University of Virginia School of Medicine

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University of Virginia School of Medicine
School of Medicine.jpg
Type Public
Established 1819
Founder Thomas Jefferson
Parent institution
University of Virginia
Dean David S. Wilkes
Students 700
612 M.D.
55 M.D./Ph.D.
200 Ph.D.
Location Charlottesville, Virginia, US
Website School of Medicine at UVA

The University of Virginia School of Medicine is a medical school located in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States. The tenth medical school to open in the United States, it has been part of the University of Virginia since the University's establishment in 1819 by Thomas Jefferson. The school's facilities are on the University of Virginia Grounds adjacent to the historic Academical Village, and it shares a close association with the University of Virginia Health System.

The current dean of the School of Medicine is Dr. David S. Wilkes, former executive associate dean for research affairs at the Indiana University School of Medicine.

60% of external grant funding for the University of Virginia is to the School of Medicine. In 2016, the School received over $131 million in grant funding and an additional $39 million in gifts.[1]

History[edit]

The UVA Health System’s history can be traced to the founding of the University of Virginia in 1819. At the first meeting of the university’s Board of Visitors in 1819, a School of Medicine was authorized. The School of Medicine – the 10th medical school in the U.S. – officially opened in March 1825 with a single professor, Dr. Robley Dunglison, recruited by Thomas Jefferson to UVA from London.[2] The University of Virginia School of Medicine graduated its first four students in 1828, and in 1832, became the first medical school in the United States to standardize the criteria for admission.

More than 75 years later, UVA opened its first hospital in March 1901 with 25 beds and three operating rooms. Just as medical education has been a part of UVA since its founding, so too has medical literature – the 8,000 books purchased by Jefferson to create the University Library included 710 books on the medical sciences. UVA’s medical literature moved to the UVA Medical School building in 1929. Its current home was dedicated in April 1976.

In 2016, UVA announced a partnership with Inova Fairfax to establish a satellite campus at the flagship Inova hospital in Northern Virginia. This agreement also included the establishment of a personal genomics center and a collaboration between the cancer centers of the two entities.

Reputation[edit]

In 2015, U.S. News & World Report ranked the UVA School of Medicine 26th in the nation for research and 40th for primary care. UVA is one of just five schools in the mid-Atlantic region, including Johns Hopkins University, Duke University, and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, to be included in the Top 30 in the research category.[3]

Facilities[edit]

The School of Medicine is affiliated with the University of Virginia Health System.

The UVA Hospital is a large tertiary care hospital with more than 500 beds, not including a 45-bed neonatal intensive care unit and 20-bed nursery. The Children's Hospital is served by the Newborn Emergency Transport System (NETS), which transports critically ill newborns and pediatrics from all over the surrounding area and states back to UVA. The hospital is a Level I trauma center and is accessible by ambulance as well as Pegasus, UVA Health System’s air and ground transport service for critically ill and injured patients. As an academic medical center, patients at UVA are treated by physicians who are also faculty members at the UVA School of Medicine.[4]

The Claude Moore Health Sciences Library serves the School of Medicine and the Health System and is located within the Medical Center.

In 2016, UVA Hospital was named the number 1 hospital in Virginia.[5]

Clinical Education[edit]

UVA utilizes a unique "Next Generation" integrated curriculum that allows students to spend more time in the clinic by condensing the first 2 years of classes into 1.5 years. Students then take Step 1 before entering the clinic in the spring of their second year.

Research[edit]

UVA has many highly regarded departments with over 300 labs.

Laboratories are mainly housed in Medical Center in Jordan Hall, MR-4, MR-5, MR-6, and the West Complex (Hospital West).

