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Cusco–Collao Quechua

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Cusco-Collao Quechua
Native toPeru
EthnicityQuechuas, Kollas
Native speakers
(5 million cited 1987–2002)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologcusc1235  Cuscan Quechua
boli1262  Bolivian-Argentinian Quechua

Cusco–Collao (Spanish, also Cuzco–Collao) or Qusqu–Qullaw (Quechua) is a collective term used for Quechua dialects that have aspirated (tʃʰ, pʰ, tʰ, kʰ, ) and ejective (tʃʼ, pʼ, tʼ, kʼ, ) plosives, apparently borrowed from Aymaran languages. They include Cusco Quechua, Puno Quechua, North Bolivian Quechua, and South Bolivian Quechua. Together with Ayacucho Quechua, which is mutually intelligible, they form the Southern Quechua language.

In 1975, the term "Cusco-Collao" was coined by the government of Juan Velasco Alvarado as the name of one of six officially recognized regional varieties of Quechua in Peru, and is still used in both Spanish and Quechua forms in publications of the Peruvian government[2] and SIL International.[3]

In linguistic terms, the group is problematic. Concerning vocabulary, Cusco Quechua is closest to Ayacucho Quechua, with which it has 96% lexical similarity,[4] whereas Puno Quechua and the Bolivian Quechua varieties have borrowed more lexicon and morphology from Aymara[5] and Spanish (e.g. the diminutive suffix -ita, -itu, -sita, -situ instead of -cha: cf. "small stone": rumisitu in Bolivia vs. rumicha in both Cusco and Ayacucho). Typical for Cusco-Collao dialects is the appearance of subordinating conjunctions, e.g. imaraykuchus (because) and sichus (if), or relative pronouns, e.g. pitachus (whom) or imachus (that, what), which are uncommon in Ayacucho Quechua and other Quechua varieties. Conjunctions like imaraykuchus are by far most common in the Bolivian dialects.[6] Otherwise, subordination in Quechua can be expressed by means of suffixes and infixes like -pti- and -spa or (to substitute relative clauses) -q, -sqa and -na.

See also



  • Antonio Cusihuamán (1976): Diccionario Quechua Cuzco-Collao [- Castellano y vice versa]. Ministerio de educación del Perú
  • Antonio Cusihuamán (1976): Gramática Quechua Cuzco-Collao. Ministerio de educación del Perú


  1. ^ See individual articles for population breakdown.
  2. ^ Yachakuqkunapa Simi Qullqa - Qosqo Qollaw. Qhichwa Simipi Archived 2011-08-24 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ SIL/ILV Perú - Publicaciones - Idioma: Quechua del Cusco-Collao
  4. ^ Quechua, Ayacucho at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  5. ^ Quechua, Puno at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  6. ^ See for example Google search for "imaraykuchus" at site bible.is, which includes Bible translations in Quechua of Cusco, North Bolivia, and South Bolivia (as well as Ayacucho Quechua, which does not have this word).