Soyuz TM-16

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Soyuz TM-16
Operator Rosaviakosmos
COSPAR ID 1993-005A
SATCAT no. 22319Edit this on Wikidata
Mission duration 179 days, 43 minutes, 45 seconds
Orbits completed ~2,790
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type Soyuz-TM
Manufacturer NPO Energia
Launch mass 7,150 kilograms (15,760 lb)
Crew size 2 up
3 down
Members Gennadi Manakov
Alexander Poleshchuk
Landing Jean-Pierre Haigneré
Callsign Вулка́н (Vulkan - Volcano)
Start of mission
Launch date January 24, 1993, 05:58:05 (1993-01-24UTC05:58:05Z) UTC
Rocket Soyuz-U2
End of mission
Landing date July 22, 1993, 06:41:50 (1993-07-22UTC06:41:51Z) UTC
Landing site 140 kilometres (87 mi) S of Dzhezkazgan
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee 393 kilometres (244 mi)
Apogee 394 kilometres (245 mi)
Inclination 51.6 degrees
Docking with Mir

Soyuz TM-16 patch.png

Soyuz programme
(Manned missions)

The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi- meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations. It added to the Soyuz-T new docking and rendezvous, radio communications, emergency and integrated parachute/landing engine systems. The new Kurs rendezvous and docking system permitted the Soyuz-TM to maneuver independently of the station, without the station making "mirror image" maneuvers to match unwanted translations introduced by earlier models' aft-mounted attitude control.

Soyuz TM-16 was the sixteenth expedition to the Russian Space Station Mir.[1]


Position Launching crew Landing crew
Commander Russia Gennadi Manakov
Second spaceflight
Flight Engineer Russia Alexander Poleshchuk
First spaceflight
Research Cosmonaut None France Jean-Pierre Haigneré
First spaceflight

Mission highlights[edit]

Soyuz TM-16 shown with the APAS-89 docking mechanism

16th expedition to Mir.

First Soyuz without a probe and drogue docking system since 1976. It carried an APAS-89 androgynous docking unit different from the APAS-75 unit used for ASTP in 1975, yet similar in general principles. Soyuz-TM 16 used it to dock with an androgynous docking port on the Kristall module. This was a test of the docking system in preparation for dockings by the Space Shuttles with Mir.


  1. ^ The mission report is available here: