Goh Chok Tong

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Goh Chok Tong
吴作栋
GohChokTong-WashingtonDC-20010614.jpg
Goh speaking to a reporter outside The Pentagon on 14 June 2001
2nd Prime Minister of Singapore
In office
28 November 1990 – 12 August 2004
PresidentWee Kim Wee
(1990–1993)
Ong Teng Cheong
(1993–1999)
S.R. Nathan
(1999–2004)
DeputyLee Hsien Loong (1990–2004)
Ong Teng Cheong (1990–1993)
Tony Tan Keng Yam (1995–2003)
Preceded byLee Kuan Yew
Succeeded byLee Hsien Loong
ConstituencyMarine Parade GRC
Senior Minister of Singapore
In office
12 August 2004 – 21 May 2011
Serving with S. Jayakumar (2009–2011)
PresidentS.R. Nathan
Prime MinisterLee Hsien Loong
Preceded byLee Kuan Yew
Succeeded byTeo Chee Hean
(2019)
Tharman Shanmugaratnam (2019)
2nd Secretary-General of the People's Action Party
In office
15 November 1992[1] – 3 December 2004
Preceded byLee Kuan Yew
Succeeded byLee Hsien Loong
Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore
In office
2 January 1985 – 28 November 1990
Serving with Ong Teng Cheong
PresidentDevan Nair
(1981-1985)
Wee Kim Wee
(1985-1993)
Prime MinisterLee Kuan Yew
Preceded byS. Rajaratnam
Succeeded byLee Hsien Loong
Tony Tan
Minister for Defence
In office
1 June 1982 – 30 June 1991
Prime MinisterLee Kuan Yew (until 1990)
himself (1990 - 1991)
Preceded byHowe Yoon Chong
Succeeded byYeo Ning Hong
Minister for Health
In office
6 January 1981 – 31 May 1982
Prime MinisterLee Kuan Yew
Preceded byToh Chin Chye
Succeeded byHowe Yoon Chong
Minister for Trade and Industry
In office
15 March 1979 – 31 May 1981
Prime MinisterLee Kuan Yew
Preceded byPost created
Succeeded byTony Tan
Member of Parliament
for Marine Parade GRC (Marine Parade)
Marine Parade SMC (1976 - 1988)
In office
23 December 1976 – 23 June 2020
Preceded bySeat created
Succeeded byTan See Leng
Personal details
Born
Goh Chok Tong

(1941-05-20) 20 May 1941 (age 79)
Singapore, Straits Settlements
Political partyPeople's Action Party (PAP)
Spouse(s)
(m. 1965)
Children
  • Goh Jin Hian (son)
  • Goh Jin Theng (daughter)
Alma materUniversity of Singapore
Williams College
Signature
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese吴作栋
Traditional Chinese吳作棟

Goh Chok Tong (born 20 May 1941) is a former Singaporean politician who served as the 2nd Prime Minister of Singapore from 28 November 1990 to 12 August 2004 for 13 years. Goh was appointed as the next Prime Minister of Singapore after Lee Kuan Yew stepped down from position which Lee had held from 5 June 1959 to 28 November 1990 for 31 years. He is the only living former Prime Minister of Singapore and holds the honorary title of "Emeritus Senior Minister".

He served as the 2nd Secretary-General of the People's Action Party from November 1992 to December 2004 after 1st Secretary-General Lee Kuan Yew stepped down from position. He subsequently served as Senior Minister and Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) from 2004 to 2011.[2] On 25 June 2020, it was announced that Goh would retire from politics and step down as the Member of Parliament (MP) after 44 years. He will not contest in the 2020 Singaporean general election, signalling the renewal of the leadership of the People's Action Party (PAP).[3] He was a Member of Parliament representing Marine Parade SMC for 12 years and another 32 years after it was absorbed into Marine Parade GRC.

Early life[edit]

Goh was born in Singapore on 20 May 1941 to Goh Kah Choon and Quah Kwee Hwa, who hailed from the Minnan region of Fujian province in China. He has Chinese Hokkien ancestry.[4] Goh studied at Raffles Institution from 1955 to 1960. He was a very competitive swimmer in his younger days and was given the nickname "Bold".

