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|President||Sher Bahadur Deuba|
|General Secretary||Shashanka Koirala|
|Chief Secretary||Krishna Prasad Paudel|
|Treasurer||Sita Devi Yadav|
|Founded||April 9, 1950|
|Merger of||Nepali National Congress
Nepal Democratic Congress
|Headquarters||B.P. Smriti Bhawan, B.P. Nagar, Lalitpur, Nepal|
|Student wing||Nepal Student Union|
|Youth wing||Nepal Tarun Dal|
|Women's wing||Nepal Woman Association|
|Political position||Centre to Centre-left|
|International affiliation||Socialist International
|House of Representatives||
63 / 275
The Nepali Congress (Nepali: नेपाली कांग्रेस; NC) is a centre left political party in Nepal. It leads the current coalition government. The party's leader, Sher Bahadur Deuba, was elected as the Prime Minister of Nepal in 2017.
The party was formed in 1950 by the merger of Nepali National Congress and Nepal Democratic Congress. Nepali Congress Prime Ministers led four governments between the fall of the Rana regime and the start of the Panchayat era, including the first democratically elected government of Nepal in 1959.
- 1 History
- 2 Ideology
- 3 Electoral performance
- 4 Leadership
- 5 Senior Leaders
- 6 Sister organizations
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The Nepali Congress Party was formed by the merger of Nepali National Congress and Nepal Democratic Congress. The Nepali National Congress had been founded by Matrika Prasad Koirala in Calcutta, India on January 25, 1946. The Nepal Democratic Congress had been founded by Subarna Shumsher, a C class Rana, in Calcutta on August 4, 1948. The two parties merged on April 10, 1950 to form the Nepali Congress and Matrika Prasad Koirala became its first president. The party called for an armed revolution against the fascist Rana regime.
During the Bairgania Conference in Bairgania, Bihar, on September 27, 1950 the Nepali Congress announced an armed revolution against the Rana regime. The president of the party also announced the "liquidation" of operations in India and that the party would function only inside Nepal henceforth.
After King Tribhuvan decided to take refuge inside the Indian Embassy in Kathmandu on November 6, 1950, the Congress Liberation Army decided to take this opportunity to launch attacks against the regime before the King "left Nepalese soil". The party president Matrika Prasad Koirala, Bisheshwor Prasad Koirala and Subarna Shamsher Rana flew to Purnia, Bihar. They called the commanders posted at different strategic locations inside Nepal there to prepare for armed strikes in important places near the Nepal-India border.
On November 11, 1950 at midnight Birgunj was attacked and by November 12 it fell to the Nepali Congress and the first "People's Government" was declared. The liberation army was able to control most of the eastern hills of Nepal and the town of Tansen in Palpa. After pressure by the Indian government and the mass movement by the Nepali Congress and other political parties, the Rana government finally submitted to their demands and King Tribhuvan returned to the throne replacing King Gyanendra, who had been crowned king after King Tribhuvan had left for India.
Transitional government, 1951-1959
After the fall of the Rana government, the Nepali Congress led three of the five governments formed before the elections. Matrika Prasad Koirala, the first commoner to become Prime Minister of Nepal, led the government from 1951-1952 and from 1953-1955 and Subarna Shamsher Rana led the government from 1958-1959. The much delayed elections were finally held in February 1959 and Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala became the first democratically elected Prime Minister of Nepal after the Nepali Congress won 74 of 109 seats to the Parliament of Nepal.
Panchayat government, 1960-1990
Following a royal coup by King Mahendra in 1960, many leaders of party, including Prime Minister Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala, Deputy Prime Minister Subarna Shamsher Rana, and General Secretary Hora Prasad Joshi, were imprisoned or were exiled and others took political refuge in India.
Although political parties were prohibited from 1960 to 1989 and continued to be outlawed during the panchayat system under the aegis of the Associations and Organizations (Control) Act of 1963, the Nepali Congres persisted. The party placed great emphasis on eliminating the feudal economy and building a basis for socioeconomic development. It proposed nationalizing basic industries and instituting progressive taxes on land, urban housing, salaries, profits and foreign investments. While in exile, the Nepali Congress served as the nucleus around which other opposition groups clustered and even instigated popular uprisings in the Hill and Terai regions. During this time, the Nepali Congress refused the overtures of a radical faction of the Communist Party of Nepal for a tactical alliance.
