Wikipedia:Today's featured article/June 2021

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June 1

Map showing territory ceded by Carthage under the treaty in pink
Map showing territory ceded by Carthage under the treaty in pink

The Treaty of Lutatius was the agreement of 241 BC between Carthage and Rome which ended the First Punic War after 23 years. The Romans had defeated a Carthaginian fleet attempting to lift the blockade of its last strongholds on Sicily. Accepting defeat, the Carthaginian Senate ordered the local commander to negotiate a peace treaty. One was rapidly agreed, but when referred to Rome for ratification, it was rejected. Rome then sent a commission which agreed that Carthage would cede what it held of Sicily, relinquish several groups of islands nearby (map pictured), release all Roman prisoners without ransom, and pay large reparations over 10 years. In 237 BC Carthage prepared an expedition to recover the island of Sardinia, which had been lost to rebels. Cynically, the Romans announced that this was an act of war and that their peace terms were the ceding of Sardinia and Corsica and the payment of an additional indemnity; these were added to the treaty as a codicil. (Full article...)

June 2

Warner Bros. Movie World's Grand Entrance
Warner Bros. Movie World's Grand Entrance

Warner Bros. Movie World is a theme park on the Gold Coast in Queensland, Australia. It is owned and operated by Village Roadshow's Theme Parks division. After an opening ceremony featuring many celebrities on 2 June 1991, the park opened the following day. Many park attractions are based on Warner Bros. and related DC Comics properties, including thrill rides such as Batwing Spaceshot and Superman Escape, family attractions such as Justice League: Alien Invasion 3D and Wild West Falls Adventure Ride, entertainment at the Roxy Theatre and the Hollywood Stunt Driver live show. Film characters regularly roam the grounds to interact and take photos with guests. Each afternoon, characters participate in a parade along Main Street. The seasonal Fright Nights and White Christmas events are hosted annually. The park has survived financial hardships and remains among Australia's most popular tourist destinations. As of 2016, it receives a yearly average of 1.4 million visitors. (Full article...)

June 3

Dylan's band in Oslo on March 30, 2007, one of hundreds of concerts at which he has performed "Watching the River Flow"
Dylan's band in Oslo on March 30, 2007, one of hundreds of concerts at which he has performed "Watching the River Flow"

"Watching the River Flow" is a blues rock song by American singer Bob Dylan, released as a single on June 3, 1971. Produced by Leon Russell, it was written and recorded during a session in March 1971 at Blue Rock Studio in New York City. The collaboration with Russell formed in part through Dylan's desire for a new sound, after a period of immersion in country rock music. The song has been interpreted as Dylan's account of his writer's block in the early 1970s, and his wish to deliver less politically engaged material and find a new balance between public and private life. A minor hit in some countries, "Watching the River Flow" was included on the 1971 Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits Vol. II and other Dylan compilation albums. The song has been covered by many artists, including a recording by five current and former Rolling Stones that was part of a tribute project for pianist Ian Stewart. (Full article...)

June 4

Cole with a recreation of her sign at the 1969 inaugural parade
Cole with a recreation of her sign at the 1969 inaugural parade

"Bring Us Together" was a political slogan popularized after the election of Republican candidate Richard Nixon as President of the United States in the 1968 election. The text was derived from a sign that 13-year-old Vicki Lynne Cole stated that she had carried at Nixon's rally in her home town of Deshler, Ohio, during the campaign. After being told of the sign, Nixon's speechwriters, including William Safire, began inserting the phrase into his speeches. Nixon mentioned the rally sign in his victory speech, adopting the phrase as representing his administration's initial goal—to reunify the bitterly divided country. Nixon invited Cole and her family to the presidential inauguration, and she appeared on a float in the inaugural parade (pictured). The phrase "Bring Us Together" was used ironically by Democrats when Nixon proposed policies with which they disagreed. In newspaper columns written in the final years before his 2009 death, Safire expressed doubt that Cole's sign had ever existed. (Full article...)

