Serbo-Croatian kinship

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The Serbo-Croatian standard languages (Croatian, Serbian, Montenegrin and Bosnian) have one of the more elaborate kinship (srodstvo) systems among European languages. Terminology may differ from place to place. Most words are common to other Slavic languages, though some derive from Turkish. The standardized languages may recognize slightly different pronunciations or dialectical forms; all terms are considered standard in all four languages, unless otherwise marked: [B] (Bosnian), [C] (Croatian), [M] (Montenegrin) and [S] (Serbian) below.

There are four main types of kinship in the family: biological AKA blood kinship, kinship by law (in-laws), spiritual kinship (such as godparents), and legal kinship through adoption and remarriage.[1]

As is common in many rural family structures, three generations of a family will live together in a home in what anthropologists call a joint family structure, where parents, their son(s), and grandchildren would cohabit in a family home.[2]

Direct descendance and ancestry[edit]

Words for relations up to five generations removed—great-great-grandparents and great-great-grandchildren—are in common use. The fourth-generation terms are also used as generics for ancestors and descendants. There is no distinction between the maternal and paternal line. In addition there are terms found in Serbian for ancestors past the 5th generation, but those are not in common use.[a]

Latin Cyrillic Relation
bijela pčela
bela pčela
бијeлa пчeлa
бела пчела[3]
great-great-great-descendant (English translation-white bee)
čukununuka
šukununuka [C]
чукунунука
шукунунука [C]
great-great-granddaughter
čukununuk
šukununuk [C]
чукунунук
шукунунук [C]
great-great-grandson
praunuka праунука great-granddaughter, descendant
praunuk праунук great-grandson, descendant
unuka унука granddaughter
unuk унук grandson
kćer
kćerka
ćerka
kći
кћер
кћерка
ћерка
кћи
daughter
sin син son
majka
mater
mati
мајка
матер
мати
mother
mama мама mom
otac отац father
babo [B]
ćaća [C]
ćale [S]
tajo [M]
tata
бабо [B]
ћаћа [C]
ћале [S]
тајо [M]
тата
dad
baba
baka
nana [B]
nona
баба
бака
нана [B]
нона
grandmother
ded(a)
deka [S]
did(a) [C]
dido
djed
đed [M]
nono [C]
dedo [B]
дед(a)
дека [S]
дид(a) [C]
дидо
дјед
ђед [M]
ноно [C]
дедо [B]
grandfather
prababa
prabaka
прабаба
прабака
great-grandmother, ancestor
praded(a)
pradid(a) [C]
pradido
pradjed
prađed [M]
прадед(a)
прадид(a) [C]
прадидо
прадјед
прађед [M]
great-grandfather, ancestor
čukunbaba
šukunbaka [C]
чукунбаба
шукунбака [C]
great-great-grandmother
čukunded(a)
čukundjed
čukunđed [M]
šukundid [C]
šukundjed [C]
чукундед(a)
чукундјед
чукунђед [M]
шукундид(a) [C]
шукундјед [C]
great-great-grandfather[4]
predakinja [S]
pretkinja [C]
pređa [M]
предакиња [S]
преткиња [C]
пређа [M]
female ancestor
predak предак male ancestor

Ego's generation[edit]

Diminutive forms of siblings are used for cousins.

Latin Cyrillic English translation
brat брат brother
sestra сестра sister
bratić [C] братић [C] male first cousin
sestrična [C] сестрична [C] female first cousin
brat od strica
stričević
amidžić
брат од стрица
стричевић
амиџић
male cousin (always first or second), son of father's brother (or male first cousin)
brat od daja
brat od ujaka
daidžić
ujčević
брат од даја
брат од ујака
даиџић
ујчевић
male cousin (always first or second), son of mother's brother (or male first cousin)
brat od hale
brat od tetke
tetić
tetkić
tetišnji
брат од хале
брат од тетке
тетић
теткић
тетишњи
male cousin (always first or second), son of mother's or father's sister (or female first cousin)
sestra od strica
stričevka
admidžišnja
сестра од стрица
стричевићка
амиџишња
female cousin (always first or second), daughter of father's brother (or male first cousin)
sestra od daja
sestra od ujaka
ujčevka
daidžišnja
сестра од даја
сестра од ујака
даиџишња
ујчевићка
female cousin (always first or second), daughter of mother's brother (or male first cousin)
sestra od hale
sestra od tetke
tetišnja
сестра од хале
сестра од тетке
тетишња
female cousin (always first or second), son of mother's or father's sister (or female first cousin)
rođak рођак male cousin, relative
rođaka [S]
rođakinja
rodica [C]
рођака [S]
рођакиња
родица [C]
female cousin, relative

Indirect ancestry, descendants and legal relations[edit]

There are separate terms for maternal and paternal uncles, but not for aunts. In addition, spouses of uncles and aunts have their own terms.

