Meg, enters the lair. Meg pulls the Phantom's cloak from the throne, finding only his mask on the seat. She lifts the mask up into the light and gazes at in wonder as the curtain falls.
|Character||Original West End Cast||Original Broadway Cast||Original Las Vegas Cast||Royal Albert Hall 25th Anniversary Cast|
|The Phantom of the Opera||Michael Crawford||Brent Barrett
|Christine Daaé||Sarah Brightman
|Raoul, Vicomte de Chagny||Steve Barton||Tim Martin Gleason||Hadley Fraser|
|Carlotta Giudicelli||Rosemary Ashe||Judy Kaye||Elena Jeanne Batman
Geena Jeffries Mattox‡
|Madame Giry||Mary Millar||Leila Martin||Rebecca Spencer||Liz Robertson|
|Meg Giry||Janet Devenish||Elisa Heinsohn||Brianne Kelly Morgan||Daisy Maywood|
|Monsieur Richard Firmin||John Savident||Nick Wyman||Lawson Skala||Barry James|
|Monsieur Gilles André||David Firth||Cris Groenendaal||John Leslie Wolfe||Gareth Snook|
|Ubaldo Piangi||John Aron||David Romano||Larry Wayne Morbitt||Wynne Evans|
† The role of Christine Daaé is double-cast in most professional productions. The secondary actress performs the role twice a week (on Broadway, Thursday evening and Saturday matinée).
‡ Three roles (The Phantom, Christine, and Carlotta) were double-cast in the original Las Vegas production, with the two actors in each pair singing alternate performances. Later, Las Vegas casting became identical to that in the Broadway production, with single casting for all characters except Christine.
Notable West End Replacements
- The Phantom: Peter Karrie, Dave Willetts, John Owen-Jones, Ramin Karimloo, Peter Jöback, Simon Bowman, Earl Carpenter, Marcus Lovett, Peter Polycarpou, Ben Forster
- Christine Daaé: Claire Moore, Rebecca Caine, Myrra Malmberg, Gina Beck, Rachel Barrell, Sofia Escobar, Leila Benn Harris, Robyn North, Anna O'Byrne, Meredith Braun, Celinde Schoenmaker
- Raoul, Vicomte de Chagny: Michael Ball, John Barrowman, Simon Bowman, Simon Burke, Clive Carter, Killian Donnelly, Ramin Karimloo, Robert Meadmore, Oliver Thornton, Sean Palmer, Hadley Fraser
- Carlotta Giuducelli: Morag McLaren, Julia Goss, Margaret Preece, Shan Cothi
- Monsieur Richard Firmin: Andy Hockley
- Monsieur Gilles Andre: Martin Ball
Notable Broadway Replacements
- The Phantom: Timothy Nolen, Steve Barton, Mark Jacoby, Davis Gaines, Thomas James O'Leary, Marcus Lovett, Hugh Panaro, Howard McGillin, Gary Mauer, Brad Little, John Cudia, Peter Jöback, Norm Lewis, James Barbour, Amick Byram
- Christine Daaé: Lisa Vroman, Patti Cohenour, Rebecca Luker, Sandra Joseph, Rebecca Pitcher, Jennifer Hope Wills, Sierra Boggess, Mary Michael Patterson, Samantha Hill, Julia Udine, Ali Ewoldt
- Raoul, Vicomte de Chagny: Gary Mauer, Hugh Panaro, Brad Little, John Cudia, Tim Martin Gleason
- Monsieur Gilles Andre: George Lee Andrews, Laird Mackintosh
- Prologue: The stage of the Paris Opéra House, 1911 – Old Raoul
- Overture – Orchestra
- Act I
- The dress rehearsal of "Hannibal"
- "Think of Me" – Carlotta, Christine, Raoul
- After the Gala
- "Angel of Music" – Christine and Meg
- Christine's dressing room
- "Little Lotte/The Mirror (Angel of Music)" – Raoul, Christine, Phantom
- The labyrinth underground
- "The Phantom of the Opera"– Phantom and Christine
- Beyond the lake
- "The Music of the Night" – Phantom
- Beyond the lake, the next morning
- "I Remember/Stranger Than You Dreamt It – Christine and Phantom
- "Magical Lasso" – Buquet, Meg, Madame Giry and Ballet Girls
- The managers' office
- "Notes/Prima Donna" – Firmin, André, Raoul, Carlotta, Giry, Meg, Piangi and Phantom
- A performance of "Ill Muto"
- "Poor Fool, He Makes Me Laugh" – Carlotta and Company
- The roof of the Opera House
- "Why Have You Brought Me Here/Raoul, I've Been There" – Raoul and Christine
- "All I Ask of You" – Raoul and Christine