June 5

Statue of Owen in Merthyr Tydfil
Statue of Owen in Merthyr Tydfil

Johnny Owen (1956–1980) was a Welsh professional boxer. He won his first title, the bantamweight title for the Welsh Area, in March 1977, seven months after turning professional. Later in 1977, Owen defeated Paddy Maguire for the British bantamweight title, becoming the first Welshman in more than 60 years to hold the belt. He defeated Paul Ferreri for the Commonwealth bantamweight title but was controversially beaten by Juan Francisco Rodríguez for the European title. He later defeated Rodríguez in a rematch. Owen challenged World Boxing Council (WBC) champion Lupe Pintor for his world bantamweight title on 19 September 1980, losing in a twelfth-round knockout, leaving the ring on a stretcher. He never regained consciousness, dying seven weeks later at age 24. Owen possessed a professional career record of 25 wins (11 by knockout), 1 draw and 2 defeats. A statue (pictured) commemorating his life and career stands in his home town of Merthyr Tydfil. (Full article...)

June 6

False-colour view of Laguna del Maule
False-colour view of Laguna del Maule

Laguna del Maule is a volcanic field in the Andes mountain range of Chile. The volcanic field covers an area of 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi) and features at least 130 volcanic vents. The field gets its name from Laguna del Maule, a lake surrounded by cones, lava domes, lava coulees and lava flows. The field's volcanic activity began 1.5 million years ago during the Pleistocene. Three major caldera-forming eruptions took place in the volcanic field prior to the last glacial period. Volcanic activity has increased during the postglacial era. In pre-Columbian times, the field was a regionally important source of obsidian. Today geothermal phenomena occur at Laguna del Maule. Between 2004 and 2007, ground inflation began in the volcanic field, indicating the intrusion of a sill beneath it. The rate of inflation is faster than those measured on other inflating volcanoes, which has created concern about the potential for impending large-scale eruptive activity. (Full article...)

June 7

I-69 near Exit 70
I-69 near Exit 70

Interstate 69 in Michigan enters that state south of Coldwater and passes the cities of Lansing and Flint in the Lower Peninsula. I-69 is a part of the Interstate Highway System, and will eventually run from the Mexican border in Texas to the Canadian border at Port Huron, Michigan. A north–south freeway from the Indiana–Michigan border to the Lansing area, it changes direction to east–west after running concurrently with I-96. The freeway continues to Port Huron before terminating in the middle of the twin-span Blue Water Bridge while running concurrently with I-94 at the border. There are four related business loops for I-69 in the state, connecting the freeway to adjacent cities. Predecessors to I-69 include the first M-29, US Highway 27 (US 27), M-78 and M-21. The freeway was not included on the original Interstate Highway System planning maps in the mid-1950s, but it was added in 1958 along a shorter route. Michigan built segments of freeway for the future Interstate in the 1960s, and the state was granted additional Interstate mileage in 1968 to extend I-69 north and east to Flint. Later extensions in 1973 and 1987 resulted in the modern highway. The first freeway segment designated as I-69 in Michigan opened in 1967, and the last was completed in 1992, finishing Michigan's Interstate System. US 27 previously ran concurrently with I-69 from the Indiana–Michigan state line north to the Lansing area, but this designation was removed in 2002. (Full article...)

June 8

SS Minnesotan

SS Minnesotan was a cargo ship built in 1912 for the American-Hawaiian Steamship Company. During World War I, she was known as USAT Minnesotan in service for the U.S. Army and USS Minnesotan (ID-4545) in service for the U.S. Navy. She was built as one of eight sister ships, and employed in inter-coastal service via the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Panama Canal. In World War I, Minnesotan carried cargo and animals to France from September 1917. After the Armistice, she returned over 8,000 American troops. In 1919, Minnesotan resumed inter-coastal cargo service. During World War II, the ship was requisitioned by the War Shipping Administration and initially sailed between New York and Caribbean ports. In the latter half of 1943, Minnesotan sailed between Indian Ocean ports, and the following year between ports in New York and the United Kingdom, before returning to the Caribbean. In 1949, Minnesotan was sold to Italian owners, who renamed her Maria Luisa R. She was scrapped in 1952 at Bari. (Full article...)

