Whiskey in the Jar

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Whiskey in the Jar
ComposedCirca 17th century
"Whiskey in the Jar"
Single by The Dubliners
Released1968
GenreIrish folk
Length6:02

"Whiskey in the Jar" (Roud 533) is an Irish traditional song set in the southern mountains of Ireland, often with specific mention of counties Cork and Kerry. The song, about a rapparee (highwayman) who is betrayed by his wife or lover, is one of the most widely performed traditional Irish songs and has been recorded by numerous artists since the 1950s.

The song first gained wide exposure when Irish folk band The Dubliners performed it internationally as a signature song, and recorded it on three albums in the 1960s. In the U.S., the song was popularized by The Highwaymen, who recorded it on their 1962 album Encore.[1] Irish rock band Thin Lizzy hit the Irish and British pop charts with the song in 1973. In 1990, The Dubliners re-recorded the song with The Pogues with a faster rocky version charting at No. 63 in the UK. American metal band Metallica in 1998 played a version very similar to that of Thin Lizzy's, though with a heavier sound, winning a Grammy for the song in 2000 for Best Hard Rock Performance. In 2019, Canadian singer-songwriter Bryan Adams performed a cover of the song on his album Shine a Light.

Story[edit]

"Whiskey in the Jar" is the tale of a highwayman or footpad who, after robbing a military or government official, is betrayed by a woman; whether she is his wife or sweetheart is not made clear. Various versions of the song take place in Kerry, Kilmoganny, Cork, Sligo Town, and other locales throughout Ireland. It is also sometimes placed in the American South, in various places among the Ozarks or Appalachians, possibly due to Irish settlement in these places. Names in the song change, and the official can be a Captain or a Colonel, called Farrell or Pepper among other names. The protagonist's wife or lover is sometimes called Molly, Jenny, Emzy, or Ginny among various other names. The details of the betrayal are also different, being either betraying him to the person he robbed and replacing his ammunition with sand or water, or not, resulting in his killing the person.

History[edit]

The song's exact origins are unknown. A number of its lines and the general plot resemble those of a contemporary broadside ballad "Patrick Fleming" (also called "Patrick Flemmen he was a Valiant Soldier") about Irish highwayman Patrick Fleming, who was executed in 1650.[2][3]

In the book The Folk Songs of North America, folk music historian Alan Lomax suggests that the song originated in the 17th century, and (based on plot similarities) that John Gay's 1728 The Beggar's Opera was inspired by Gay hearing an Irish ballad-monger singing "Whiskey in the Jar". In regard to the history of the song, Lomax states, "The folk of seventeenth century Britain liked and admired their local highwaymen; and in Ireland (or Scotland) where the gentlemen of the roads robbed English landlords, they were regarded as national patriots. Such feelings inspired this rollicking ballad."[4]

At some point, the song came to the United States and was a favourite in Colonial America because of its irreverent attitude toward British officials. The American versions are sometimes set in America and deal with American characters. One such version, from Massachusetts, is about Alan McCollister, an Irish-American soldier who is sentenced to death by hanging for robbing British officials.[4]

The song appeared in a form close to its modern version in a precursor called "The Sporting Hero, or, Whiskey in the Bar" in a mid-1850s broadsheet.[5][6]

The song collector Colm Ó Lochlainn, in his book Irish Street Ballads,[7] described how his mother learnt "Whiskey in the Jar" in Limerick in 1870 from a man called Buckley who came from Cork. When Ó Lochlainn included the song in Irish Street Ballads, he wrote down the lyrics from memory as he had learnt them from his mother. He called the song "There's Whiskey in the Jar", and the lyrics are virtually identical to the version that was used by Irish bands in the 1960s such as the Dubliners. The O Lochlainn version refers to the "far fam'd Kerry mountain" rather than the Cork and Kerry mountains, as appears in some versions.

The song also appears under the title "There's Whiskey in the Jar" in the Joyce[8] collection, but that only includes the melody line without any lyrics. Versions of the song were collected in the 1920s in Northern Ireland by song collector Sam Henry.[9] It is Roud Folk Song Index no. 533.[10]

Variations[edit]