- "All I Ask of You" (Reprise) – Phantom
- The dress rehearsal of "Hannibal"
- Act II
- Entr’acte – Orchestra
- The staircase of the Opéra House, New Year's Eve
- "Masquerade" – Full Company
- The managers' office
- "Notes/Twisted Every Way" – André, Firmin, Carlotta, Piangi, Raoul, Christine, Giry, and Phantom
- A rehearsal for "Don Juan Triumphant"
- A graveyard in Peros
- "Wishing You Were Somehow Here Again" – Christine
- "Wandering Child/Bravo, Bravo" – Phantom, Christine and Raoul
- The Opéra House stage before the Premiere
- "Don Juan Triumphant"
- "The Point of No Return" – Phantom and Christine
- The labyrinth underground
- "Down Once More/Track Down This Murderer" – Full Company
- Beyond the lake
There are several orchestrations:
- 29 piece orchestra (original score, used in London),
- 27 piece orchestra (current Broadway score)
- 13 piece orchestra (Reduced score for tour),
- 45 piece orchestra (25th Anniversary score).
The current Broadway orchestration is what is licensed by R&H Theatricals for amateur and professional productions. The only difference between the 29- and 27-piece orchestras is the lack of Violins VII & VIII in the 27-piece orchestra.
The Broadway production originally used a 29-piece pit orchestra:
Percussion is split between two books - regular percussion and mallets
- 2 Timpani, Suspended cymbals, Crash Cymbals, Snare drum, Triangle, Tambourine, Bass Drum
- Glockenspiel, Xylophone, Vibes, Marimba, Tubular Bells, Bell Tree, Woodblock, Gong, Guiro, Finger Cymbals
The recording of the 1986 original London cast, released by Polydor Records in 1987, was released in both a single CD Highlights From The Phantom of the Opera and a two CD Phantom of the Opera, both of which have been certified 4× Platinum in the US and sold 4.97 million copies as of January 2017. "The Complete Recordings" edition has sold 507,000 copies since 1991. Phantom was also certified 3× Platinum in the UK. The Canadian cast recording went 2× Platinum in Canada. In Switzerland, Phantom was certified 3× Platinum and Highlights was certified 2× Platinum. Recordings of the Vienna cast and the Hamburg cast produced by Jimmy Bowien were certified Gold and triple Platinum, respectively, in Germany. The original album recording has sold an alleged 24 million copies worldwide.
A live recording of The Phantom of the Opera at the Royal Albert Hall was released in the UK on 15 November 2011 and subsequently in the US and Canada on 7 February 2012, along with Blu-ray and DVD videos, and a collectors' box set of the Royal Albert concert, the original cast recording, and the sequel, Love Never Dies.
Sales and certifications
Allegations of plagiarism
In 1987 the heirs of Giacomo Puccini charged in a lawsuit that the climactic phrase in "Music of the Night" closely resembled a similar phrase in the sequence "Quello che tacete" from Puccini's opera Girl of the Golden West. The litigation was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount.
In 1990 a Baltimore songwriter named Ray Repp filed a lawsuit alleging that the title song from Phantom was based on a song that he wrote in 1978 called "Till You". After eight years of litigation – including an unsuccessful countersuit by Lloyd Webber claiming that "Till You" was itself a plagiarism of "Close Every Door" from Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat — the jury found in Lloyd Webber's favour.
Roger Waters has repeatedly claimed in interviews that the signature descending/ascending half-tone chord progression from Phantom's title song was plagiarised from the bass line of a track on the 1971 Pink Floyd album Meddle called "Echoes". He has never taken any legal action. "Life's too long to bother with suing Andrew fucking Lloyd Webber," he said. "I think that might make me really gloomy."