June 9

Emma Louisa Turner

Emma Louisa Turner (9 June 1867 – 13 August 1940) was an English ornithologist and pioneering bird photographer. Due to family responsibilities, she did not take up photography until 1900. By 1904 she was giving talks illustrated with her own photographic slides and by 1908 was established as a professional lecturer. Turner spent part of each year in Norfolk, and her 1911 image of a nestling bittern was the first evidence of the species's return to the United Kingdom after its local extinction. She travelled widely in the United Kingdom and abroad photographing birds. She wrote eight books and many journal and magazine articles, and her image of a great crested grebe led to her being awarded the Royal Photographic Society's Gold Medal. She was one of the first women to be elected to fellowship of the Linnaean Society and the first female honorary member of the British Ornithologists' Union. Though not a graduate, she was also an honorary member of the British Federation of University Women. (Full article...)

June 10

Fay at peak intensity over Bermuda
Fay at peak intensity over Bermuda

Hurricane Fay was the first of two hurricanes to make landfall on Bermuda in October 2014. The fifth hurricane of the 2014 Atlantic hurricane season, it was Bermuda's first landfalling hurricane since Emily in 1987. Fay briefly achieved Category 1 hurricane status while making landfall on Bermuda early on October 12, and despite its modest strength, produced extensive damage. Winds gusting over 100 mph (160 km/h) clogged roadways with downed trees and utility poles, and left a majority of the island's electric customers without power. The terminal building at L.F. Wade International Airport was flooded, and along the coast, the storm unmoored and destroyed numerous boats. Within six days, before cleanup efforts could be completed, the stronger Hurricane Gonzalo struck the island and compounded the damage. Fay and Gonzalo marked the first recorded instance of two Bermuda hurricane landfalls in one season. (Full article...)

June 11

Gander Green Lane, where the match took place
Gander Green Lane, where the match took place

A 7 January 1989 match between Sutton United and Coventry City took place as part of the third round of the 1988–89 FA Cup association football competition. Coventry City were in the top tier of English league football, while Sutton United were in the fifth. Coventry, the away team, started as strong favourites. The home side took the lead three minutes before half-time when a corner towards the near post was missed by the Coventry goalkeeper and volleyed into the goal by Tony Rains. Seven minutes into the second half, David Phillips was able to shoot past the Sutton goalkeeper to make it 1–1. In the 59th minute, a short corner kick was crossed to Matthew Hanlan who volleyed in to give Sutton the lead once again. Despite numerous late chances for Coventry, the match ended 2–1. One of the most famous "giant-killings" in the competition's history, the match has been described as "the biggest shock in the history of the FA Cup [and] one of the biggest in any game ever". (Full article...)

June 12

Durrell's vontsira

Durrell's vontsira (Salanoia durrelli) is a Madagascan mammal in the family Eupleridae of the order Carnivora. It is most closely related to the brown-tailed mongoose (Salanoia concolor), with which it forms the genus Salanoia. The two are genetically similar, but morphologically distinct, leading scientists to recognize them as separate species. The animal was first known to science after an individual was observed in 2004, and S. durrelli was described as a new species in 2010. A small, reddish-brown carnivore, Salanoia durrelli is characterized by broad feet with prominent pads, reddish-buff underparts, and broad, robust teeth, among other differences from the brown-tailed mongoose. In the only two weighed specimens, the body masses were 600 and 675 g (21.2 and 23.8 oz). S. durrelli is a marsh-dwelling animal that may feed on crustaceans and mollusks. It is found only in the Lac Alaotra area, a threatened ecosystem, and may also be endangered by competition with introduced species. (Full article...)

June 13

Early 20th-century map of Barren Island
Early 20th-century map of Barren Island

Barren Island is a former island on the southeast shore of Brooklyn in New York City. Located on Jamaica Bay, it was occupied by the Lenape Native Americans prior to the arrival of Dutch settlers in the 17th century. Its name is a corruption of Beeren Eylandt, the Dutch-language term for "Bears' Island". From the 1850s to the mid-1930s, the island was an industrial complex with plants for rendering fish and processing the carcasses of the city's dead horses, converting them into industrial products. Because of this, the body of water on the island's western shore was nicknamed "Dead Horse Bay". By the 1920s, most of the industrial activity had tapered off, and most residents were evicted in the late 1920s for the construction of an airport called Floyd Bennett Field. Since 1972, the former island's site has been part of the Gateway National Recreation Area, managed by the National Park Service. (Full article...)