Although the Nepali Congress demonstrated its ability to endure, it was weakened over time by defection, factionalism, and external pressures. Nevertheless, it continued to be the only organized party to press for democratization. In the 1980 referendum, it supported the multiparty system in opposition to the panchayat system. In 1981 the party boycotted the Rashtriya Panchayat elections and rejected the new government. The death in 1982 of Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala, who had consistently advocated constitutional reforms and a broad-based policy of national reconciliation, further weakened the party.
Although the party also boycotted the 1986 elections to the Rastriya Panchayat, its members were allowed to run in the 1987 local elections. In defiance of the ban on demonstrations, the Nepali Congress organized mass rallies together with the different communist factions in January 1990 that ultimately triggered the pro-democracy movement.
Post-Panchayat government, 1991-2002
After the Jana Andolan I, party president Krishna Prasad Bhattarai was invited to form an interim coalition government. In elections of 1991, the Nepali Congress won 110 of 205 seats but the party president, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, lost his seat and yielded the position of Prime Minister to Girija Prasad Koirala who held his seat until 1994.
During the 1994 elections, the Nepali Congress lost its majority to Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist). The CPN (UML) did not have enough seats for a majority and formed a minority government. After 46 parliamentarians from the CPN (UML) quit to form the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist), the Nepali Congress formed their own government with the Rastriya Prajatantra Party and Nepal Sadbhawana Party. After CPN (UML) offered Lokendra Bahadur Chand the position of Prime Minister, the Rastriya Prajatantra Party led a government with the CPN (UML). Internal problems within the Rastriya Prajatantra Party caused one faction led by Surya Bahadur Thapa to lead a government with Nepali Congress and Nepal Sadbhawana Party. 
Girija Prasad Koirala became the Prime Minister for a second time in April 1998 leading a Congress minority government after the Rastriya Prajatantra Party and Nepal Sadbhawana Party quit the government. Eventually they got support from the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist) and after their withdrawal the CPN (UML) and Nepal Sadbhawana Party.
During the 1999 elections, Girija Prasad Koirala stepped aside in favour of Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, who reurned as Prime Minister of Nepal when the Nepali Congress won 111 out of 205 seats in the House of Representatives. Bhattarai resigned as Prime Minister on March 16, 2000 after conflicts between himself and supporters of Girija Prasad Koirala within the party. In the party's first open leadership election, the parliamentarians selected Girija Prasad Koirala as their leader by a 69-43 vote over Sher Bahadur Deuba. Accordingly, King Birendra redesignated Girija Prasad Koirala as Prime Minister on March 20.
On August 8, 2000, Koirala dismissed the Minister of Water Resources, Khum Bahadur Khadka, for calling for Koirala’s resignation. Although Koirala beat back another challenge by Deuba’s supporters at a party convention in January 2001, he resigned as Prime Minister on July 19. Deuba then defeated Secretary General Sushil Koirala, 72–40, for the party leadership and was designated Prime Minister by the king.
In the May 2002 the party's disciplinary committee expelled Deuba for failing to consult the party before seeking parliamentary extension of the country’s state of emergency. Deuba’s supporters then expelled Koirala at a general convention in June 16–19. Deuba registered his faction as the Nepali Congress (Democratic), following a decision by the Election Commission that the Koirala faction held ownership of the name “Nepali Congress,” taking 40 of the party's lower house representatives with him.
King Gyanendra's rule, 2002-2006
In the months following the King’s October 2002 decisions to dissolve the House of Representatives and replace Prime Minister Deuba with the Rastriya Prajatantra Party’s Lokendra Bahadur Chand, the party joined the CPN (UML) and other, smaller parties in challenging the constitutionality of the moves. The party played a significant role in the formation of the Seven Party Alliance (SPA), which launched a series of street protests against the King's regression. The Seven Party Alliance which had earlier steered clear of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and their violent methods, signed a 12-point understanding in Delhi in November 2005. The agreement contained three key commitments: first, the SPA endorsed the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) fundamental demand for elections to a Constituent Assembly; second, the Maoists reciprocated with an assurance that they accepted a multi-party political system, the prime concern of the SPA; third, the SPA and the Maoists agreed to launch a peaceful mass movement against the monarchy.
Constituent Assembly, 2006-2015
On April 26, 2006 the dissolved parliament was reinstated by the King and a small government was formed under the premiership of Girija Prasad Koirala, the president of the Nepali Congress. A Comprehensive Peace Accord was signed between the government and the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) in India on November 2006 and the Nepalese Civil War formally ended.
