Barry Marshall in 2008
|Born||Barry James Marshall
30 September 1951 
Kalgoorlie, Western Australia
|Alma mater||University of Western Australia (MB BS)|
|Known for||Helicobacter pylori|
|Spouse||Adrienne Joyce Feldman (m. 1972)|
|Children||1 son, 3 daughters|
Barry James Marshall, AC, FRACP, FRS, FAA, DSc (born 30 September 1951) is an Australian physician, Nobel Prize laureate in Physiology or Medicine (the only laureate born in Western Australia), and Professor of Clinical Microbiology at the University of Western Australia. Marshall and Robin Warren showed that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the cause of most peptic ulcers, reversing decades of medical doctrine holding that ulcers were caused by stress, spicy foods, and too much acid. This discovery has allowed for a breakthrough in understanding a causative link between Helicobacter pylori infection and stomach cancer.
Education and early life
Marshall was born in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia and lived in Kalgoorlie and Carnarvon until moving to Perth at the age of eight. His father held various jobs, and his mother was a nurse. He is the eldest of four siblings. He attended Newman College and the University of Western Australia, where he received a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) in 1974. He married his wife Adrienne in 1972 and has four children.
Life and research
In 1979, Marshall was appointed as a Registrar in Medicine at the Royal Perth Hospital. He met Robin Warren, a pathologist interested in gastritis, during internal medicine fellowship training at Royal Perth Hospital in 1981. Together, the pair studied the presence of spiral bacteria in association with gastritis. In 1982, they performed the initial culture of H. pylori and developed their hypothesis related to the bacterial cause of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. It has been claimed that the H. pylori theory was ridiculed by the establishment scientists and doctors, who did not believe that any bacteria could live in the acidic environment of the stomach. Marshall has been quoted as saying in 1998 that "(e)veryone was against me, but I knew I was right." On the other hand, it has also been argued that medical researchers showed a proper degree of scientific scepticism until the H. pylori hypothesis could be supported by evidence.
After failed attempts to infect piglets in 1984, Marshall, after having a baseline endoscopy done, drank a Petri dish containing cultured H. pylori, expecting to develop, perhaps years later, an ulcer. He was surprised when, only three days later, he developed vague nausea and halitosis (due to the achlorhydria, there was no acid to kill bacteria in the stomach, and their waste products manifested as bad breath), noticed only by his mother. On days 5–8, he developed achlorydric (no acid) vomiting. On day eight, he had a repeat endoscopy and biopsy, which showed massive inflammation (gastritis), and H. pylori was cultured. On the fourteenth day after ingestion, a third endoscopy was done, and Marshall began to take antibiotics. This story is related by Barry Marshall himself in his Nobel acceptance lecture 8 December 2005, available for viewing on the Nobel website. Interestingly, Marshall did not develop antibodies to H. pylori, suggesting that innate immunity can sometimes eradicate acute H. pylori infection. Marshall's illness and recovery, based on a culture of organisms extracted from a patient, fulfilled Koch's postulates for H. pylori and gastritis, but not for peptic ulcer. This experiment was published in 1985 in the Medical Journal of Australia and is among the most cited articles from the journal.
After his work at Fremantle Hospital, Marshall did research at Royal Perth Hospital (1985–86) and at the University of Virginia, USA (1986–Present), before returning to Australia while remaining on the faculty of the University of Virginia. He held a Burnet Fellowship at the University of Western Australia (UWA) from 1998–2003. Marshall continues research related to H. pylori and runs the H. pylori Research Laboratory at UWA.
Awards and honours
In 2005, the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Marshall and Robin Warren, his long-time collaborator, "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease".