June 14

Rajinikanth and Aishwarya Rai
Rajinikanth and Aishwarya Rai

Enthiran (Robot) is a 2010 Indian Tamil-language science fiction film written and directed by S. Shankar. Produced by Kalanithi Maran, it stars Rajinikanth and Aishwarya Rai Bachchan (both pictured). The story revolves around a scientist's struggle to control his creation, an android that can comprehend and exhibit human emotions. The project backfires when the robot falls in love with the scientist's girlfriend, and is manipulated by a rival scientist into becoming homicidal. Enthiran received praise for Rajinikanth's performance and for its cinematography, art direction, and visual effects. It emerged as the top-earning Indian film of 2010 and is among the highest-grossing South Indian films of all time. It won two Indian National Film Awards, three Filmfare Awards, seven Vijay Awards and two Screen Awards. It has spawned parodies and homages. Enthiran was followed up by a standalone sequel, 2.0, released in 2018. (Full article...)

June 15

B-29 Superfortress bombers shortly before participating in the attack
B-29 Superfortress bombers shortly before participating in the attack

The Bombing of Yawata on the night of 15/16 June 1944 was the first air raid on the Japanese home islands conducted by United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) strategic bombers during World War II. The attack was undertaken by 75 B-29 Superfortress heavy bombers (examples pictured) staging from bases in China. Only 47 of these aircraft dropped bombs near the raid's primary target, the Imperial Iron and Steel Works at Yawata, and little damage was caused. Five B-29s were lost in accidents during the operation and two were destroyed by Japanese aircraft. While the raid did not achieve its aims, it raised Japanese civilians' awareness that their country was being defeated and received inordinately positive media coverage in the United States. Intelligence gathered also revealed weaknesses in Japan's air defenses and the raid was the first of many on Japan. Yawata was attacked again on 20 August 1944. Much of the city was destroyed in a firebombing raid conducted by B-29s based in the Mariana Islands on 8 August 1945. (Full article...)

June 16

Holotype specimen of Podokesaurus
Holotype specimen of Podokesaurus

Podokesaurus is a genus of coelophysoid dinosaur that lived in what is now the eastern United States during the Early Jurassic Period between 201 and 190 million years ago. Its only known fossil was discovered by the geologist Mignon Talbot near Mount Holyoke, Massachusetts, in 1910. Talbot described and named the new genus and species Podokesaurus holyokensis based on it, becoming the first woman to find and describe a dinosaur. The holotype fossil (pictured) was recognised as significant and was studied by other researchers, but was lost when the building it was in burned down in 1917; no unequivocal Podokesaurus specimens have since been discovered. It was nominated as the state dinosaur of Massachusetts in 2021. Estimated to have been about 1 m (3 ft) in length and 1–40 kg (2–90 lb) in weight, Podokesaurus was lightly constructed with hollow bones and it is estimated it could have run at 15–20 km/h (9–12 mph). It is believed to have been a fleet-footed predator, with powerful forelimbs and grasping hands. (Full article...)

June 17

Antiochus X on a tetradrachm
Antiochus X on a tetradrachm

Antiochus X Eusebes (c. 113 BC – 92 or 88 BC) was a king of Syria during the Hellenistic period. During his lifetime Seleucid Syria was beset by civil wars, interference by Ptolemaic Egypt and incursions by the Parthians. In 95 BC, Seleucus VI killed his own half-uncle Antiochus IX, the father of Antiochus X, who took revenge by defeating Seleucus VI and driving him to his death in 94 BC. Antiochus X did not enjoy a stable reign as he had to fight three of Seleucus VI's brothers, Antiochus XI, Philip I and Demetrius III. Antiochus XI defeated Antiochus X and expelled him in 93 BC from Antioch, the capital. A few months later, Antiochus X regained his position and killed Antiochus XI. The civil war continued but its final outcome is uncertain. Antiochus X married his stepmother Cleopatra Selene, and had several children with her, including a future king, Antiochus XIII. He probably died fighting against the Parthians in 88 BC. (Full article...)

