Yelü

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Yelü clan)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Yelü
CountryLiao dynasty, Northern Liao, Western Liao, Eastern Liao, Later Liao
Founded907
FounderYelü Abaoji
Final rulerYelü Zhilugu
TitlesEmperor of the Liao Empire
Estate(s)Palaces in Linhuang and Balasagun
Deposition1218

The Yaryul clan (or Yelü clan; Khitan: Ei.ra.u.ud.svg, Eiraúud; Chinese: 耶律; pinyin: Yēlǜ) of the Khitan people assumed leadership of the Khitan state in 907 when Abaoji became khan of the Khitan people. The clan, written "ei.ra.ú.ud" in the Khitan language, maintained that leadership through the fall of the Liao dynasty in the 1120s. Even following this fall, members of the clan appear in history, most notably during the Mongols era of conquest in the thirteenth century.

The Yelü clan is notable for establishing numerous dynastic regimes in Chinese history: the Liao dynasty (遼朝), Northern Liao (北遼), Western Liao (西遼), Eastern Liao (東遼), and Later Liao (後遼). In particular, the Liao dynasty and Western Liao were powerful empires that had significant impact on regional history.

Rise to power[edit]

Abaoji, born in 872, was the son of the chieftain of the Yila tribe. At this time, the Yaolian clan had led the Khitan people since the mid-eighth century, and were the only Khitan family to have adopted a surname at this point as this was seen as a mark of Chinese culture and not befitting of peoples of the steppe.

In 901, Abaoji was elected chieftain of the Yila tribe and in 905 forged relations with Li Keyong of the Shatuo Turks. In 907, he was chosen leader of the Khitan, the first outside the Yaolian lineage to be chosen in more than a century and a half. From this, Abaoji and his successors developed the Liao dynasty, which would conquer all of Manchuria, the northern fringe of China known as the Sixteen Prefectures and adjacent areas of northern Korea, eastern Mongolia and parts of far-eastern Russia.

Liao dynasty[edit]

Every monarch of the Liao dynasty was from the Yelü clan, which adopted the surname sometime in the 930s, after the death of Abaoji. The clan directly governed the southern half of the empire while the Xiao consort clan governed the north. The Southern Chancellory was charged with governing the sedentary population of the empire, mostly ethnic Han and residents of the conquered kingdom of Balhae. As such, there is evidence of at least limited Sinicization on the part of the Yelü clan.

Even as late as 1074, a proposal was brought before the Liao emperors to adopt surnames throughout the empire. This was rejected as an idea that would disrupt the Khitan order.

The Liao dynasty fell to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1125, but a branch of the Yelü imperial clan survived and established another empire in the Western Regions known as the Western Liao, also called the Qara Khitai.

Yelü leaders[edit]

Liao dynasty[edit]

Emperors of the Liao dynasty (916-1125)
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miàohào) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 shìhào) Birth Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號 niánhào) and their according range of years
Convention: "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + posthumous name
Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Nieli (涅里 Nièlǐ)
Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Pidie (毗牒 Pídié)
Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Keling (頦領 Kélǐng)
Suzu (Posthumously honored) (肅祖 Sùzŭ) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Noulisi (耨里思 Nòulǐsī)
Yizu (Posthumously honored) (懿祖 Yìzŭ) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Salade (薩剌德 Sàládé)
Xuanzu (Posthumously honored) (玄祖 Xuánzŭ) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yundeshi (勻德實 Yúndéshí)
Dezu (Posthumously honored) (德祖 Dézŭ) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Saladi (撒剌的 Sālàdī)
Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yi (億 Yì) 916-926 Shence (神冊 Shéncè) 916-922

Tianzan (天贊 Tiānzàn) 922-926
Tianxian (天顯 Tiānxiǎn) 926

Yizong (義宗 Yìzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Bei (倍 Bèi)
Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Deguang (德光 Déguāng) 926-947 Tianxian (天顯 Tiānxiǎn) 927-938

Huitong (會同 Huìtóng) 938-947
Datong (大同 Dàtóng) 947

Shizong (世宗 Shìzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ruan (阮 Ruǎn) 947-951 Tianlu (天祿 Tiānlù) 947-951
Muzong (穆宗 Mùzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Jing (璟 Jǐng) 951-969 Yingli (應曆 Yìnglì) 951-969
Jingzong (景宗 Jǐngzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Xian (賢 Xián) 969-982 Baoning (保寧 Bǎoníng) 969-979

