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(NATO reporting name: AS-4 'Kitchen')
Raduga Kh-22.jpg
Kh-22 under a Tu-22M2
Type Air-to-surface missile
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
Used by Russia
Production history
Designer MKB Raduga
Produced 1962
Weight 5,820 kg (12,800 lb)
Length 11.65 m (38.2 ft)
Diameter 92 cm (36 in)
Warhead 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) RDX
or 350–1,000 kiloton nuclear weapon

Engine Liquid-fuel rocket
Wingspan 300 cm (120 in)
Propellant Tonka-250 and IRFNA
600 km (320 nmi) (Kh-22M/MA)[1]
Flight ceiling 10-14 km or 27 km
Speed Mach 4.6 (5,635.2 km/h; 3,501.6 mph)[2]
Inertial guidance followed by terminal active radar homing
Tu-22M, Тu-22К, Тu-95К22

The Kh-22 (Russian: Х-22; AS-4 'Kitchen') is a large, long-range anti-ship missile developed by MKB Raduga in the Soviet Union. It was intended for use against US Navy aircraft carriers and carrier battle groups, with either a conventional or nuclear warhead.


After analyzing World War II naval battles and encounters in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Soviet military thinkers concluded that the era of large seaborne battles was over, and that stand-off attacks would be the way to neutralize and incapacitate large battle groups without having to field a similar force against them. Substituting cruise missiles for air attacks, Soviet Air Forces and Soviet Naval Aviation commanders set about to convert their heavy bombers to raketonosets, or missile carriers, which could be launched against approaching enemy fleets from coastal or island airfields. The Kh-22 (Complex 22) weapon was developed by the Raduga design bureau and used to arm the Tupolev Tu-22M.


The Kh-22 uses an Tumanski liquid-fuel rocket engine, fueled with TG-02 (Tonka-250) and IRFNA (inhibited red fuming nitric acid), giving it a maximum speed of Mach 4.6 and a range of up to 600 km (320 nmi). It can be launched in either high-altitude or low-altitude mode. In high-altitude mode, it climbs to an altitude of 27,000 m (89,000 ft) and makes a high-speed dive into the target, with a terminal speed of about Mach 4.6. In low-altitude mode, it climbs to 12,000 m (39,000 ft) and makes a shallow dive at about Mach 3.5, making the final approach at an altitude under 500 m (1,600 ft). The missile is guided by a gyroscope-stabilized autopilot in conjunction with a radio altimeter.

Soviet tests revealed that when a shaped charge warhead weighing 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) was used in the missile, the resulting hole measured 5 m (16 ft) in diameter (19.63 m2 (211.3 sq ft)), and was 12 m (40 ft) deep.[3][4] Soviet Tests showed that a Kh-22MA equipped with 1,000 kg (2,205 lb) RDX warhead and with an approach speed of 800 m/s (Mach 2.4), used against an aircraft carrier, will make a 22 m2 (240 sq ft) hole, and the warhead's cumulative jet will burn through internal ship compartments up to a depth of 12 m.[5][6][7][8][9]

By August 2016, Russia was finalizing the trials of the Kh-32 cruise missile, a derivative of the Kh-22. Designed for use by the Tu-22M3 bomber, the missile is designed to climb to 40 km (130,000 ft) to the stratosphere after launch, transition to level flight, then perform a steep dive to the target; its combination of speed and flight path makes it virtually invulnerable to interception by ground-based air defenses and fighters.[citation needed] The advanced cruise missile is designed to target enemy ships, radars, and "radio-contrast targets" like bridges, military bases, electric power plants, and others. The Kh-32 has an inertial navigation system and radar homing head, making it independent of GPS/GLONASS navigation satellites. Presumably, it has a range of 1,000 km (620 mi; 540 nmi) and a speed of at least 5,000 km/h (3,100 mph; Mach 4.1).[10] Apparently the missile entered service in the same year.[11]

Operational history[edit]

Kh-22 under a Tu-22M3

The first service-ready missiles were ready in 1962.

The main launch platform is the Tu-22M 'Backfire'.[12][13] It was also used by Soviet and then Russian air forces on the Тu-22К ('Blinder-B') and Tu-95К22 ('Bear-G').


Two initial versions were built, the Kh-22 with a large conventional warhead and the Kh-22N, with a 350-1000-kiloton nuclear warhead.[14] In the mid-1970s this was supplemented by the Kh-22P, an anti-radiation missile for the destruction of radar installations. In the 1970s the Kh-22 was upgraded to Kh-22M and Kh-22MA standard, with new attack profiles, somewhat longer range, and a datalink allowing mid-course updates.

  • Kh-22E - a conventionally armed version for export.
  • Kh-22M/MA - Upgraded variants with almost 600 km range. Weight ~12 000 lbs, speed ~mach 5, contain 1000 kg of RDX.[15][16]
  • Kh-32 - a new conventionally armed (also nuclear) radical upgrade mach 5 variant of Kh-22, with 1,000 km range.[10][17] It features an improved rocket motor and a new seeker head. Currently produced and supplied to the Tu-22M3.[18] Warhead size has been reduced to 500 kg (1,102 lbs) to improve range.[19]

Kh-22 under a Tu-22M3



Former operators[edit]

 Soviet Union
  • 423 scrapped after Ukrainian Tu-22M fleet's decommission.[20]


  1. ^ ausairpower, Anti Shipping Missile Survey, ausairpower, p. Air-Launched Cruise Missiles 
  2. ^ Scribd, Anti Shipping Missile Survey, Scribd, p. 37 
  3. ^ Precision Guided Munitions in the Region, Technical Report APA-TR-2007-0109, 2004 - 2012 Carlo Kopp,
  4. ^ КРЫЛАТАЯ РАКЕТА Х-22Н "Буря", Д-2Н, AS-4 Kitchen, Образцы вооружений Военно - морского флота,
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b Next Gen Kh-32 ant-ship cruise missile tests drawing to a close in Russia -, 24 August 2016
  11. ^
  12. ^ Rosoboronexport Air Force Department and Media & PR Service, AEROSPACE SYSTEMS export catalogue (PDF), Rosoboronexport State Corporation, p. 122, archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-30 
  13. ^ China's Military Faces the Future, James R. Lilley, David L. Shambaugh, illustrated, M.E. Sharpe, 1999, ISBN 0765605066, ISBN 9780765605061
  14. ^ В Полтаве готовятся к утилизации последнего бомбардировщика[permanent dead link], 26 Jan 2006,
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ В Полтаве готовятся к утилизации последнего бомбардировщика, 26.01.2006,


  • Gordon, Yefim (2004). Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War Two. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-188-1. 

External links[edit]