Phantom has been translated into several languages and produced in over 28 countries on 6 continents. With only the exception of Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, New Zealand, Panama, Poland, Romania, and the 25th Anniversary UK and US Tours, these productions have all been "clones", using the original staging, direction, sets, and costume concepts. Notable international productions include the following:
- Australia: 1990–1998: Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide, and Perth; 2007–2009: Melbourne, Brisbane, Sydney, Auckland, Perth and Adelaide, both starring Anthony Warlow. Marina Prior starred as Christine in the original production. In the original Australian production, Rob Guest later took over the title role. The final leg of the recent tour was staged in Adelaide in an arena format featuring giant screens on either side of the stage that presented footage shot simultaneously with the performance. 2013: Canberra starring Michael Cormick as The Phantom and with Julie Lea Goodwin starring as Christine from 9 to 23 August 2013. Goodwin had previously played the role, as the "Alternate Christine", in the 2007 to 2009 national tour.
- Austria: The German language production premiered at the Theater an der Wien in December 1988.
- Canada: The Canadian production of Phantom ran from 20 September 1989 to 31 October 1999 in Toronto at the Pantages Theatre. The Canadian International Touring Company toured the musical in Canada, Hawaii, Alaska, Hong Kong, and Singapore from 11 March 1991 to October 1995. The Music Box Tour (Third US National Tour) played dates across Canada in 2006–2007 including Calgary, Vancouver, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Toronto, Saskatoon and Ottawa.
- China: The Shanghai production played 97 performances at the Shanghai Grand Theatre. The World Tour had their sixth season at the Culture Plaza Theatre at Shanghai Culture Square from 3 December 2013 to 26 January 2014. The World Tour returned to China at the Guangzhou Opera House in Guangzhou from 26 September to 10 October 2015 and performed its final season at the Tianqiao Performing Arts Center in Beijing from 17 November 2015 to 10 January 2016.
- Estonia: Production in Estonian language (but with English and Finnish subtitles) featuring original sets, costumes, and direction premiered on 4 October 2014 at Theatre Vanemuine in Tartu. In first season 2014/2015 there were 24 performances in total, eight of which took place in capital Tallinn at Nordea Concert Hall (premiered there on 30 October 2014). In spring 2017 there will be further 12 performances (two of which in Tallinn).
- Finland: A Finnish production premiered in Helsinki in 2015 at the Finnish National Opera in English.
- Germany: "Das Phantom der Oper" opened at the Stage Neue Flora Theatre, Hamburg from 1990 to 2001, the Palladium Theatre in Stuttgart from 2002 to 2004, and at the Colosseum Theatre in Essen from 2005 to 2007. A second Hamburg production ran from December 2013 until September 2015 at the Stage Theatre Neue Flora. A production in Oberhausen is currently running at the Metronom Theater from 17 November 2015.
- Hungary: Madách Theatre, Budapest. This production, which began in 2003, was the first to modify the original staging with new sets, costumes and direction. The five hundredth performance on 20 September 2007 featured four successive sets of casts.
- New Zealand: Opened at the Aotea Centre in Auckland in 1997 and at The Civic, The Edge-Auckland in 2008. A local production (with new designs) opened on 13 June at the St. James Theatre in Wellington and closed on 16 July 2013.
- Panama: For the first time in Central America, "El Fantasma de la Opera" played in Spanish at the Teatro Anayansi of the Atlapa Convention Center from 23 to 25 September 2016, directed by Aaron Zebede. Randy Dominguez starred in the role of The Phantom, with Maria Fernanda Achurra as Christine and Leo Almengor as Raoul.
- Romania: The Romanian premiere was in January 2015 produced by the Romanian National Opereta. This new non-replica production was performed in Romanian with a local cast led by a British creative team.
- Russia: Moscow production cooproduced by Stage Entertainment and Really Useful Group premiered on 4 October 2014 in the MDM-theatre starring Ivan Ozhogin and Dmitri Ermak as The Phantom. The stalls and the stage were modernised specially for the production. The premiere was attended by Richard Stilgoe and Charles Hart.
- Singapore: First tour at the Kallang Theatre from 26 February 1995 to 20 May 1995, second tour at the Esplanade - Theatres on the Bay from 23 March 2007 to 20 May 2007.
- Turkey: The World Tour played in Istanbul at the Zorlu Center PSM from 7 April to 17 May 2015.