Founded in 1967, the Department of Perceptual Studies is unique in that it is one of the few academic research groups in the field of "supernatural phenomena" with board-certified physicians and scientists at a respected university.[6]

Research Centers and Core Facilities[edit]

Research Centers[edit]

  • The UVA Cancer Center is headed by Thomas P. Loughran Jr. and was ranked in 2016 by U.S. News and World Report as one of the top 2-3% of cancer specialty centers nationwide.[7]
  • The Carter Immunology Center is one of the largest research centers in the School of Medicine with over 50 faculty members.
  • Cardiovascular Research Center
  • The Center for Brain Immunology & Glia is a group of labs in the Department of Neuroscience. In recent years, BIG has been one of UVA's most productive collaborative research centers, with research being nominated for Science's Breakthrough of the Year.[8] Notable discoveries as of late include discovering a link between the brain and the immune system,[9] identifying major genetic causes of schizophrenia,[10] and a link between the immune system and social behavior.[11]
  • The Center for Diabetes Technology has been the subject of publicity for its role in the development of the artificial pancreas,[12] a major breakthrough in the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
  • Thaler Center for AIDS and HIV Research

Historical Milestones and Notable Discoveries[edit]

  • 1826 - Anatomical Hall designed and built by Jefferson.
  • 1828 - First University degrees awarded to four medical graduates.
  • 1892 - Medical course lengthened to two years.
  • 1895 - Medical course extended to three years.
  • 1898 - Medical course lengthened to four years.
  • 1901 - Opening of the University of Virginia Hospital (25 beds). Dr. Paul Barringer named superintendent.
  • 1905 - Richard Henry Whitehead, M.D., LL.D., dean of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine named first dean of the University of Virginia School of Medicine. Whitehead reorganized the hospital to a primarily teaching facility. He emphasized scholarship and basic science well in advance of the Flexner Report.
  • 1929 - New medical school building opened (cost $1.4 million).
  • 1928 - 1952 - Sidney William Britton, Ph.D., professor of physiology and Herbert Silvette, Ph.D., professor of pharmacology, demonstrated that the adrenal cortex contained a hormone, not epinephrine, which influenced carbohydrate storage and metabolism.
  • 1935 - 1967 - Alfred Chanutin, Ph.D., professor and chair of biochemistry, discovered the role of red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in oxygen transfer from hemoglobin. This finding had enormous impact on the preservation of blood for transfusion therapy.
  • 1939 - Dupont Guerry III, M.D. intern, and William Wirt Waddell Jr., a pediatrician, discovered the role of vitamin K in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of hypoprothrombinemia and hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.
  • 1954 - Gerald D. Aurbach received his M.D. degree from the University of Virginia. Aurbach isolated and purified parathyroid hormone, determined that parathyroid hormone acts through cyclic AMP, and demonstrated that pseudohypoparathyroidism is a disorder of the parathyroid hormone receptor complex. Aurbach was a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
  • 1960 - New University Hospital (682 beds) completed at a cost of $6.5 million.
  • 1971 - 1981 - Alfred G. Gilman, M.D., Ph.D., professor of pharmacology discovered G-proteins, cellular mediators of hormone action, for which he received the 1989 Albert Lasker Award and the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
  • 1976 - Michael O. Thorner, M.B.B.S., D.Sc., professor of medicine, discovered a new hypothalamic hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone. Thorner received the 1995 NIH General Clinical Research Centers Award for his work in clinical neuroendocrinology.
  • 1989 - University of Virginia Replacement Hospital (556 beds), planned and developed by William H. Muller Jr., M.D., vice president for health sciences, was dedicated.
  • 1995 - Barry Marshall, M.B.B.S., Associate Professor of Internal Medicine, received the Albert Lasker Award Medicine for his discovery that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is the cause of peptic ulcer disease and also is associated with gastric carcinoma.