Marshall also received the Warren Alpert Prize in 1994; the Australian Medical Association Award and the Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Medical Research in 1995; the Gairdner Foundation International Award in 1996; the Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize in 1997; the Dr A.H. Heineken Prize for Medicine, the Florey Medal, and the Buchanan Medal of the Royal Society in 1998 and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1999. His certificate of election to the Royal Society reads:
|“||Barry Marshall, together with Robin Warren, discovered spiral bacteria in the stomachs of almost all patients with active chronic gastritis, or duodenal or gastric ulcers, and proposed that the bacteria were an important factor in the aetiology of these diseases. In 1985, Marshall showed by self administration that this bacterium, now called Helicobacter pylori, causes acute gastritis and suggested that chronic colonisation directly leads to peptic ulceration. These resuslts [sic] were a major challenge to the prevailing view that gastric disorders had a physiological basis, rather than being infectious diseases. Marshall showed that antibiotic and bismuth salt regimens that killed H. pylori resulted in the cure of duodenal ulcers. The view that gastric disorders are infectious diseases is now firmly established and there is increasing evidence for a role of H. pylori infection in gastric cancers. The work of Marshall has produced one of the most radical and important changes in medical perception in the last 50 years. Barry Marshall was awarded the Albert Lasker Award for Clinical Science in 1995 and the Buchanan Medal in 1998.||”|
Marshall was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal for Life Sciences in 1999; the Keio Medical Science Prize in 2002; and the Australian Centenary Medal in 2003. Marshall was appointed a Companion of the Order of Australia in 2007. He was awarded an honorary Doctor of Science degree by the University of Oxford in 2009.
- MARSHALL, Prof. Barry James. Who's Who 2015 (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. (subscription required)
- "U.Va. Top News Daily". Virginia.edu. 4 October 2005. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Certificate of Election EC/1999/24: Barry James Marshall". London: Royal Society. Archived from the original on 2015-08-17.
- Marshall BJ, Warren JR (June 1983). "Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis". Lancet 321 (8336): 1273–5. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(83)92719-8. PMID 6134060.
- Marshall BJ, Warren JR (June 1984). "Unidentified curved bacilli in the stomach of patients with gastritis and peptic ulceration". Lancet 323 (8390): 1311–5. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(84)91816-6. PMID 6145023.
- Sweet, Melissa (2 August 1997). "Smug as a bug". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 28 January 2007.
- Barry, Marshall (2005). "Autobiography". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 18 February 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2007.
- In 1972 he was also a state yo-yo champion.
- "Sydney Morning Herald Features Barry Marshall Helicobacter pylori". Vianet.net.au. 2 August 1997. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- "Barry Marshall Interview, H. Pylori and the Making of a Myth". Academy of Achievement. 23 May 1998. Retrieved 28 January 2007.
- Atwood, Kimball C. (November 2004). "Bacteria, Ulcers, and Ostracism?". Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
- "Barry J. Marshall – Biographical". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Marshall BJ, Armstrong JA, McGechie DB, Glancy RJ (1985). "Attempt to fulfil Koch's postulates for pyloric Campylobacter". Med. J. Aust. 142 (8): 436–9. PMID 3982345.
- Van Der Weyden, Martin B; Armstrong, Ruth M; Gregory, Ann T (2005). "The 2005 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine". Medical Journal of Australia 183 (11/12): 612–4.
- "Professor Barry Marshall". University of Western Australia. 28 July 2006. Archived from the original on 17 February 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2007.
- Marshall, Barry (26 August 2002). "Helicobacter pylori Research Laboratory". University of Western Australia. Archived from the original on 28 January 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2007. Marshall's home page and various links can also be found there.
- "Nobel laureate Marshall joins Penn State faculty". Penn State Live. 6 September 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005". Nobel Foundation. 2005. Archived from the original on 18 February 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2007.
- "Curriculum Vitae". Nobel Foundation. 2005. Archived from the original on 14 February 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2007.
- "It's an Honour". Government of Australia. 26 January 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2007.
- "Encaenia 2009". University of Oxford. 24 June 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Barry Marshall.|
- Nobel Prize Inspiration Initiative
- Marshall Nobel Prize lecture
- Nobelprize.org bio
- The Helicobacter Foundation Discussion Pages
- The Helicobacter pylori Research Laboratory
- The Helicobacter Foundation
- Marshall's personal web page
- Interview with Barry Marshall – Radio Live, May 2010.
- Interview with Barry Marshall – BBC World Service 6, 7 and 8 November 2010, Interviewer: Owen Bennett-Jones, Programme series: The Interview. Marshall estimates that his discovery saves 500K lives a year. It rendered obsolete a multi-billion dollar drugs market aimed at treating stomach ulcers, as caused by "stress".