- United States: Los Angeles (1989–1993), San Francisco (1993–1999). A US National tour commenced in 1991 in Los Angeles, and closed on 31 October 2010 at the Pantages Theatre in Hollywood, California, after nearly two decades. The closing night performance was attended by many former cast and crew members, including Andrew Lloyd Webber and Sarah Brightman.
A film version, directed by Joel Schumacher and starring Gerard Butler as the Phantom, Emmy Rossum as Christine, Patrick Wilson as Raoul, Minnie Driver as Carlotta, and Miranda Richardson as Madame Giry, opened on 22 December 2004 in the US.
Phantom: The Las Vegas Spectacular
An edited production renamed Phantom: The Las Vegas Spectacular opened 24 June 2006 at The Venetian in Las Vegas, Nevada, in a theatre built specifically for the show to resemble the Opéra Garnier in Paris. The production ran 95 minutes with no intermission, and was directed and choreographed by Harold Prince and Gillian Lynne, with scenic designs by David Rockwell. The show featured updated technology and effects, including a re-engineered chandelier capable of reassembling in midair during the overture while the entire interior of the venue (not merely the stage) returned to its 1880s halcyon days. Almost 45 minutes' worth of material was eliminated, such as the Don Juan Triumphant rehearsal. "Poor Fool, He Makes Me Laugh" and "The Point of No Return" were significantly shortened. Other changes resembled those in the 2004 film, such as staging the chandelier crash at the plot's climax (during performance of "The Point of No Return") rather than mid-story. The Las Vegas production closed on 2 September 2012.
In 2011 The Really Useful Group (copyright owners of Phantom) released certain rights to the play in celebration of its 25th anniversary. In March 2011 Reed-Custer High School in Braidwood, Illinois, became the first school to perform Phantom under the new rights. Later in 2011, Stanwell School in Penarth became the first school in the UK to perform the show.
Awards and nominations
Original London production
|1986||Laurence Olivier Award||Best New Musical||Won|
|Best Actor in a Musical||Michael Crawford||Won|
|Designer of the Year||Maria Björnson||Nominated|
|2002||Most Popular Show||Won|
Original Broadway production
The sequel to Phantom, written by Lloyd Webber, Ben Elton, Frederick Forsyth and Glenn Slater, is called Love Never Dies. It was loosely adapted from the 1999 novel The Phantom of Manhattan, by Forsyth. Set in 1907 (a decade after the conclusion of Phantom according to the production's announcement, but actually 26 years later, as the original show was set in 1881), Christine is invited to perform at Phantasma, a new attraction at Coney Island, by an anonymous impresario. With her husband, Raoul, and son, Gustave, in tow she journeys to Brooklyn, unaware that it is the Phantom who has arranged her appearance at the popular beach resort.
The original production was directed by Jack O'Brien and choreographed by Jerry Mitchell with set and costume designs by Bob Crowley, and opened at the Adelphi Theatre in the West End on 9 March 2010. Though it ran for over 17 months and closed on 27 August 2011, the production received mixed reviews. A scheduled Broadway opening in November 2010 was postponed until Spring 2011 and later cancelled. A revamped Australian production, starring Ben Lewis and Anna O'Byrne, opened 21 May 2011 at the Regent Theatre in Melbourne to more favourable notices. After the Melbourne run ended on 12 December 2011 the production moved to the Capitol Theatre in Sydney where it played from January to April 2012.
- "The Phantom of the Opera: The most commercially successful stage musical ever". Really Useful Licensing. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Rich, Frank (January 27, 1988). "Stage: 'Phantom of the Opera'". New York Times.
- "The Phantom of the Opera – The Show – Awards".
- Gerald Martin Bordman (2004). The Oxford companion to American theatre p.496. Oxford University Press. "A British musical based on Leroux's famous novel".
- Top 10 Longest-Running London Theatre Shows Londonist.com. Retrieved 11 February 2012
- The A to Z of the Broadway Musical p.266. Scarecrow Press, 2009
- Smith, Tim (11 April 2010) 'Phantom of the Opera’ at the Hippodrome The Baltimore Sun
- Trueman, Matt (10 April 2012). "Lion King rules Broadway as highest grossing show of all time". The Guardian. London.