Notable faculty[edit]

The faculty of the School of Medicine are recognized nationally and internationally. The faculty includes 15 elected members of the Institute of Medicine and National Academy of Sciences; three members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 12 members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; five recipients of the Virginia Outstanding Faculty Award; four recipients of the Virginia Outstanding Scientist Award; and two recipients of the Virginia Life Achievement Award in Science.[13]

Name Notable for
Robley Dunglison, M.D. Personal physician to Thomas Jefferson and considered the "Father of American Physiology.
James Lawrence Cabell Professor of anatomy and surgery. Published “The Testimony of Modern Science to the Unity of Mankind” in 1859, advancing the idea of evolution one year before publication of Darwin’s “Origin of Species.” Cabell founded the National Board of Health which in 1880 became the U.S. Public Health Service. Cabell was a full professor at the School of Medicine for 52 years (1842-1889) and was an early pioneer of the sanitary preparation of the surgical patient following Lister’s principles.
Augustus L. Warner, M.D First described inflammation in 1846. Went on to found VCU Medical Center.
Barry Marshall, M.B.B.S. Recipient of the 1995 Lasker Award and the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his “discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.”
Janine Jagger, Ph.D. Epidemiologist and director of the International Health Care Worker Safety Center, awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 2002 for her groundbreaking research on how to protect health care workers from the transmission of blood-borne diseases
John Lawrence Smith, Ph.D. Professor of chemistry and material medica, invented the inverted microscope in 1850. He was president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1872) and of the American Chemical Society (1877). The J. Lawrence Smith Medal is named for him.
William Cecil Dabney, M.D. Professor of medicine, obstetrics, and medical jurisprudence. Notable for his work in epidemic pleurodynia in the 1880s.
Paul Brandon Barringer, M.D. Sixth president of Virginia Tech. Returned to UVA as a Professor of Therapeutics and Pharmacology, and Chair of Physiology. Barringer was president of the University from 1895-1903. A residence hall at Virginia Tech and a wing of the University of Virginia West Hospital are named after him. His Barringer Mansion is on the National Register of Historic Places.
Theodore Hough
Homer William Smith, M.D. Commonly acknowledged as the founder of modern renal physiology, joined the faculty of physiology in 1925. Smith developed the concepts of clearance methodology for measurement of renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate.
Alfred Chanutin, Ph.D. Pioneer in transfusion medicine, discovered the mechanism by which red blood cells carry oxygen in the blood.
Harvey F. Jordan, Ph.D., D.Sc. A distinguished histologist and embryologist, Jordan was the first to suggest that intercalated discs are contraction bands of cardiac muscle and that vascular smooth muscle does not differentiate into striated muscle. A research building on campus bears his name.
William Waddell, M.D. A pediatrician in 1939 discovered the role of vitamin K in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of hypoprothrombinemia and hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.
Alfred G. Gilman, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of pharmacology. He discovered G-proteins, cellular mediators of hormone action, for which he received the 1989 Albert Lasker Award and the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Eugene M. Landis, M.D Performed the first direct measurements of capillary pressure and permeability, was professor and head of the Department of Internal Medicine. Editor in Chief of Circulation Research. The Microcirculatory Society awards the Eugene M. Landis Award for.
Thomas H. Hunter, M.D. Hunter established international outreach programs in medical education. He also demonstrated synergism between penicillin and streptomycin in the treatment of subacute bacterial endocarditis and, together with Joseph Fletcher, developed the discipline of clinical ethics. Hunter received the Thomas Jefferson Award of the University in 1970 and the Abraham Flexner Award of the Association of American Medical Colleges in 1988. He was named Dean in 1953.
Henry Mulholland, M.D. Professor and chair of the Department of Medicine and a noted diabetologist, received the Thomas Jefferson Award of the University of Virginia in 1962.
Robert M. Berne, M.D. Professor and chair of physiology, pioneered adenosine in cardiovascular function and introduced adenosine as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. Berne was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1988, and was presiden of the American Physiological Society.
Edward W. Hook Jr., M.D. Professor and chair of the Department of Medicine, received the Thomas Jefferson Award of the University in 1996. Hook performed pioneering research in infectious disease and initiated the Humanities in Medicine Program. He was president of the American College of Physicians and the American Clinical and Climatological Association.
Michael O. Thorner, M.B.B.S., D.Sc. Professor of medicine, discovered a new hypothalamic hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone in 1976. Thorner received the 1995 NIH General Clinical Research Centers Award for his work in clinical neuroendocrinology.
Charles David Allis, Ph.D. Winner of the Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences for his work in epigenetics and chromatin biology.
Ferid Murad, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of medicine, discovered that endothelium-derived relaxing factor is nitric oxide, which acts as a vasodilator by stimulating guanylyl cyclase. Murad received the Albert Lasker Award in 1996 and the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for this discovery.
Robert R. Wagner, M.D. Early virologist, studied interferons.
Arthur Garson, Jr., M.D., M.P.H Pediatric cardiologist and former president of the American College of Cardiology.
William H. Muller Jr., M.D. Professor and chair of the Department of Surgery. He pioneered the surgical treatment of pulmonary hypertension and invented one of the first artificial aortic valves. Muller was president of the American College of Surgeons and received the Thomas Jefferson Award of the University in 1982.
Richard F. Edlich, M.D., Ph.D. Recipient of the Distinguished Public Service Award for Contributions to Emergency Medicine by the US Public Health Service, and inventor of several minor surgical tools.
James Q. Miller, M.D. Neurologist and eponymous Miller-Dieker syndrome. UVA named the James Q. Miller Multiple Sclerosis Clinic for him.
Thomas P. Loughran Jr., M.D. Discoverer and international expert in large granular lymphocytic leukemia.
Jim B. Tucker, M.D. Noted researcher in paranormal activities
Thomas Platts-Mills, M.D., Ph.D. Allergist and Fellow of the Royal Society.
William A. Petri, M.D., Ph.D.
Steven T. DeKosky, M.D. Known for his research in neurology and Alzheimer's Disease. In the 2015 movie Concussion he is played by Eddie Marsan.
Ian Stevenson, M.D. Controversial expert on the academic study of reincarnation and the remembrance of past lives.
Jonathan Kipnis, Ph.D. Chair of the Department of Neuroscience and Director of the Center for Brain, Immunology, and Glia. Discovered a "textbook rewriting" direct connect between the brain and immune system.