Goh earned a B.A. with first class honours in economics from the University of Singapore and a M.A. in development economics from Williams College in 1967. After his studies, Goh returned to Singapore to work in the government.[5] Goh's dream of getting a PhD was disrupted as the government would not transfer his bursary bond to the university, where he had signed on as a research fellow after graduation. In 2015, Goh was awarded an honorary LL.D. by his alma mater, the National University of Singapore, for his contributions to the country.[6]

Career at Neptune Orient Lines, 1969–1977[edit]

In 1969, Goh was seconded to the national shipping company Neptune Orient Lines (NOL) as the company's Planning and Projects Manager. His career advanced quickly and by 1973 he was the Managing Director. At NOL, Goh worked under the company's founder, Muhammad Jalaluddin Sayeed, with whom he maintained close ties.[7]

Early political career[edit]

In the 1976 general election, Goh, then 35, was elected as Member of Parliament for Marine Parade Single Member Constituency as a People's Action Party (PAP) candidate. He was appointed as a Senior Minister of State for Finance. In 1981, he was promoted to Minister for Trade and Industry and later served in other appointments including Minister for Health and Minister for Defence.[8]

In 1985, Goh became the first Deputy Prime Minister and began to assume the responsibility of the government in a carefully managed leadership transition. According to Lee Kuan Yew, his preferred successor was Tony Tan. However, Goh was selected by the second generation of PAP leaders that included Tony Tan, Suppiah Dhanabalan and Ong Teng Cheong; Lee accepted their decision.[5]

Prime Minister, 1990–2004[edit]

Goh and U.S. President George W. Bush signing the US-Singapore Free Trade Agreement in the White House, 6 May 2003.

On 28 November 1990, Goh succeeded Lee Kuan Yew and became the second Prime Minister of Singapore. Lee remained an influential member of Goh's Cabinet, holding the post of Senior Minister. The 1991 general elections, the first electoral test for Goh, led to the party winning 61% of the popular vote. In 1992, Lee handed over the post of Secretary-General of the People's Action Party (PAP) to Goh, successfully completing the leadership transition.

As Prime Minister, Goh promised a more open-minded and consultative style of leadership than that of his predecessor. This greater openness extended also to the socio-economic spheres of life, for instance, in his support for the rise of "little bohemias" in Singapore, enclaves where more creativity and entrepreneurship could thrive.[9]

Goh's administration introduced several major policies and policy institutions, including:

During the period under Goh's administration, Singapore experienced several crises, such as the 1997 Asian financial crisis, threats of terrorism including the 2001 Singapore embassies attack plot by Jemaah Islamiyah, the 2001–2003 economic recession, and the 2003 SARS outbreak.

As Secretary-General, Goh led the PAP to three general election victories in 1991, 1997, and 2001, in which the party won 61%, 65% and 75% of the votes respectively. After the 2001 general election, Goh indicated that he would step down as Prime Minister after leading the country out of the recession.[5]

During an interview with Time magazine in July 2003, Goh surprised Singaporeans by announcing that his government was openly employing homosexuals, even in sensitive jobs, despite homosexual acts remaining illegal under Section 377A of the Penal Code.[10] Although his announcement drew a strong backlash from conservatives, it nevertheless reinforced his image as an open-minded leader.

Senior Minister, 2004–2011[edit]

Goh Chok Tong speaking at a rally at Potong Pasir during the 2006 general election. The banner behind him shows the campaign manifesto of the People's Action Party, "Staying Together, Moving Ahead".

On 12 August 2004, Goh stepped down as Prime Minister and held a new position as Senior Minister in the Cabinet of his successor, Lee Hsien Loong. On 20 August 2004, Goh assumed the position of Chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore.[11] After a number of threats of terrorism in Singapore,[citation needed] Goh met local Islamic religious leaders in 2004 and made a visit to Iran, where he met Iranian president Mohammad Khatami and visited local mosques.