- "Phantom of the Opera Screening Earns Over £500,000 in the UK", BroadwayWorld.com, 5 October 2011
- Jones, Kenneth (25 January 2006). "Phantom turns 18". Playbill. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
- Gans, Andrew. "The Lion King Is Now Top-Earner in Box-Office History", Playbill, September 22, 2014.
- Andrew Lloyd Webber, Martin Knowlden The Phantom of the Opera Companion Pavilion, 2007
- Bright, Spencer (8 December 1996). "Jim'll Fix It". Sunday Times. Retrieved 9 July 2007.
- Citron, Stephen. Sondheim and Lloyd-Webber (2001), Oxford University Press US, ISBN 0-19-509601-0, p. 330
- Behr, Edward. The Complete Book of Les Misérables (1993),Arcade Publishing, ISBN 1-55970-156-0, p. 62
- Behind the Mask documentary, on the 2004 film DVD
- Evans, Everett (2 December 1990). "You need program to keep `Phantom' productions straight". Houston Chronicle.
- Coveney, M. Cats on a Chandelier: The Andrew Lloyd Webber Story. New York, Hutchinson (1999). pp. 200–206. ISBN 978-0091801700
- Snelson, J. Andrew Lloyd Webber (Yale Broadway Masters Series). New Haven, Yale University Press (2009), p. 88. ISBN 978-0300151138
- Maria Bjornson Dies; Theatre Production Designer was 53 (16 December 2002). LiveDesign archive Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- Maria Bjornson obituary. London times archive Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- Phantom of the Opera DVD (2004 film). Amazon.com Retrieved 3 April 2011.
- Propst, Andy. Broadway's Phantom of the Opera to Reach Historic 9,000th Performance on 17 September TheaterMania.com. 14 September 2009.
- "The Phantom of the Opera: Show awards". Andrew Lloyd Webber's Really Useful Group. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
- Glendinning, Lee (3 May 2008). "Musical to return louder than ever". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 May 2008.
- "Phantom live in cinemas for 25th anniversary". The Phantom of the Opera. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "The Phantom of the Opera at the Royal Albert Hall: Ramin Karimloo, Sierra Boggess, Hadley Fraser, Wendy Ferguson, Barry James, Gareth Snook, Liz Robertson, Wynne Evans, Sergei Polunin, Andrew Lloyd Webber: Movies & TV". Amazon.com. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Lloyd Webber had hoped to open in Toronto prior to Broadway but political pressure forced the change.Phantom of the Opera, at the Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 31 January 2008
- Jones, Kenneth "Broadway's Phantom Hits 10,000th Performance on Feb. 11; Milestone Benefits The Actors Fund", Playbill.com, 11 February 2012
- ""Phantom" Celebrates Its Silver Anniversary On Broadway". NY1. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "The Phantom of the Opera hits a majestic new milestone" playbill.com, 28 November 2016
- "Theatre: The Phantom of the Opera". Newcastle Herald. Retrieved 20 February 2014
- BWW New Desk (5 September 2011). "Details Revealed for THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA 25th Anniversary Box Set". Retrieved 19 April 2012.
Track Listing, Disc 1...Original London Cast – Prologue (The Stage of Paris Opera House, 1905)
- "Andrew Lloyd Webber – The Phantom of the Opera". DiscOgs. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
Tracklist...Prologue: The Stage of the Paris Opéra, 1905
- Phantom Las Vegas: Musical Numbers
- Perry, George. "The Complete Phantom of the Opera". Owl Books, 1991, ISBN 0-8050-1722-4.
- POTO Onstage, phantom-media.info – accessed 10 May 2009
- Phantom of the Opera Toronto Cast
- Royal Albert Hall performance IMDb page
- The Phantom of the Opera: opening night production credits. IBDB.com. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
- Westley, Christine: "Phantom – The Las Vegas Spectacular. TheatreMania.com. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
- Casting: PhantomLasVegas.com Retrieved 8 September 2011
- Discogs.com entry "The Phantom Of The Opera" Original London Cast
- Discogs.com entry "Das Phantom Der Oper"
- Discogs.com entry "The Phantom Of The Opera" Original Canadian Cast
- "American certifications – Phantom of the Opera". Recording Industry Association of America.
- Keith Caulfield. "Hamilton passes 1 million sales plus chart highlights from James Arthur, Maren Morris and Taylor Swift". Billboard. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
- "British album certifications – Phantom of the Opera". British Phonographic Industry. Enter Phantom of the Opera in the search field and then press Enter.