Notable alumni[edit]

Name Graduated Notable for
Hugh S. Cumming 1893 5th Surgeon General of the United States in 1922-1936, and vice president of the Health Section of the League of Nations. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and an honorary fellow of the American College of Surgeons.
Mike Fisher 2003 Two-time Hermann Trophy winner and former UVA Soccer midfielder. Fisher was chosen second overall in the 1997 MLS College Draft, but instead decided to enroll in the School of Medicine.
Wade Hampton Frost 1903 Frost established epidemiology as a science. He introduced the cohort theory of tuberculosis and was the founding dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.
James W. Watts 1928 Neurosurgeon and prominent proponent of the lobotomy, he carried out the lobotomy of Rose Marie Kennedy.
J. Hartwell Harrison 1932 Harrison carried out the first human organ transplant from a living donor in 1954. He won several awards for his role in kidney transplantation surgery.
Charles Taylor Pepper 1855 The original inspiration for the Dr Pepper brand, according to the Dr Pepper/Seven Up company.
Travis Lane Stork 2003 American emergency physician and television personality, best known for appearing on The Bachelor, and as the host of the syndicated daytime talk show, The Doctors.
Robert L. Sufit
Hugh H. Young 1894 Young graduated with a BS, MA, and MD in just 4 years. Five years later after graduating, Young was made head of the Department of Urological Surgery at Johns Hopkins. His operation for excision of the prostate stands as one of the milestones of modern surgery and urology.
Gerald D. Aurbach 1954 Aurbach isolated and purified parathyroid hormone, determined that parathyroid hormone acts through cyclic AMP, and demonstrated that pseudohypoparathyroidism is a disorder of the parathyroid hormone receptor complex. Aurbach was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the chief of the Metabolic Diseases Branch of the National Institutes of Health until his death in 1991.
Kenneth Heilman 1963
John Britton 1949 Physician murdered by anti-abortion extremists, after the murder of his predecessor by anti-abortion extremists.
Paul Brandon Barringer 1877 Sixth president of Virginia Tech. Returned to UVA as a Professor of Therapeutics and Pharmacology, and Chair of Physiology. Barringer was president of the University from 1895-1903. A residence hall at Virginia Tech and a wing of the University of Virginia West Hospital are named after him. His Barringer Mansion is on the National Register of Historic Places.
Pam Galloway 1980 Former member of the Wisconsin Senate.
Robert C. Green Neurologist and geneticist. Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School. Board Member of the Council for Responsible Genetics, co-chair of the Steering Committee of the NIH Consortium on Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research and the Steering Committee of the NIH Consortium in Newborn Sequencing in Genomic Medicine and Public Health, member of the Consortium on Electronic Medical Records and Genomics.
Kevin Guskiewicz 1995 MacArthur Fellow; awarded a Genius Grant for the study of sports medicine.
Michael Potter Awarded the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1984 for "his fundamental research in the genetics of immunoglobulin molecules and for paving the way for the development of hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies".
Todd J. Albert 1987 Noted orthopedic surgeon. Albert has been awarded the Arthritis Foundation’s Charley Award for contributions to orthopedics. Currently the Surgeon-in-Chief and Medical Director and Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hospital for Special Surgery, and the Chairman of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Weill Cornell Medical College.
W. Rice Warren

