User:KYPark/1903

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Ivan Pavlov[edit]

The Experimental Psychology and Psychopathology of Animals
The 14th International Medical Congress, Madrid, Spain
  • ``In this paper the definition of conditioned and other reflexes was given and it was shown that a conditioned reflex should be regarded as an elementary psychological phenomenon, which at the same time is a physiological one. It followed from this that the conditioned reflex was a clue to the mechanism of the most highly developed forms of reaction in animals and humans to their environment and it made an objective study of their psychic activity possible.`` Biography, nobelprize.org, 1904

Frederick Soddy[edit]

  • ``In 1903, with Sir William Ramsay at University College London, Soddy verified that the decay of radium produced alpha particles composed of positively charged nuclei of helium. In the experiment a sample of radium was enclosed in a thin walled glass envelope sited within an evacuated glass bulb. Alpha particles could pass through the thin glass wall but were contained within the surrounding glass envelope. After leaving the experiment running for a long period of time a spectral analysis of the contents of the former evacuated space revealed the presence of helium. This element had recently been discovered in the solar spectrum by Bunsen and Kirchoff.``

Victoria Lady Welby[edit]

What Is Meaning? Studies in the Development of Significance
John Benjamins
  • (1893) "Meaning and metaphor," Monist, vol. 3, 510-525
  • (1896) "Sense, meaning, and interpretation I," Mind, vol. 5, 24-37
  • (1896) "Sense, meaning, and interpretation II," Mind, vol. 5, 186-202


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