Latin Cyrillic Relation
amidža
adžo
stric
čiča
čika
ćić
амиџа
аџо
стриц
чича
чика
ћић
paternal uncle
amidžinica
adžinica
strina
амиџиница
аџиница
стрина
paternal uncle's wife
daidža / dajdža
dajo
ujak
даиџа / дајџа
дајо
ујак
maternal uncle
daidžinica / dajdžinica
dajnica
ujna
даиџиница / дајџиница
дајница
ујна
maternal uncle's wife; i.e. maternal aunt through marriage
hala
tetka
хала
тетка
aunt (only mother's or father's sister or cousin)
teča [S]
tetak [BCM]
теча [S]
тетак [BCM]
aunt's husband (where aunt defined as "tetka")
bratanac братанац fraternal nephew (for women[S], for men and women[C])
bratanić братанић fraternal nephew (for men and women)
sinovac синовац fraternal nephew (for men[S])
bratanica
brataničina
братаница
братаничина
fraternal niece
nećak нећак nephew
nećaka
nećakinja
нећака
нећакиња
niece
sestrić сестрић sororal nephew
sestričina сестричина sororal niece

In-laws[edit]

There are separate terms for a man's and a woman's parents-in-law. However, the same terms are commonly used for siblings-in-law and children-in-law. There are separate terms for co-siblings-in-law.[what about co-grandparent-in-law?]

Latin Cyrillic Relation English translation
svekar свекар husband's father father-in-law
svekrva свекрва husband's mother mother-in-law
punac [C]
tast[S]
пунац [C]
таст [S]
wife's father father-in-law
punica [C]
tašta[S]
пуница [C]
ташта [S]
wife's mother mother-in-law
zet зет daughter's or sister's husband son-in-law or brother-in-law
nev(j)esta
odiva [M]
snaha
snaja [C, S]
нев(ј)еста
одива [M]
снаха
снаjа [C, S]
son's or brother's wife daughter-in-law or sister-in-law
šura(k)
šurjak[C]
šogor[C]
шура(к)
шурjак [C]
шогор [C]
wife's brother brother-in-law
šurjakinja[C]
šurnjaja
шурјакиња[C]
шурњаја
wife's brother's wife sister-in-law
svastika
šogorica [C]
свастика
шогорица [C]
wife's sister sister-in-law
svastić свастић wife's sister's son nephew-in-law
svastičina свастичина wife's sister's daughter niece-in-law
badženjak
badžo
d(j)ever
đever [M]
баџењак
баџо
д(j)евер
ђевер [M]
husband's brother brother-in-law
jetrva јетрва husband's brother's wife co-sister-in-law
zaova заова husband's sister sister-in-law
zaovac заовац husband's sister's husband co-brother-in-law
pašanac
pašenog
пашанац
пашеног
wife's sister's husband co-brother-in-law
prija прија child's spouse's mother co-mother-in-law
prijatelj пријатељ child's spouse's father co-father-in-law; N.B. the exactly same word means "friend" (general word)

Step-relatives[edit]

There are spouses of ancestors that are not blood relatives and their descendants, siblings of father's or mother's spouse (step-aunts and step-uncles) and their spouses, and their children.