June 18

Finbarr Donnelly
Finbarr Donnelly

Five Go Down to the Sea? were an Irish post-punk band from Cork, active during 1978 to 1989. Vocalist and lyricist Finbarr Donnelly (pictured), guitarist Ricky Dineen and brothers Philip O'Connell (bass) and Keith O'Connell (drums) formed the band as Nun Attax when they were teenagers. They became known for Donnelly's absurdist lyrics and stage presence, Dineen's angular guitar and bass parts, and a rhythm section influenced by Captain Beefheart. After developing a following in Ireland in the early 1980s, they changed their name to "Five Go Down to the Sea?" and moved to London. They did not find commercial success and split up in 1985. Donnelly and Dineen reformed in 1988 as Beethoven, and released the EP Him Goolie Goolie Man, Dem the following year. Their reformation was short-lived, as Donnelly drowned on 18 June 1989, aged 27. The band's reputation has grown over time and they have influenced later generations of Irish musicians, especially a succession of dryly humorous Cork bands. (Full article...)

June 19

Rock Martin (Hirundo fuligula) (32682255041).jpg

The rock martin (Ptyonoprogne fuligula) is a small swallow that is resident in central and southern Africa. It breeds in the mountains, and at lower levels in rocky areas and towns. It has mainly brown plumage and white "windows" on the spread tail. Its call is a soft twitter. The sexes are similar in appearance. The martin hunts along cliff faces for flying insects. It breeds under cliff overhangs or on man-made structures using mud pellets to build a bowl or half-bowl nest with a soft lining. The bird is a solitary breeder, but small groups may nest close together in suitable locations. A typical clutch has two to three eggs, which are white with brown and grey blotches. Both adults incubate the eggs for 16–19 days and feed the chicks. Fledging takes another 22–24 days. The small martin is caught in flight by several falcons, such as hobbies. Because of its extensive range and large stable population, it is assessed as a least-concern species on the IUCN Red List. (This article is part of a featured topic: Crag martins.)

June 20

Pisco sour 20100613b.JPG

A pisco sour is a cocktail typical of South American cuisine. The drink's name is a combination of the word pisco, which is its base liquor, and the term sour, in reference to sour citrus juice and sweetener components. Chile and Peru both claim the pisco sour as their national drink, and each asserts exclusive ownership of both pisco and the cocktail. The Peruvian pisco sour uses Peruvian pisco as the base liquor and adds Key lime (or lemon) juice, syrup, ice, egg white, and Angostura bitters. The Chilean version is similar, but uses Chilean pisco and limón de Pica, and excludes the bitters and egg white. The cocktail was invented by Victor Vaughen Morris, an American bartender working in Peru in the early 1920s. In Chile, the invention of the drink is attributed to Elliot Stubb, an English ship steward, at a bar in the port city of Iquique in 1872, although the source for this attributed the invention of the whiskey sour to Stubb, not the pisco sour. The two kinds of pisco and the two variations in the style of preparing the pisco sour are distinct in both production and taste, and the pisco sour has become a significant and oft-debated topic of Latin American popular culture. (Full article...)

June 21

The Thankful Poor

The Thankful Poor is an 1894 painting by the African-American painter Henry Ossawa Tanner. It is a genre painting of two African Americans praying at a table and shares themes with Tanner's other works like The Banjo Lesson (1893). The painting is considered a milestone in African-American art, notably for its countering of racial stereotypes by portraying African-American culture in a dignified manner. This depiction was influenced by Tanner's father and the African Methodist Episcopal Church. Despite its popularity with critics, The Thankful Poor was Tanner's last African-American genre work before he began to focus on biblical scenes. After remaining hidden for years, the painting was discovered in a storage closet of the Pennsylvania School for the Deaf in 1970, before being purchased by Camille and Bill Cosby in 1981 for their private collection. In 2020, the painting was sold by the Cosbys to Art Bridges, a foundation created by Alice Walton for loaning artwork. (Full article...)

