Scoville scale

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Pepper stand at Central Market in Houston, Texas, with Scoville scale
The bhut jolokia (ghost pepper) is rated at over one million Scoville units. It is primarily found in the Northeast Indian states of Assam, Nagaland, and Manipur.
The Naga Morich (also known as Dorset Naga) is rated at up to 1,598,227 Scoville units.[1] It is primarily found in Bangladesh.

The Scoville scale is a measurement of the pungency (spicy heat) of chili peppers—or other spicy foods, as reported in Scoville heat units (SHU),[2] a function of capsaicin concentration. Capsaicin is one of many related active components found in chili peppers, collectively called capsaicinoids. The scale is named after its creator, American pharmacist Wilbur Scoville. His method, devised in 1912, is known as the Scoville Organoleptic Test.[3]

In modern times, high-performance liquid chromatography is used to determine the pungency. The older method is a subjective measurement dependent on the capsaicin sensitivity of testers and so is not a precise or accurate method to measure capsaicinoid concentration.[3]

Scoville organoleptic test[edit]

In the Scoville organoleptic test, an exact weight of dried pepper is dissolved in alcohol to extract the heat components (capsaicinoids), then diluted in a solution of sugar water.[4][5][6] Decreasing concentrations of the extracted capsaicinoids are given to a panel of five trained tasters, until a majority (at least three) can no longer detect the heat in a dilution.[5][6][7] The heat level is based on this dilution, rated in multiples of 100 SHU.[5]

A weakness of the Scoville Organoleptic Test is its imprecision due to human subjectivity, depending on the taster's palate and their number of mouth heat receptors, which varies greatly among people.[7] Another weakness is sensory fatigue;[7] the palate is quickly desensitized to capsaicinoids after tasting a few samples within a short time period.[5] Results vary widely (up to ± 50%) between laboratories.[6]

ASTA pungency units[edit]

The Red Savina pepper, one of the hottest chilis, is rated at around 500,000 Scoville units.[8]

Since the 1980s, spice heat has been more precisely measured by a method that uses high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).[4] This method measures the concentration of heat-producing chemicals. The measurements uses a mathematical formula that weights them according to their relative capacity to produce perceived heat (pungency). This method yields results, not in Scoville units, but in American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) pungency units. ASTA pungency units are then multiplied by 16 in order to be reported as Scoville units, as according to the published method, a measurement of one part capsaicin per million corresponds to about 16 Scoville units. Scoville units are a measure for capsaicin content per unit of dry mass.[9][10][11]

Scoville ratings[edit]

Considerations[edit]

Since Scoville ratings are defined per unit of dry mass, comparison of ratings between products having different water content can be misleading. For example, typical fresh chili peppers have a water content around 90%, whereas Tabasco sauce has a water content of 95%.[12] For law-enforcement-grade pepper spray, values from 500,000 up to 1 million SHU have been mentioned,[13] but the actual strength of the spray depends on the dilution, which could vary by a factor of 10.[14]

The chilis with the highest rating on the Scoville scale exceed one million Scoville units, and include specimens of naga jolokia or bhut jolokia and its cultivar, the "ghost chili", which does not have official cultivar status.[15][16] Its Bangladeshi variety is the Naga Morich, also known as Dorset Naga, which came in at 1,598,227 SHUs, one of the hottest heat levels ever recorded for a chili.[1][17] As of 2017, the Dragon's Breath (chili pepper) is the highest rated pepper on record.[18]

Numerical results for any specimen vary depending on its cultivation conditions and the uncertainty of the laboratory methods used to assess the capsaicinoid content. Pungency values for any pepper are variable, owing to expected variation within a species—easily by a factor of 10 or more—depending on seed lineage, climate (humidity is a big factor for the Bhut Jolokia; the Dorset Naga and the original Naga have quite different ratings), and even soil (this is especially true of habaneros). The inaccuracies described in the measurement methods above also contribute to the imprecision of these values.[6]

Capsicum peppers[edit]

Scoville heat units Name of pepper(s)
855,000 – 2,480,000

Dragon's Breath,[19] Naga Morich,[1] Carolina Reaper, Komodo Dragon Chili Pepper,[20] Naga Viper pepper,[21][22] Trinidad Moruga Scorpion,[23] Infinity Chilli,[24] Bhut jolokia (ghost pepper),[25][26] Trinidad Scorpion Butch T pepper,[27] Bedfordshire Super Naga,[28] Spanish Naga Chili[29]