Deans of the School of Medicine[edit]

Name Tenure
David S. Wilkes MD 2015–present
Randolph J. Canterbury, MD 2014-2015
Nancy E. Dunlap, MD, Ph.D., M.B.A. 2013-2014
Steven T. DeKosky, MD 2008–2013
Sharon L. Hostler, MD 2007-2008
Arthur Garson, Jr., MD 2002-2007
Robert Munson Carey, MD 1986-2002
Norman John Knorr, MD 1977-1986
William Richard Drucker, MD 1972-1977
Kenneth Raymond Crispell, MD 1964-1971
Thomas Harrison Hunter, MD 1953-1964
Vernon William Lippard, MD 1949-1952
Harvey Ernest Jordan, PhD 1939-1949
James Carroll Flippin, MD 1924-1938
Theodore Hough, PhD 1916-1924
Richard Henry Whitehead, MD 1905-1916

Orange indicates interim Dean.

Medical Scientist Training Program[edit]

The University of Virginia School of Medicine is one of only 43 NIH funded MD/PhD programs in the country.[14] The current program director is Dr. Dean H. Kedes.[15] Beginning with the 2016 academic year, the Program will have 55 members and 155 alumni. Notable alumni include Dr. W. Shawn Carbonell, co-founder and CEO of the UCSF spinout OncoSynergy, and Dr. Oliver McDonald.

History[edit]

According to the handbook provided to all entering students:

The University of Virginia undertook significant expansion of research and training programs in the basic biomedical sciences during the late 1960s and early 1970s. All chairmen of the basic science departments of the School of Medicine were newly appointed during this time, a major new research building was constructed, and individual departments grew several-fold in size and quality. Similar but less dramatic growth followed in the clinical departments. Interest in the training of medical scientists flourished rapidly in this environment, in part because many of the new faculty either had experience with MSTPs or were recent graduates of such programs. Accordingly, an MSTP committee was appointed in 1971 under the leadership of Dr. Robert C. Haynes, Jr., and funds were provided by the University to initiate such training. An application for training funds was submitted to the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) in 1972, just prior to the time when the appropriation for such training programs was withdrawn. The application was resubmitted in 1975, and NIH support was first received in 1977 under the future Nobel Laureate, Dr. Alfred G. Gilman.

— University of Virginia, History, MSTP Handbook

As such the program claims two founding dates: 1971 when the MSTP committee was first formed and 1977 when the first students matriculated.

Program Directors[edit]

Name Tenure
Robert C. Haynes, Jr. 1971-1978
Alfred G. Gilman, MD, PhD 1978-1981
Thomas E. Thompson, PhD 1981-1984
Rodney L. Biltonen, PhD 1984-1993
Steven Gonias, MD, PhD 1993-1998
Gary K. Owens, PhD 1998-2014
Dean H. Kedes, MD, PhD 2014–present

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]