June 22

Nuclear reaction theorised by Meitner and Frisch
Nuclear reaction theorised by Meitner and Frisch

Nuclear fission was discovered in December 1938 by physicists Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch, and chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann. Fission is a nuclear reaction and process of radioactive decay in which the nucleus of an atom splits into two or more smaller, lighter nuclei. The fission process releases a very large amount of energy. The discovery that a nuclear chain reaction was possible led to the development of nuclear power and nuclear weapons. Hahn and Strassmann bombarded uranium with slow neutrons, and discovered that barium had been produced (illustration pictured). Meitner and her nephew Frisch theorised, and then proved, that the uranium nucleus had been split, and published their findings in Nature. Meitner calculated that the energy released by each disintegration was approximately 200 megaelectronvolts, and Frisch observed this. By analogy with the division of biological cells, Frisch named the process "fission". Hahn was awarded the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery. (Full article...)

June 23

Sonic the Hedgehog franchise logo

Sonic the Hedgehog is a Japanese video game series and media franchise created and owned by Sega. The franchise follows Sonic, an anthropomorphic blue hedgehog who battles Doctor Eggman, a mad scientist. In addition to video games, Sonic incorporates printed media, animations, a 2020 feature film, and merchandise. The first Sonic game, released for the Sega Genesis on June 23, 1991, was developed after Sega requested a mascot character to compete with Nintendo's mascot Mario. Sonic's success helped Sega become one of the leading video game companies during the fourth generation of video game consoles in the early 1990s. When Sega exited the console market and shifted to third-party development in 2001, it continued the series on Nintendo, Xbox, and PlayStation systems. Sonic the Hedgehog is Sega's flagship franchise and one of the bestselling video game franchises, having sold more than 140 million copies by 2016. Several Sonic games have been listed among the greatest of all time. Although later games, notably the 2006 series reboot, have been criticized for a perceived decline in quality, Sonic is influential in the video game industry and is frequently referenced in popular culture. (Full article...)

June 24

Obverse of the coin

The New Rochelle 250th Anniversary half dollar is a fifty-cent piece struck by the United States Bureau of the Mint in 1937 as a commemorative coin to mark the 250th anniversary of the settling of New Rochelle in Westchester County, New York. The coin's obverse (pictured) depicts a fatted calf being led by John Pell, who sold the land on which New Rochelle now stands; a "fatt calfe" was to be presented to him annually on June 24 if he asked for it, lest New Rochelle's land be forfeited back to him. The other side shows a fleur-de-lis, an element of the city seal of New Rochelle and of France's La Rochelle, its eponym. The piece is dated 1938 but was minted the previous year. Artist Gertrude K. Lathrop designed the coin; she was hired based on her work on the 1936 Albany Charter half dollar. New Rochelle's coin committee sold the half dollar for $2.00 both locally and by mail order, sending them to all 48 states and internationally, distributing them during 1937 and early 1938. Lathrop's work has been both praised and criticized by numismatic commentators. (Full article...)

June 25

Grevillea juniperina.JPG

Grevillea juniperina, the prickly spider-flower, is a plant of the family Proteaceae native to eastern New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland in Australia. It is a small prickly-leaved shrub from 0.2 to 3 m (8 in to 10 ft) high, generally growing on clay-based or alluvial soils in eucalypt woodland. Scottish botanist Robert Brown described G. juniperina in 1810, and seven subspecies are recognised. The flower heads (inflorescences) appear from winter to early summer and are red, orange or yellow. Birds visit and pollinate the flowers. G. juniperina plants are killed by bushfire, regenerating afterwards from seed. The species adapts readily to cultivation and has been important in horticulture as it is the parent of many popular garden hybrids. G. j. juniperina, a subspecies restricted to western Sydney and environs, has its habitat threatened by housing development and other factors. (Full article...)