350,000 – 580,000 Red Savina habanero[22][30][31]
100,000 – 350,000 Habanero chili,[4][32] Scotch bonnet pepper,[32] Datil pepper, Rocoto, Madame Jeanette, Peruvian White Habanero,[33] Jamaican hot pepper,[32] Fatalii[34] Wiri Wiri,[35] Bird's eye chili[36]
50,000 – 100,000 Malagueta pepper,[36] Chiltepin pepper, Piri piri, Pequin pepper,[36] Siling Labuyo, Capsicum Apache
30,000 – 50,000 Guntur chilli, Cayenne pepper, Ají pepper,[36] Tabasco pepper, Capsicum chinense
10,000 – 30,000 Byadgi chilli, Serrano pepper, Peter pepper, Chile de árbol, Aleppo pepper, Cheongyang chili pepper, Peperoncino
3,500 – 10,000 Guajillo pepper, 'Fresno Chili' pepper, Jalapeño, wax[37] (e.g. Hungarian wax pepper)
1,000 – 3,500 Anaheim pepper, Pasilla pepper, Peppadew, poblano (or ancho),[38] Poblano verde,[37] Rocotillo pepper, Espelette pepper
100 – 1,000 Banana pepper, Cubanelle, paprika,[38] Pimiento
0 Bell pepper[39][40]

Pure chemicals[edit]

Capsaicin pharmacophore
Scoville heat units Chemical
16,000,000,000 Resiniferatoxin
5,300,000,000 Tinyatoxin
16,000,000 Capsaicin
15,000,000 Dihydrocapsaicin
9,200,000 Nonivamide
9,100,000 Nordihydrocapsaicin
8,600,000 Homocapsaicin, Homodihydrocapsaicin
160,000 Shogaol
100,000 Piperine
60,000 Gingerol
16,000 Capsiate