Goh subsequently visited other Middle Eastern countries as Senior Minister, with a view to improving diplomatic relationships and thus gaining wider opportunities for Singaporean businesses, especially in the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Kuwait.[citation needed]

On 1 February 2005, Goh was appointed an honorary Companion of the Order of Australia, Australia's highest civilian honour, "for eminent service to Australia-Singapore relations".[12]

On 19 May 2005, Goh signed a Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement with Israel's Finance Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on a visit to Israel, superseding the agreement signed in 1971. Improvements in the agreement include enhancements to the withholding tax rate on interest income, which was reduced from 15% to 7%. This would benefit Singaporean businessmen with investments in Israel and vice versa, by ensuring they are not taxed twice.

Goh is a patron for the Institute of Policy Studies, a government think tank.[citation needed]

In the 2006 general election, Goh was tasked to help the PAP win back the two opposition wards of Hougang and Potong Pasir.[13] However, he was unsuccessful in this task, as Low Thia Khiang and Chiam See Tong retained their respective wards.

In 2006, Goh was briefly considered for the job of United Nations Secretary-General[14] but he lost out and the job eventually went to Ban Ki-moon.[11]

In 2008, Goh was invited to join the InterAction Council of Former Heads of State and Government, an independent international organisation of former world leaders.

On 24 January 2011, Goh announced that he would continue to seek re-election to Parliament at the 2011 general election. Over the following months, he progressively released snippets prior to the election on the importance of grooming a successor who could be part of the fourth generation PAP leadership to helm Marine Parade GRC in the long run.

Emeritus Senior Minister[edit]

After the 2011 general election, in which the opposition made unprecedented gains by winning a group representative constituency (Aljunied), Goh and Lee Kuan Yew announced that they were retiring from the Cabinet in order to give Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and the rest of his team a clean slate from which they can make a fresh start in the new parliamentary term.[15]

On 18 May 2011, Lee Hsien Loong announced that Goh was to be appointed a senior adviser to the Monetary Authority of Singapore, and would be given the honorary title of "Emeritus Senior Minister".[16]

On 24 June 2011, Goh was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun by the Japanese government.[17]

On 4 May 2012, Goh was appointed as Patron for Advancement of the Singapore University of Technology and Design.[18]

In October 2014, the Madame Tussauds Singapore museum unveiled a wax figure of Goh. At its opening, Goh posed for pictures with his statue.[19]

On 2 August 2018, Goh stated that ministerial pay is not enough and it will adversely impact the ability to attract competent people to join the government in the future. He also dismissed the idea of reducing the minister's salary as a populist move, a move that sparked controversy and public disapproval.[20][21]

In an interview in 2019, Goh stated that he believed a 75% to 80% majority in Parliament, in the future, would constitute a 'strong mandate' for the Singapore government. In the same interview, he noted that he does not believe the electoral system needed any further tweaking.[22]

On 4 August 2019, Goh made a Facebook post stating that he felt saddened by how his long-time friend, former PAP politician Tan Cheng Bock, had "lost his way" by forming a new political party, Progress Singapore Party (PSP), to contest in the next general election.[23]

On 25 June 2020, Goh made a Facebook post announcing his retirement as a Member of Parliament for Marine Parade GRC after 44 years of service and will therefore retire from politics.[24][25]

Family[edit]