- "Canadian certifications – Andrew Lloyd Webber – Phantom of the Opera". Music Canada.
- "The Official Swiss Charts and Music Community: Awards ('Phantom of the Opera')". IFPI Switzerland. Hung Medien.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank ('Das Phantom der Oper')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie.
- Murray, Rebecca. "Phantom of the Opera Soundtrack List". Sony Classical Records. About.com. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "Phantom live in cinemas for 25th anniversary". The Phantom of the Opera. 7 September 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- BWW News Desk. "Details Revealed for THE PHANTOM OF THE OPERA 25th Anniversary Box Set". Broadwayworld.com. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "Canadian album certifications – Andrew Lloyd Webber – Phantom of the Opera". Music Canada. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Scapolo, Dean (2007). The Complete New Zealand Music Charts: 1966–2006. Wellington: Dean Scapolo and Maurienne House. p. 12. ISBN 978-1877443-00-8.
- "Polish album certifications – Andrew Lloyd Webber – Phantom of the Opera" (in Polish). Polish Society of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 1987−1998" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "British album certifications – Stage Cast Recordings – Phantom of the Opera". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 7 August 2012. Enter Phantom of the Opera in the search field and then press Enter.
- "American album certifications – Andrew Lloyd Webber – Phantom of the Opera". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 7 August 2012. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
- "Austrian album certifications – Diverse – Phantom der Oper" (in German). IFPI Austria. Retrieved 7 August 2012. Enter Diverse in the field Interpret. Enter Phantom der Oper in the field Titel. Select album in the field Format. Click Suchen
- "Canadian album certifications – Various Artists – The Phantom of the Opera". Music Canada. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Musical Hamburg; 'Musical Hamburg – Das Phantom der Oper')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Musical; 'Musical Wien – Das Phantom der Oper')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 1987−1998" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- "The Official Swiss Charts and Music Community: Awards (Musical; 'Phantom of the Opera (Andrew Lloyd Webber)')". IFPI Switzerland. Hung Medien. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "Canadian album certifications – Various Artists – The Phantom of the Opera (Highlights)". Music Canada. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "The Official Swiss Charts and Music Community: Awards (Musical; 'Phantom of the Opera (Highlights) (Andrew Lloyd Webber)')". IFPI Switzerland. Hung Medien. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "American album certifications – Andrew Lloyd Webber – Highlights from Phantom of the Opera _Loncon Cast_". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 7 August 2012. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH
- Hear the Opera Andrew Lloyd Webber Allegedly Plagiarized. SFist. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- Who's Listening to Lloyd Webber? Theatre Communications Group archive Retrieved 7 November 2011
- HOW THE WEST WON THE MET (13 June 2010). San Jose Mercury News (CA). Article ID: 1408078
- LET'S HEAR 'GIRL OF THE GOLDEN WEST' SING (12 June 2010) San Jose Mercury News (CA). Article ID: 1408152
-  Archived 28 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Andrew Lloyd Webber Loses Round in Battle Over Allegedly Stolen Song (5 December 1996). Seattle Post-Intelligencer Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- Lloyd Webber Wins Phantom Battle. BBC News Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- "Who the hell does Roger Waters think he is?". Q magazine. November 1992. Archived from the original on 22 October 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- "Official website of the Hungarian production". Theater Madách. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
- "Official homepage of the Theatre Vanemuine". Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "Australian Broadcasting Corporation The world Today".
- "The Phantom of the Opera – Canberra Theatre Centre". Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "Official website of the German production". Retrieved 23 April 2008.
- Toronto Phantom Disappears Oct. 31 After 10 Years & 4,226 Perfs; Auction Follows. Playbill (29 October 1999), retrieved 26 September 2016.
- "上海文化广场 演出信息 演出详细". Shculturesquare.com. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "Guangzhou Premiere of The Phantom of the Opera Electrifies Opera House Stage_Life of Guangzhou". www.lifeofguangzhou.com. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- "'The Phantom of the Opera' to Hold 64 Shows in Beijing". english.cri.cn. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- "Official press release for production in Finland". Retrieved 14 October 2013.