June 26

Shojo Beat was a shōjo manga magazine published in North America by Viz Media. Launched in June 2005 as a sister magazine for Shonen Jump, it featured serialized chapters from six manga series per issue, as well as articles on Japanese culture, manga, anime, fashion and beauty. Viz launched a related imprint of the same name for female-oriented manga, light novels and anime. Targeted at women aged 16 to 18, the first issue of Shojo Beat launched with a circulation of 20,000. By 2007, the average circulation was approximately 38,000 copies, with half coming from subscriptions rather than store sales. It was well received by critics, though some found the early issues boring and poorly written. In May 2009, Viz announced that it was discontinuing the magazine; the July 2009 issue was the last released. Fans were disappointed at the news. Industry experts felt its loss left female manga fans without a magazine of their own, but praised Viz for continuing the Shojo Beat imprint and branding for its shōjo manga and anime releases. (Full article...)

June 27

CM Punk

CM Punk (born 1978) is an American retired professional wrestler, known for his time in World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), in which his 434-day reign as WWE Champion stands as the sixth-longest in history. His professional career on the independent circuit, primarily with Ring of Honor (ROH), began in 1999, and he won the ROH World Championship once. He signed with WWE in 2005, won several championships, and became WWE's 19th Triple Crown Champion in 203 days, the fastest wrestler to achieve this. He is also the only back-to-back Money in the Bank winner, won Superstar of the Year at the 2011 Slammy Awards, and was twice voted PWI Wrestler of the Year. His wrestling character was consistently portrayed as outspoken, confrontational, sharp-tongued, anti-establishment, straight edge, and iconoclastic. He retired from professional wrestling in 2014, and then pursued a short-lived career in mixed martial arts. He later worked as a commentator with Cage Fury Fighting Championships (CFFC), and as an analyst on WWE Backstage. (Full article...)

June 28

Phillip Davey

Phillip Davey (1896–1953) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross. Along with his unit, the 10th Battalion, he landed at Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, on 25 April 1915. He fought with his unit against the Ottoman army until he was evacuated sick in early November. He rejoined his battalion on the Western Front in October 1916. In January 1918 he was awarded the Military Medal for bravery in rescuing a wounded man under fire. He was promoted to corporal in April. On 28 June, in the lead-up to the capture of Merris, he killed an eight-man German machine-gun crew, saving his platoon from annihilation, for which he was awarded the Victoria Cross. During this action he was severely wounded. He returned to Australia to be discharged, and was employed by South Australian Railways before dying in 1953, having suffered for years with bronchitis and emphysema. His medals are displayed in the Hall of Valour at the Australian War Memorial. (Full article...)

June 29

Ballot to select a new city name
Ballot to select a new city name

Berlin, Ontario, changed its name to Kitchener by referendum in May and June 1916. Named in 1833 after the capital of Prussia and later the German Empire, Berlin was heavily German-Canadian, and its residents enjoyed a blend of British and German culture. The name Berlin became unsavoury for residents after Great Britain and Canada's entry into the First World War, as German Canadians experienced increasing anti-German sentiment. In a vote characterized by intimidation and high voter turnout, the 19 May 1916 referendum on changing the name narrowly passed; a second vote to choose the new name saw low turnout. The vote settled on Kitchener, named for British field marshal War Secretary Lord Kitchener. The city was officially renamed on 1 September 1916. After the war, the city experienced a decline in its German culture with German Canadians being culturally assimilated into the broader Canadian identity. (Full article...)

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June 30

Trainor (center) performing "All About That Bass"
Trainor (center) performing "All About That Bass"

"All About That Bass" is the debut single of American singer-songwriter Meghan Trainor (pictured), released through Epic Records on June 30, 2014. The song was included on Trainor's first extended play (EP) Title (2014) and her studio album of the same name (2015). Written by Trainor and producer Kevin Kadish, "All About That Bass" is a bubblegum pop, doo-wop and hip hop track. Trainor, who struggled with her negative body image as a teenager, was inspired to write the song to promote self-acceptance. Some music critics praised the song's production and memorable message, while others called it a novelty song and criticized the failure of its lyrics to empower all body types. The song was nominated for Record of the Year and Song of the Year at the 57th Annual Grammy Awards. It was the best-selling song in the United States by a female artist during the 2010s, and was certified Diamond by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). (Full article...)