"Whiskey in the Jar"
Whiskey in the Jar - Thin Lizzy.jpg
Single by Thin Lizzy
B-side"Black Boys on the Corner"
Released3 November 1972 (1972-11-03)
Genre
Length5:45
LabelDecca
Songwriter(s)Trad. arr. Eric Bell, Brian Downey, Phil Lynott
Producer(s)Nick Tauber
Thin Lizzy singles chronology
"The Farmer"
(1970)
"Whiskey in the Jar"
(1972)
"Randolph's Tango"
(1973)
"Whiskey in the Jar"
Song by Grateful Dead
from the album So Many Roads (1965–1995)
Released1999
Genre
Length5:18
LabelArista
Songwriter(s)Trad. arr. Jerry Garcia, Robert Hunter
"Whiskey in the Jar"
Whiskey in the Jar - Metallica.jpg
Single by Metallica
from the album Garage Inc.
Released1 February 1999 (1999-02-01)
RecordedSeptember–October 1998
Genre
Length5:05
LabelVertigo
Songwriter(s)Trad. arr. Eric Bell, Brian Downey, Phil Lynott
Producer(s)
Metallica singles chronology
"Turn the Page"
(1998)
"Whiskey in the Jar"
(1999)
"Die, Die My Darling"
(1999)
Music video
"Whiskey in the Jar" on YouTube

"Whiskey in the Jar" is sung with many variants on locations and names, including a version by Jerry Garcia of the Grateful Dead with mandolinist David Grisman; a version by The Dubliners (which is often sung in Irish traditional music sessions around the world); a rock version sung by Thin Lizzy; and a heavy metal version sung by Metallica.

There is also a song about Irish troops in the American Civil War called "We'll Fight for Uncle Sam", which is sung in the same tune of "Whiskey in the Jar".

Field recordings[edit]

Recordings[edit]

Partial discography:

The song has also been recorded by singers and folk groups such as Roger Whittaker, The Irish Rovers, Seven Nations, Off Kilter, King Creosote, Brobdingnagian Bards, Charlie Zahm, and Christy Moore.

Liam Clancy recorded the song with his son and nephew on Clancy, O'Connell & Clancy in 1997, and Tommy Makem recorded it on The Song Tradition in 1998. The High Kings, featuring Bobby Clancy's son Finbarr, released a version in February 2011.

Thin Lizzy's 1972 single (bonus track on Vagabonds of the Western World [1991 edition]) stayed at the top of the Irish charts for 17 weeks, and the British release stayed in the top 30 for 12 weeks, peaking at No. 6, in 1973.[15] This version has since been covered by U2, Pulp (first released on a 1996 various artist compilation album Childline[16] and later on deluxe edition of Different Class in 2006), Smokie, Metallica (Garage Inc. 1998, which won a Grammy), Belle and Sebastian (The Blues Are Still Blue EP 2006), Gary Moore (2006), Nicky Moore (Top Musicians Play Thin Lizzy 2008), Simple Minds (Searching for the Lost Boys 2009), and Israeli musician Izhar Ashdot. The song is also on the Grateful Dead live compilation So Many Roads disc five.

On the bluegrass scene, Jerry Garcia and David Grisman recorded a version for the album Shady Grove. It has also been performed by the Scarecrows bluegrass band and the Dutch band Blue Grass Boogiemen.[17]

Icelandic folk band Þrjú á palli recorded it in 1971 as "Lífið Er Lotterí" with lyrics by Jónas Árnason. Lillebjørn Nilsen adapted it to Norwegian, as "Svikefulle Mari", on his 1971 album Tilbake.[18] Finnish band Eläkeläiset recorded a humppa version as the title track of their 1997 album Humppamaratooni. In 2007 the Lars Lilholt Band made a Danish version, "Gi' Mig Whiskey in the Jar", for the album Smukkere Med Tiden.[19] Estonian band Poisikõsõ recorded "Hans'a Õuhkaga" on the album Tii Päält Iist in 2007.

In 1966, the Yarkon Bridge Trio, an Israeli singing group, recorded a song named "Siman Sheata Tsair" ("It Is a Sign That You Are Young") set to the melody of "Whiskey in the Jar";[20] the song became a hit and was later covered by various artists, notably by Gidi Gov.[21]

Charts and certifications[edit]

Thin Lizzy version[edit]

The Dubliner and Pogues version[edit]