On 24 September 2007, Nepali Congress (Democratic) and Nepali Congress unified as a single party with the Constituent Assembly elections looming. Girija Prasad Koirala remained the president of the newly unified party. The party placed second—with 110 out of 575 elected seats—in the April 2008 Constituent Assembly election, winning only half as many seats as the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).
The party joined the coalition government headed by Madhav Kumar Nepal in May 2009. Girija Prasad Koirala angered some in the party by nominating his daughter Sujata Koirala for the post of Foreign Minister. In June, in a contested election for leader of the party’s parliamentary group, Ram Chandra Poudel defeated former Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba. The 12th General Convention of the party was held in Kathmandu from September 17–21, 2010. The convention elected Sushil Koirala as the party president.
After the Constituent Assembly of Nepal was dissolved by Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai after failure to draft a new constitution before the deadline. In the resulting elections, the party emerged as the largest party winning 196 of the 575 elected seats. A new coalition government was formed with the CPN (UML), under the leadership of Sushil Koirala. The country's new constitution was promulgated under his leadership on September 20, 2015.
Recent developments, 2015-present
Sushil Koirala resigned as Prime Minister on 10 October 2015 after losing support from the CPN (UML) . The Nepali Congress joined the government again on August 2016, after backing Pushpa Kamal Dahal to become Prime Minister after an agreement between the two parties. According to their agreement, Pushpa Kamal Dahal resigned on May 24, 2017 paving the way for Sher Bahadur Deuba to become Prime Minister for a fourth time on June 6, 2017.
The party was founded on the principle of democracy and socialism. In 1956 the party adopted democratic socialism as its ideology for socio-economic transformation. In the 1980s, the Nepali Congress Party abandoned its socialistic economic program in favor of a mixed economy, privatization, and a market economy in certain sectors. Its foreign policy orientation was to nonalignment and good relations with India.
|1959||Matrika Prasad Koirala||666,898||37.2||
74 / 109
|1991||Krishna Prasad Bhattarai||2,742,452||37.75||
110 / 205
|1994||Girija Prasad Koirala||2,545,287||33.38||
83 / 205
|2nd||CPN (UML) minority|
|1999||Krishna Prasad Bhattarai||3,214,068||37.29||
111 / 205
|2008||Girija Prasad Koirala||2,348,890||22.79||
115 / 575
|2nd||CPN (Maoist)–CPN (UML)–MJFN|
196 / 575
|2017||Sher Bahadur Deuba||3,128,389||32.78||
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Presidents of the Nepali Congress
- Matrika Prasad Koirala, 1950-1952
- Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala, 1952-1956, 1957-1982
- Subarna Shamsher Rana, 1956-1957
- Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, 1976-1996
- Girija Prasad Koirala, 1996-2010
- Sushil Koirala, 2010-2016
- Sher Bahadur Deuba, 2016-present
|Ram Chandra Poudel|
|Sher Bahadur Deuba|
|Ram Saran Mahat|
|Arjun Narasingha K.C.|
|Bal Chandra Poudel|
Nepali Congress Prime Ministers
|Name||Portrait||Terms in office|
|Matrika Prasad Koirala||1951-1952, 1953-1955|
|Subarna Shamsher Rana||1958-1959|
|Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala||1959-1960|
|Krishna Prasad Bhattarai||1990-1991, 1999-2000|
|Girija Prasad Koirala||1991-1994, 1998-1999, 2000-2001, 2006-2008|
|Sher Bahadur Deuba||1995-1997, 2001-2002, 2017-present|
|Part of a series on|
According to the website of Nepali Congress, the following are its sister organizations.
- Nepal Woman Association
- Nepal Tarun Dal
- Nepal Students' Union
- Nepal Peasants' Union
- Nepal Dalit Sangh
- Nepal Ex-servicemen's Association
- Nepal Prajatantra Senani Sangh
- Indigenous Nationality Association of Nepal
- Nepal Muslim Sangh
- Nepal Tamang Sangh
- Nepal National Magar Association
- Nepal Thakur Society
- Dr. Dilli Raman Regmi
- Krishna Prasad Bhattarai
- Sher Bahadur Deuba
- Ram Chandra Poudel
- Khum Bahadur Khadka
- Sujata Koirala
- Congress Liberation Army
- Bal Chandra Poudel
- Dhyan Govinda Ranjit
- Arjun Narasingha K.C.
- Biratnagar Jute Mill Strike
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