Latin Cyrillic Relation
očuh очух stepfather
maćeha маћеха stepmother
pastorak пасторак stepson
pastorka
pastorkinja
пасторка
пасторкиња
stepdaughter
muž babe za njenu unučad iz prethodnog braka
babin drugi muž
муж бабе за њену унучад из претходног брака
бабин други муж
grandmother's second husband; i.e. grandfather through marriage
step-grandfather
dedina žena njegovoj unučadi iz prethodnog braka
dedina druga žena
дедина жена његовој унучади из претходног брака
дедина друга жена
grandfather's second wife; i.e. grandmother through marriage
step-grandmother
dedin ili babin unuk iz prethodnog braka babinom drugom mužu ili dedinoj drugoj ženi дедин или бабин унук из претходног брака бабином другом мужу или дединој другој жени step-grandson
dedina ili babina unuka iz prethodnog braka babinom drugom mužu ili dedinoj drugoj ženi дедина или бабина унука из претходног брака бабином другом мужу или дединој другој жени step-granddaughter
stričeva žena bratovljevoj deci iz prethodnog braka
stričeva druga žena
стричева жена братовљевој деци из претходног брака
стричева друга жена
paternal uncle's second wife
ujakova žena sestrinoj deci iz prethodnog braka
ujakova druga žena
ујакова жена сестриној деци из претходног брака
ујакова друга жена
maternal uncle's second wife; i.e. maternal step-aunt through marriage
muž tetke za bratovljevu ili sestrinu decu iz prethodnog braka
tetkin drugi muž
муж тетке за братовљеву или сестрину децу из претходног брака
теткин други муж
aunt's second husband (where aunt defined as "tetka")
brat majčinog muža
očuhov brat
брат мајчиног мужа
очухов брат
mother's husband's brother
step-uncle
supruga očuhovog brata супруга очуховог брата mother's husband's brother's wife
step-uncle's wife
sin očuhovog brata син очуховог брата mother's husband's brother's son
step-uncle's son
ćerka očuhovog brata ћерка очуховог брата mother's husband's brother's daughter
step-uncle's daughter
brat očeve žene
maćehin brat
брат очеве жене
маћехин брат
father's wife's brother
step-uncle
supruga maćehinog brata супруга маћехиног брата father's wife's brother's wife
step-uncle's wife
sin maćehinog brata син маћехиног брата father's wife's brother's son
step-uncle's son
ćerka maćehinog brata ћерка маћехиног брата father's wife's brother's daughter
step-uncle's daughter
sestra majčinog muža ili očeve žene
očuhova ili maćehina sestra
сестра мајчиног мужа или очеве жене
очухова или маћехина сестра
mother's husband's or father's wife's sister
step-aunt
suprug očuhove ili maćehine sestre супруг очухове или маћехине сестре mother's husband's or father's wife's sister's husband
step-aunt's husband
sin očuhove ili maćehine sestre син очухове или маћехине сестре mother's husband's or father's wife's sister's son
step-aunt's son
ćerka očuhove ili maćehine sestre ћерка очухове или маћехине сестре mother's husband's or father's wife's sister's daughter
step-aunt's daughter
polubrat полубрат half-brother (through only one parent)
- brat po ocu брат по оцу half-brother (sharing same father, different mothers)
- brat po majci брат по мајци half-brother (sharing same mother, different fathers)
polusestra полусестра half-sister (through only one parent)
- sestra po ocu сестра по оцу half-sister (sharing same father, different mothers)
- sestra po majci сестра по мајци half-sister (sharing same mother, different fathers)

Foster-relatives[edit]

Foster relations are important and have dedicated terms.

Latin Cyrillic Relation
usvojenik усвојеник adopted son
usvojenica усвојеница adopted daughter
poočim поочим foster-father
pomajka помајка foster-mother
posinak
usinjenik [S]
посинак
усињеник [S]
foster-son
po(k)ćerka по(к)ћерка foster-daughter

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ For example, an 18th-century document mentioned the analysis of ancestors of a young couple to be married made to prove that they weren't relatives. The terms used for the generations past the 5th (čukunded) were, in male form: navrnded (6th), askurđel (7th), kurđel (8th), kurebal (9th), and sukurov (10th).[3] Another inscription on a penthouse near Titel has: navrnded (6th), askurđel (7th), kudel (8th), kurebal (9th), sukurbal (10th), and beli orao (11th).[3] The last has only been found in this inscription.[3] The terms have only been preserved in Syrmia, Bačka and Baranja.[3] The term askurđel could be heard from elders in Syrmia while cussing (askurđel ti tvoga).[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Family, marriage and kinship
  2. ^ Kinship, networks, and exchange; The Grapvine Forest: Kinship, Status, and Wealth in a Mediterranean Community (Selo, Croatia) by Bojka Milici, Thomas Schweizer, Douglas R. White
  3. ^ a b c d e f Јеремија Д. Митровић. Никола Пантелић, ed. "Називи за степене потомака и предака код Срба". Гласник Етнографског музеја у Београду књ. 49. Etnografski muzej u Beogradu: 181–182. GGKEY:82XZRXNNJZP. 
  4. ^ *(in English)Svetozar Brkić, Živojin Simić (1993) English–Serbian and Serbian–English dictionary

Further reading[edit]