Qianheng (乾亨 Qiánhēng) 979-982

Shengzong (聖宗 Shèngzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Longxu (隆緒 Lóngxù) 982-1031 Qianheng (乾亨 Qiánhēng) 982

Tonghe (統和 Tǒnghé) 983-1012
Kaitai (開泰 Kāitài) 1012-1021
Taiping (太平 Tàipíng) 1021-1031

Xingzong (興宗 Xīngzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zongzhen (宗眞 Zōngzhēn) 1031-1055 Jingfu (景福 Jǐngfú) 1031-1032

Chongxi (重熙 Chóngxī) 1032-1055

Daozong (道宗 Dàozōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Hongji (洪基 Hóngjī) 1055-1101 Qingning (清寧 Qīngníng) 1055-1064

Xianyong (咸雍 Xiányōng) 1065-1074
Taikang (太康 Tàikāng) or Dakang (大康 Dàkāng) 1075-1084
Da'an (大安 Dà'ān) 1085-1094
Shouchang (壽昌 Shòuchāng) or Shoulong (壽隆 Shòulóng) 1095-1101

Shunzong (順宗 Shùnzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Jun (濬 Jùn)
Gongzong (恭宗 Gōngzōng) Tianzuodi (天祚帝 Tiānzuòdì) Yanxi (延禧 Yánxǐ) 1101-1125 Qiantong (乾統 Qiántǒng) 1101-1110

Tianqing (天慶 Tiānqìng) 1111-1120
Baoda (保大 Bǎodà) 1121-1125

Western Liao dynasty[edit]

Emperors of the Western Liao dynasty (1124-1218)
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miàohào) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 shìhào) Birth Names Convention Period of Reign Era Names (Nian Hao 年號 niánhào) and their according range of years
Convention: check each sovereign
Dezong (德宗 Dézōng) Tianyouwuliedi (天祐武烈帝 Tiānyòuwǔlièdì) Yelü Dashi (耶律大石 Yēlǜ Dàshí or 耶律達實 Yēlǜ Dáshí) 1 use birth name 1124-1144 Yanqing (延慶 Yánqìng) 1124 or 1125-1134

Kangguo (康國 Kāngguó) 1134-1144

Did not exist Gantianhou (感天后 Gǎntiānhòu) Tabuyan (塔不煙 Tǎbùyān) "Xi Liao" + posthumous name 1144-1150 Xianqing (咸清 Xiánqīng) 1144-1150
Renzong (仁宗 Rénzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yelü Yilie (耶律夷列 Yēlǜ Yíliè) "Xi Liao" + temple name 1150-1164 Shaoxing (紹興 Shàoxīng) 1150-1164
Did not exist Chengtianhou (承天后 Chéngtiānhòu) Pusuwan (普速完 Pǔsùwán) "Xi Liao" + posthumous name 1164-1178 Chongfu (崇福 Chóngfú) 1164-1178
Did not exist Mozhu (末主 Mòzhǔ) or Modi (末帝 Mòdì) Yelü Zhilugu (耶律直魯古 Yēlǜ Zhílǔgǔ) use birth name 1178-1211 Tianxi (天禧 Tiānxī) 1178-1211
Did not exist Did not exist Kuchlug (Ch. 屈出律 Qūchūlǜ) 2 use birth name 1211-1218 Did not exist
1 "Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; or it could mean "stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests.

2 Kuchlug was not a member of the Yelü clan by birth, but he later became the son-in-law of Yelü Zhilugu and usurped the Western Liao throne.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China: 900-1800. Harvard University Press. pp. 37–42, 53, 75–76.

Royal house
House of Yaryul
Preceded by
New title
Ruling House of Mongolia
8th century–1125
Succeeded by
Khamag Mongol
(Borjigin)
Preceded by
Tang dynasty
(Li)
Ruling House of (North) China
916 –1125
Succeeded by
Jin dynasty
(Wanyan)
Preceded by
Kara-Khanid Khanate
Ruling House of Central Asia
1134 –1220
Succeeded by
Mongol Empire
(Borjigin)