- "DAS PHANTOM DER OPER | Musical in Oberhausen | Metronom Theater | Tickets, Karten und Gutscheine". www.stage-entertainment.de. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- "Positively Wellington Venues: Single show". Pwv.co.nz. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "The Phantom Of The Opera live in Wellington | Scoop News". Scoop.co.nz. 4 December 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "El sombrío ángel de la música". Retrieved 26 September 2016.
- "Fantoma de la Operă – Opereta". www.opereta.ro. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
- "Phantom of the Opera premieres in Moscow". Stage-entertainment.com. 6 October 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "п°я▌п╥п╦п╨п╩ б╚п÷я─п╦п╥я─п╟п╨ п·п©п╣я─я▀б╩. п·я└п╦я├п╦п╟п╩я▄п╫я▀п╧ я│п╟п╧я┌ | п²п╬п╡п╬я│я┌п╦". Phantom-musical.ru. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Yong, Yvonne (3 October 2006). "Phantom of the Opera set to return to Singapore". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
- "The Phantom of the Opera – ZORLU CENTER PSM". www.zorlucenterpsm.com. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
- "Phantom" To Close at Pantages. neontommy.com Retrieved 27 January 2011.
- The Phantom of the Opera (2004) on IMDb. Retrieved 31 January 2008
- "Phantom: The Las Vegas Spectacular official site". Really Useful Group/Mackintosh Ltd. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
- McKenzie, Kristine (3 October 2006). "Phantom: The Las Vegas Spectacular show review — Beloved show lives up to new name". LasVegas.com. Retrieved 23 April 2008.
- Jessica Boyd (20 March 2011). "RCHS Spring Musical". braidwoodparkdistrict.com. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "Penarth school first to stage Lloyd Webber smash hit". Penarth Times. 2011-12-15. Retrieved 2017-06-28.
- "OLIVIER AWARDS 1986". westendtheatre.com. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
- "The Laurence Olivier Awards: full list of winners 1976–2008" (PDF). officiallondontheatre.co.uk. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
- "The Phantom of the Opera Tony Award Info". BroadwayWorld.com. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
- "Love Never Dies: The Show – The Creative Team". LoveNeverDies.com Official Site. Archived from the original on 12 July 2010. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
- "Phantom Sequel, Love Never Dies, Now Due in London and on Broadway in March 2010". Playbill. 18 May 2009. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010.
- "Love Never Dies: The Show – Background". Love Never Dies (official site).
- Bamigboye, Baz. Ramin Karimloo originated the Phantom, and Sierra Boggess played Christine. Joseph Millson, Summer Strallen, and Charlie Manton were all in the original cast of Love Never Dies as well.Watch out for... Daily Mail. 3 April 2009.
- "Love Never Dies sees mixed reviews". CBC News. 10 March 2010. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010.
- "Broadway debut of Love Never Dies is postponed". BBC News. 7 April 2010.
- Healy, Patrick (7 April 2010). "Broadway Opening for ‘Love Never Dies’ Is Delayed Until 2011". NY Times.
- Gans, Andrew (6 April 2010). "Love Never Dies Postpones Broadway Opening to Spring 2011". Playbill. Archived from the original on 9 April 2010.
- "Love Never Dies Scraps Plans for Spring Broadway Run". Broadway.com. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- Bedford, Angie. "Love Never Dies Review". The Theatre Channel at Webwombat. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- Solomon, Les (30 May 2011): "Australia's Creative Pride." AussieTheatre.com Retrieved 22 August 2001
- Herbert, Kate (30 May 2011): "Australia Never Dies" review. Melbourne Herald Sun archive Retrieved 22 August 2011
- Boyd, Chris (30 May 2011): Phantom sequel spectacularly unmasked. The Australian archive Retrieved 22 August 2011
- BWW News Desk. "LOVE NEVER DIES Arrives at Sydney's Capitol Theatre". BroadwayWorld.com. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "Andrew Lloyd Webber's Love Never Dies Ends Australian Run April 1". Playbill. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: The Phantom of the Opera|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Phantom of the Opera (Webber musical).|
- Official website
- The Phantom of the Opera at Playbill Vault
- The Phantom of the Opera at the Internet Broadway Database
- The Phantom of the Opera (The Guide to Musical Theatre)
- An interview with the makeup designer on the American Theatre Wing's "Working in the Theatre" series.
|Longest-running Broadway show