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Some Like It Hot: Dorset's Ultra-Hot Chillies". Archived from the original on 19 November 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2010. 
  2. ^ Peter, KV, ed. (2001), Handbook of Herbs and Spices, 1, CRC Press, p. 120, ISBN 0-8493-1217-5 
  3. ^ a b Scoville, Wilbur (May 1912). "Note on Capsicums". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 1 (5): 453–454. 
  4. ^ a b c Kleiman, Dena (November 8, 1989). "Rating Hot Peppers: Mouth vs. Computer". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-11-02. 
  5. ^ a b c d Peter, K. V. (2012). Handbook of Herbs and Spices. Elsevier Science. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-85709-5671. 
  6. ^ a b c d Tainter, Donna R.; Anthony T. Grenis (2001). Spices and Seasonings. Wiley-IEEE. p. 30. ISBN 0-471-35575-5. Interlab variation [for the original Scoville scale] could be as high as +/−50%. However, labs that run these procedures could generate reasonably repeatable results. 
  7. ^ a b c Barry-Jester, Anna Maria (October 15, 2014). "Rating Chili Peppers On A Scale Of 1 To Oh Dear God I’m On Fire". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 2014-11-02. 
  8. ^ DeWitt, Dave; Bosland, Paul W. (2009). The Complete Chile Pepper Book. ISBN 978-0-88192-920-1. 
  9. ^ Collins, M.D.; et al. (1995). "Improved Method for Quantifying Capsaicinoids in Capsicum Using High-performance Liquid Chromatography". HortScience. 30: 137–139. 
  10. ^ Nwokem, C.O.; et al. (2010). "Determination of Capsaicin Content and Pungency Level of Five Different Peppers Grown in Nigeria" (PDF). New York Science Journal. 3: 9. 
  11. ^ Othman, Z.A. Al; et al. (2011). "Determination of Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin in Capsicum Fruit Samples using High Performance Liquid Chromatography". Molecules. 16 (12): 8919–8929. doi:10.3390/molecules16108919. 
  12. ^ USDA nutrient database for Peppers, jalapeño, raw (92% water content); Peppers, hot chile, red, raw (88% water content); Red Tabasco sauce (95%)
  13. ^ "Chemical hazards in law enforcement". The Police Policy Studies Council. Retrieved 2009-02-09. Most law enforcement sprays have a pungency of 500,000 to 2 million SHU. One brand has sprays with 5.3 million SHU. 
  14. ^ "The Truth About Defensive Spray Heat". Sabre red. Sabre Red = 10% OC @ 2,000,000 Scoville Heat Units. Thus, 90% of the formulation dilutes the 2,000,000 SHUs creating a Scoville Content of 200,000. 
  15. ^ "World’s hottest chilli grown in Grantham, Lincs". The Daily Telegraph. London. 2010-04-01. Retrieved 2010-04-24. 
  16. ^ "Grantham firm grows world's hottest chilli". UK: This is Lincolnshire. Retrieved 2010-04-24. 
  17. ^ "Gardening: 20 October 2006". bbc.co.uk. London: BBC. 20 October 2006. Gardeners' World's hottest chillies. Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  18. ^ Bodkin, Henry (17 May 2017). "Hottest chilli pepper in the world accidentally created by Welsh farmer". The Telegraph. Retrieved 4 July 2017. 
  19. ^ "'World's hottest' chilli pepper grown in St Asaph". BBC News. North East Wales. 17 May 2017. 
  20. ^ Smithers, Rebecca (11 August 2015). "UK's hottest ever commercially grown chilli pepper to go on sale". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 August 2015. 
  21. ^ Dykes, Brett Michael (3 December 2010). "World’s hottest pepper is 'hot enough to strip paint'". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 3 December 2010. 
  22. ^ a b "Tezpur/Naga Jolokia – The Hottest Chile?" (PDF). The Chile Pepper Institute Newsletter. 11 (2). The Chile Pepper Institute, New Mexico State University. 2000. p. 5. ...the Red Savina Habanero whose Scoville rating is around 555,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU), the 'Naga Jolokia' possesses 855,000 SHU. 
  23. ^ "Chile experts identify Trinidad Moruga Scorpion as world's hottest". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 2012-02-16. 
  24. ^ "Grantham's Infinity chilli named hottest in world". BBC News. 2011-02-18. 
  25. ^ Shaline L. Lopez (2007). "NMSU is home to the world's hottest chile pepper". Archived from the original on 2007-02-19. Retrieved 2007-02-21. 
  26. ^ "World's hottest chili pepper a mouthful for prof". CNN. AP. 23 February 2007. Archived from the original on 22 March 2007. 
  27. ^ Matthew Da Silva (12 April 2011). "World's hottest chilli grown by Aussies". Australian Geographic. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  28. ^ "UK's hottest commercially grown chilli pepper goes on sale". Tesco PLC. 10 September 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2016. 
  29. ^ Tom Ryan. "The Official Scoville Scale - Pepperheads For Life". Pepperheads For Life. 
  30. ^ "World's hottest chile pepper discovered". American Society for Horticultural Science. 2007-10-27. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  31. ^ "Burning Questions" (PDF). The Chile Pepper Institute Newsletter. 13 (3). The Chile Pepper Institute, New Mexico State University. 2002. p. 7. ...'Red Savina' habanero...came in at a whopping 577,000 Scoville Heat Units. 
  32. ^ a b c "The Scoville Scale". HappyStove.com. 
  33. ^ "Habanero White". The Chile Man. Retrieved 2011-09-21. 
  34. ^ Scoville Food Institute, Periodic Table of Scoville Units.
  35. ^ "The Scoville Scale". The Scoville Scale For Peppers. 
  36. ^ a b c d "Scoville Scale Chart for Hot Sauce and Hot Peppers". Scott Roberts. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  37. ^ a b Julius, David; Caterina, Michael J.; Schumacher, Mark A.; Tominaga, Makoto; Rosen, Tobias A.; Levine, Jon D. (1997). "The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway". Nature. 389 (6653): 816–824. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 9349813. doi:10.1038/39807. Reported pungencies for pepper varieties (in Scoville units) are: Habanero (H),100,000–300,000; Thai green (T), 50,000–100,000; wax (W), 5,000–10,000; and Poblano verde (P), 1,000–1,500 (ref. 23). 
  38. ^ a b Lillywhite, Jay M.; Simonsen, Jennifer E.; Uchanski, Mark E. (2013). "Spicy Pepper Consumption and Preferences in the United States". HortTechnology. 23 (6): 868–876. Any pepper type with ≥ 1 SHU could be considered spicy. However, for this study, paprika (0–300 SHU), New Mexico long green or red chile (300–500 SHU), and poblano/ancho (≈1369 SHU) types were included as mild spicy peppers (Table 1). 
  39. ^ Thomas DeBaggio, Thomas DeBaggio; Arthur O. Tucker, Arthur O. Tucker (2009). The Encyclopedia of Herbs: A Comprehensive Reference to Herbs of Flavor and Fragrance. Timber Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-60469-134-4. ...a bell pepper has 0 Scoville Heat Units and a rating of 0. 
  40. ^ Laratta, B; De Masi, L; Sarli, G; Pignone, D (2013). Lanteri, Sergo; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo, eds. "Hot Peppers for Happiness and Wellness: a Rich Source of Healthy and Biologically Active Compounds" (PDF). Breakthroughs in the Genetics and Breeding of Capsicum and Eggplant: Proceedings of the XV EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Capsicum and Eggplant. Comitato per l'organizzazione degli eventi (COE) DISAFA, Università degli Studi di Torino: 233–240. ISBN 978-88-97239-16-1. Scoville Heat Units (SHU), Referring pepper varieties...0, Sweet Bell 

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