Tavaborole

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Tavaborole
Tavaborole.svg
Tavaborole ball-and-stick model.png
Clinical data
Trade names Kerydin
Synonyms AN2690
Routes of
administration
Topical
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ECHA InfoCard 100.218.130 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C7H6BFO2
Molar mass 151.93 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

Tavaborole (trade name Kerydin) is a topical antifungal medication for the treatment of onychomycosis, a fungal infection of the nail and nail bed. Tavaborole began its Phase 3 trials in December 2010[1] and was approved by the US FDA in July 2014.[2] Tavaborole inhibits an essential fungal enzyme, leucyl-tRNA synthetase, that is required for protein synthesis. The inhibition of protein synthesis leads to termination of cell growth and then cell death, eliminating the fungal infection.

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

Tavaborole, when prepared with a 1:1 mixture of ethyl acetate and propylene glycol, has the ability to fully penetrate through the human nail. In studies with cadaver fingernails, a 5% solution of tavaborole penetrated the nail an average of 524.7 mcg/cm2 after two weeks of daily use.[3]

Clinical[edit]

Tavaborole is detectable in the blood at a level of 3.54 ng/mL after a single use of 0.2 mL of the 5% solution. Tavaborole has a half-life in the blood of 28.5 hrs, a maximum concentration of 5.17 ng/mL after two weeks of daily use, and takes 8.03 days to reach the maximum concentration.[3]

Therapeutic trials[edit]

In clinical trials, tavaborole was more effective than the vehicle (ethyl acetate and propylene glycol) alone in curing onychomycosis. In two studies, fungal infection was eliminated using tavaborole in 6.5% of the cases vs. 0.5% using the vehicle alone, and 27.5% vs. 14.6% using the vehicle alone.[3]

Adverse effects[edit]

Application site exfoliation, erythema (rash), and irritation are all possible side effects, though they occur in less than 5% of the patients tested.[3]

Commercial[edit]

Originally developed by Anacor, it is now marketed in the United States by Novartis subsidiary Sandoz. Anacor was paid US$65 million and also entered into a profit sharing scheme for future sales.[4] A 10mL bottle of a 5% solution of Tavaborole will cost the patient without insurance about $1,356.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Clinical trial number NCT01270971 at ClinicalTrials.gov
  2. ^ "FDA Approves Anacor Pharmaceuticals' KERYDIN™ (Tavaborole) Topical Solution, 5% for the Treatment of Onychomycosis of the Toenails". Market Watch. July 8, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d Boni E. Elewski, MD, Raza Aly, PhD, Sheryl L. Baldwin, RN, Remigio F. González Soto, MD, Phoebe Rich, MD, Max Weisfeld, DPM, Hector Wiltz, MD, CPI, Lee T. Zane, MD, Richard Pollak, DPM, MS (July 2015). "Efficacy and safety of tavaborole topical solution, 5%, a novel boron-based antifungal agent, for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis: Results from 2 randomized phase-III studies". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 73: 62–69. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2015.04.010. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  4. ^ "Anacor's Kerydin to Be Commercialized by Sandoz in the U.S." Zacks.com. 22 July 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2015. 
  5. ^ "KERYDIN". Retrieved 12 August 2015.