Metallica version[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Highwaymen* – Encore (Vinyl, LP, Album)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Patrick Flemming, The Complete Newgate Calendar Vol. I, Law in Popular Culture collection, Tarlton Law Library, University of Texas at Austin Archived 22 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b The Folk Songs of North America: In the English Language, Alan Lomax, Peggy Seeger, Mátyás Seiber, Don Banks, Doubleday, 1960 Google Books Retrieved 11 July 2008
  5. ^ "Bodleian Library Broadside Ballads". Bodley24.bodley.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  6. ^ "Ballads Catalogue: Firth c.17(314)". Bodley24.bodley.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  7. ^ Irish Street Ballads, Colm O Lochlainn, Pan 1978, pp220
  8. ^ Joyce, Patrick Weston, Old Irish Folk Music and Songs: a Collection of 842 Irish Airs and Songs Hitherto Unpublished, Cooper Square Publishers, New York, 1965. Originally published in 1909.
  9. ^ Songs of the People edited by Gale Huntington, Lani Herrman with contributions from John Moulden. 1990 (University of Georgia Press) ISBN 0-8203-1258-4
  10. ^ "Whiskey in the Jar". Vaughan Williams Memorial Library.
  11. ^ "Gilgarrah Mountain (Roud 533) (Fragment) - Lena Bourne Fish".
  12. ^ "There's Whiskey in the Jar (Roud 533) - Seamus Ennis".
  13. ^ "Whiskey in the Jar (Roud 533) - Mary Byrnes".
  14. ^ "Whiskey in the Jar (Roud 533) - Sarah Ogan Gunning".
  15. ^ Mark Putterford (2002). Phil Lynott: The Rocker. Omnibus. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7119-9104-0.
  16. ^ "Various – Childline (Today's Top Artists Unite For Charity)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  17. ^ [2][dead link]
  18. ^ [3]
  19. ^ [4]
  20. ^ "Special Broadcasting". Reshet Gimel. IBA/Google Translate. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  21. ^ Gidi Gov – Siman Sheata Tsa'ir on YouTube (NMC's official channel).
  22. ^ Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. St Ives, NSW: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
  23. ^ "Ultratop.be – Thin Lizzy – Whiskey in the Jar" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  24. ^ "Ultratop.be – Thin Lizzy – Whiskey in the Jar" (in French). Ultratop 50. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  25. ^ a b "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Whiskey in the Jar". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  26. ^ "Nederlandse Top 40 – week 15, 1973" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40 Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  27. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Thin Lizzy – Whiskey in the Jar" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  28. ^ "Metallica: Artist Chart History". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  29. ^ "Offiziellecharts.de – Thin Lizzy – Whiskey in the Jar". GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved 8 November 2020. To see peak chart position, click "TITEL VON Thin Lizzy"
  30. ^ "Top 100 Singles–Jahrescharts 1973" (in German). GfK Entertainment. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  31. ^ "Official Singles Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company.
  32. ^ "British single certifications – Dubliners – Whiskey in the Jar". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  33. ^ "Australian-charts.com – Metallica – Whiskey in the Jar". ARIA Top 50 Singles. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  34. ^ "Austriancharts.at – Metallica – Whiskey in the Jar" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  35. ^ "Ultratop.be – Metallica – Whiskey in the Jar" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  36. ^ "Top RPM Rock/Alternative Tracks: Issue 8147." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  37. ^ "Eurochart Hot 100 Singles" (PDF). Music & Media. Vol. 16 no. 10. 6 March 1999. p. 10. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  38. ^ "Metallica: Whiskey in the Jar" (in Finnish). Musiikkituottajat – IFPI Finland. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  39. ^ "Offiziellecharts.de – Metallica – Whiskey in the Jar" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  40. ^ "Top National Sellers" (PDF). Music & Media. Vol. 16 no. 12. 20 March 1999. p. 10. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  41. ^ "Top National Sellers" (PDF). Music & Media. Vol. 16 no. 10. 6 March 1999. p. 12. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  42. ^ "Dutchcharts.nl – Metallica – Whiskey in the Jar" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  43. ^ "Charts.nz – Metallica – Whiskey in the Jar". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  44. ^ "Norwegiancharts.com – Metallica – Whiskey in the Jar". VG-lista. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  45. ^ "Official Scottish Singles Sales Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  46. ^ "Swedishcharts.com – Metallica – Whiskey in the Jar". Singles Top 100. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  47. ^ "Swisscharts.com – Metallica – Whiskey in the Jar". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  48. ^ "Official Singles Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  49. ^ "Official Rock & Metal Singles Chart Top 40". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  50. ^ "RPM 1999 Top 50 Rock Tracks". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  51. ^ "Top 100 Singles–Jahrescharts 1999" (in German). GfK Entertainment. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  52. ^ "Årslista Singlar, 1999" (in Swedish). Sverigetopplistan. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  53. ^ "IFPI Norsk platebransje Trofeer 1993–2011" (in Norwegian). IFPI Norway. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  54. ^ "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 1999" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  55. ^ "British single certifications – Metallica – Whiskey in the Jar". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved 8 November 2020.

External links[edit]