Goh is married to Tan Choo Leng and they have a son and a daughter, who are twins. Their son, Goh Jin Hian, is a physician and their daughter, Goh Jin Theng, lives in London with her husband, Lee Craven.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "People's Action Party". Singapore Elections. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Our History". www.mas.gov.sg. Archived from the original on 14 September 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  3. ^ Lim, Joyce (25 June 2020). "GE2020: Goh Chok Tong to retire from politics after 44 years as MP". Archived from the original on 26 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  4. ^ 闽籍华侨华人社团 Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b c Mauzy, Diane K. and R.S. Milne (2002). Singapore Politics Under the People's Action Party. Routledge ISBN 0-415-24653-9
  6. ^ hermesauto (6 July 2015). "NUS confers honorary degrees on ESM Goh, Prof Saw and Sir Richard Sykes". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  7. ^ "Sayeed of Singapore, By Ardeshir Cowasjee, Dawn newspaper, 25 September 2005". Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
  8. ^ Goh Chok Tong Archived 22 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine, Cabinet of Singapore
  9. ^ Quoted in "Singapore can become an entrepreneurial society" by Eugene Low, The Business Times, 19 August 2002, and analysed in Brand Singapore: How Nation Branding Built Asia's Leading Global City by Koh Buck Song, Marshall Cavendish 2011, page 160.
  10. ^ "Singapore letting gays halfway out of the closet - smh.com.au". www.smh.com.au. 5 July 2003. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  11. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 October 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Transcript 21592 - PM Transcripts". pmtranscripts.pmc.gov.au. Archived from the original on 11 April 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  13. ^ "SM Goh to help PAP candidates win back Hougang, Potong Pasir seats". Archived from the original on 21 March 2006.
  14. ^ "Candidates for UN Secretary General". UNSG.org. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
  15. ^ "SM Goh, MM Lee to leave Cabinet". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. 14 May 2011. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
  16. ^ "PM Lee announces sweeping changes to Cabinet". Channel NewsAsia. Singapore. 18 May 2011. Archived from the original on 28 May 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
  17. ^ "Goh Chok Tong to receive award from Japanese emperor". ChannelNewsAsia. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  18. ^ "ESM Goh appointed Patron for Advancement of SUTD". ChannelNewsAsia. Archived from the original on 5 May 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2011.
  19. ^ "PM Lee, ESM Goh to have wax figures at Madame Tussauds Singapore". Singapore Press Holdings. The Straits Times. 22 October 2014. Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
  20. ^ hermesauto (7 August 2018). "ESM Goh: Ministers not paid enough; harder to attract people to government in the future". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 8 August 2018. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  21. ^ "'Salaries is not our starting point in looking for ministers': Goh Chok Tong responds to criticism of comments on pay". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  22. ^ hermes (27 May 2019). "Singapore must have strong ruling party with clear majority: Goh Chok Tong". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  23. ^ "'It saddens me to see how Tan Cheng Bock has lost his way': ESM Goh". Channel Newsasia. 4 August 2019. Archived from the original on 4 August 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  24. ^ "MParader". www.facebook.com. Archived from the original on 28 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  25. ^ hermesauto (25 June 2020). "Singapore GE2020: Emeritus Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong retires from politics after 44 years as MP". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 26 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]


Political offices
Preceded by
New Post
Senior Minister of State for Finance
1977–1979
Succeeded by
S. Dhanabalan
Preceded by
new post
Minister for Trade and Industry
1979–1981
Succeeded by
Tony Tan
Preceded by
Toh Chin Chye
Minister for Health
1981–1982
Succeeded by
Howe Yoon Chong
Preceded by
Howe Yoon Chong
Minister for Defence
1982–1991
Succeeded by
Yeo Ning Hong
Preceded by
Goh Keng Swee
Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore
1985–1990
Succeeded by
Lee Hsien Loong
Preceded by
Lee Kuan Yew
Prime Minister of Singapore
28 November 1990 – 12 August 2004
Senior Minister
12 August 2004 – 21 May 2011
Served alongside: S. Jayakumar
Vacant
Title next held by
Teo Chee Hean
Tharman Shanmugaratnam
Parliament of Singapore
New constituency Member of Parliament for Marine Parade
1976–1988
Constituency abolished
Member of Parliament for Marine Parade GRC
(Marine Parade)

1988–2020
Succeeded by
Tan See Leng
Party political offices
Preceded by
Lee Kuan Yew
Secretary General of People's Action Party
1992–2004
Succeeded by
Lee Hsien Loong
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Corazon Aquino
Chairperson of ASEAN
1992
Succeeded by
Banharn Silpa-archa